Von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) comprises a series of complicated clinical manifestations. We hereby report one unique case of VHL with a natural history that mimics acute myelitis. MRI and biopsy in this patient showed multiple solid hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system and kidney. This study further confirmed that VHL is of highly clinical, imaging, and pathological heterogeneity. Diagnosis for VHL should be based on combination of clinical, radiological, pathological, and genetic data.
Von Hippel–Lindau disease; Hemangioblastoma; Clinical manifestation; Magnetic resonance image; Histopathology
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by sustained liver inflammation with an influx of lymphocytes, which contributes to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms underlying this immune-mediated hepatic pathogenesis remain ill defined. We report in this article that repetitive infusion of anti-CD137 agonist mAb in HBV-transgenic mice closely mimics this process by sequentially inducing hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and, ultimately, liver cancer. CD137 mAb initially triggers hepatic inflammatory infiltration due to activation of nonspecific CD8+ T cells with memory phenotype. CD8+ T cell-derived IFN-γ plays a central role in the progression of chronic liver diseases by actively recruiting hepatic macrophages to produce fibrosis-promoting cytokines and chemokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. Importantly, the natural ligand of CD137 was upregulated significantly in circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and closely correlated with development of liver cirrhosis. Thus, sustained CD137 stimulation may be a contributing factor for liver immunopathology in chronic HBV infection. Our studies reveal a common molecular pathway that is used to defend against viral infection but also causes chronic hepatic diseases.
Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT) may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group). The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group). No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT.
Sumoylation is a posttranslational modification implicated in a variety of cellular activities, and its role in a number of human pathogeneses such as cleft lip/palate has been well documented. However, the importance of the SUMO conjugation pathway in cardiac development and functional disorders is newly emerging. We previously reported that knockout of SUMO-1 in mice led to congenital heart diseases (CHDs). To further investigate the effects of imbalanced SUMO conjugation on heart development and function and its underlying mechanisms, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific expression of SENP2, a SUMO-specific protease that deconjugates sumoylated proteins, to evaluate the impact of desumoylation on heart development and function. Overexpression of SENP2 resulted in premature death of mice with CHDs—atrial septal defects (ASDs) and/or ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Immunobiochemistry revealed diminished cardiomyocyte proliferation in SENP2-Tg mouse hearts compared with that in wild type (WT) hearts. Surviving SENP2-Tg mice showed growth retardation, and developed cardiomyopathy with impaired cardiac function with aging. Cardiac-specific overexpression of the SUMO-1 transgene reduced the incidence of cardiac structural phenotypes in the sumoylation defective mice. Moreover, cardiac overexpression of SENP2 in the mice with Nkx2.5 haploinsufficiency promoted embryonic lethality and severity of CHDs, indicating the functional interaction between SENP2 and Nkx2.5 in vivo. Our findings indicate the indispensability of a balanced SUMO pathway for proper cardiac development and function.
SUMO; SENP2; congenital heart defects; cardiomyopathy; Nkx2.5
DNA methylation in mammals is highly dynamic during germ cell and pre-implantation development but is relatively static during development of somatic tissues. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), created by oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet proteins and most abundant in brain, is thought to be an intermediate towards 5mC demethylation. We investigated patterns of 5mC and 5hmC during neurogenesis in the embryonic mouse brain. 5hmC levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In neuronal cells, 5hmC is not enriched at enhancers but associates preferentially with gene bodies of activated neuronal function-related genes. Within these genes, gain of 5hmC is often accompanied by loss of H3K27me3. Enrichment of 5hmC is not associated with substantial DNA demethylation suggesting that 5hmC is a stable epigenetic mark. Functional perturbation of the H3K27 methyltransferase Ezh2 or of Tet2 and Tet3 leads to defects in neuronal differentiation suggesting that formation of 5hmC and loss of H3K27me3 cooperate to promote brain development.
Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Patients whose tumors exhibit overexpression or amplification of the MYC oncogene (c-MYC) usually have an extremely poor prognosis, but there are no animal models of this subtype of the disease. Here we show that cerebellar stem cells expressing Myc and mutant Trp53 (p53) generate aggressive tumors following orthotopic transplantation. These tumors consist of large, pleiomorphic cells and resemble human MYC-driven MB at a molecular level. Notably, antagonists of PI3K/mTOR signaling, but not Hedgehog signaling, inhibit growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest that cerebellar stem cells can give rise to MYC-driven MB, and identify a novel model that can be used to test therapies for this devastating disease.
Recent evidences suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in multi pathological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). X-box binding protein 1(XBP1), as a key mediator of ER stress, has been proved having the capability of preventing oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of spliced XBP1 (XBP1S), the dominant active form of XBP1, on high glucose (HG)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in cultured renal mesangial cells (MCs) and renal cortex of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Real time PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein levels respectively. Transfection of recombinant adenovirus vector carrying XBP1S gene (Ad-XBP1S) was used to upregulate XBP1S expression. XBP1S siRNA was used to knockdown XBP1S expression. ROS level was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescent probe assay. The results showed that HG treatment significantly reduced XBP1S protein and mRNA level in the cultured MCs while no obvious change was observed in unspliced XBP1 (XBP1U). In the mean time, the ROS production, collagen IV and fibronectin expressions were increased. Diphenylene-chloride iodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibtor, prevented HG-induced increases in ROS as well as collagen IV and fibronectin expressions. Transfection of Ad-XBP1S reversed HG-induced ROS production and ECM expressions. Knockdown intrinsic XBP1S expression induced increases in ROS production and ECM expressions. Supplementation of supreoxide reversed the inhibitory effect of Ad-XBP1S transfection on ECM synthesis. P47phox was increased in HG-treated MCs. Ad-XBP1S transfection reversed HG-induced p47phox increase while XBP1S knockdown upregulated p47phox expression. In the renal cortex of diabetic rats, the expression of XBP1S was reduced while p47phox, collagen IV and fibronectin expression were elevated. These results suggested that XBP1S pathway of ER stress was involved in HG-induced oxidative stress and ECM synthesis. A downstream target of XBP1S in regulating ROS formation might be NADPH oxidase.
Immunotherapy has been used to improve patient immune function, inhibit tumor growth and has become a highly promising method of cancer treatment. Highly agglutinative staphylococcin (HAS), a mixture of Staphylococcus aureus culture filtrates, which include staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) C as the active ingredient, has been used clinically as an immunomodifier in the treatment of a number of tumors for many years. However, the use of HAS has been associated with some unavoidable side-effects such as fever. Previous studies have shown that SEB stimulates a more potent activation of T lymphocytes than SEC3, and mutations of the histidine residues eliminated the toxicity of SEB. SE mutants with decreased side-effects and/or more potent antitumor activities are required.
We built a structural model of the MHC II-SEB-TCR complex and found that a mutation of SEB at Lys173 might decrease the repulsion force between the SEB-TCR, which would facilitate their interaction. From the above results, we designed SEB-H32Q/K173E (mSEB). Analysis of in vitro stimulation of the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), IFN-γ secretion and inhibition of the growth of various tumor cell lines demonstrated that mSEB exhibited higher antitumor activity compared with wild-type SEB (wtSEB). Notably, mSEB inhibited the growth of various tumors at an extremely low concentration with little cytotoxicity against normal cells. Three animal tumor models (C57BL/6 mouse, New Zealand rabbit and a humanized NOD/SCID mouse) were used to evaluate the in vivo immunotherapeutic effects. Compared with wtSEB, mSEB significantly enhanced antitumor effect in more than one animal model with reduced pyrexia toxicity and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice.
Our results suggest that SEB-H32Q/K173E retains superantigen (SAg) characteristics and enhances the host immune response to neoplastic diseases while reducing associated pyrogenic toxicity.
Transarterial therapies, either alone or in conjunction with adjuvant therapies, have been demonstrated to improve survival rates in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although generally well tolerated and widely used for more than two decades, transarterial procedures have been reported to be associated with several infectious complications when performed in patients with HCC. However, the question of whether antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary for patients undergoing transarterial procedures for HCC remains controversial. Accordingly, this meta-analysis examined clinical trial evidence regarding the effects of prophylactic antibiotic therapy versus no prophylactic treatment with respect to infectious complications in patients undergoing transarterial therapy for HCC.
The use of prophylactic antibiotics against postprocedure infection in patients undergoing transarterial therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial.
To compare the effects of prophylactic antibiotic treatment and no prophylactic antibiotic treatment on infectious complications following transarterial procedures.
Clinical trials fulfilling predefined selection criteria were identified by searching several bibliographic databases; a meta-analysis was performed where appropriate.
Four trials of inadequate quality consisting of 210 patients were included in the analysis. Only one case of possible postprocedure infection in each group was reported. The rate of patients developing fever (RR 0.91 [95% CI 0.61 to 1.35]), changes in peripheral white blood cell count or serum C-reactive protein levels, and the mean length of hospital stay (mean difference 0.20 [95% CI 0.75 to 1.14]) showed no significant intergroup differences between antibiotic and no antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the results of the present study indicated that the incidence of bacteremia, septicemia, sepsis or hepatic abscess after transarterial therapy was rare.
Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing transarterial therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma may not be routinely necessary. However, a more judicious use of antibiotics is recommended for patients who are at an increased risk of infection. Nevertheless, prospective trials on a larger scale are clearly needed.
Antibiotic prophylaxis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Infection; Meta-analysis; Transarterial therapy
The M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The effectiveness of these drugs has been dramatically limited by the rapid spread of drug resistant mutations, mainly at sites S31N, V27A and L26F in the pore of the channel. Despite progress in designing inhibitors of V27A and L26F M2, there are currently no drugs targeting these mutated channels in clinical trials. Progress in developing new drugs has been hampered by the lack of a robust assay with sufficient throughput for discovery of new active chemotypes among chemical libraries and sufficient sensitivity to provide the SAR data essential for their improvement and development as drugs. In this study we adapted a yeast growth restoration assay, in which expression of the M2 channel inhibits yeast growth and exposure to an M2 channel inhibitor restores growth, into a robust and sensitive high-throughput screen for M2 channel inhibitors. A screen of over 250,000 pure chemicals and semi-purified fractions from natural extracts identified 21 active compounds comprising amantadine, rimantadine, 13 related adamantanes and 6 non-adamantanes. Of the non-adamantanes, hexamethylene amiloride and a triazine derivative represented new M2 inhibitory chemotypes that also showed antiviral activity in a plaque reduction assay. Of particular interest is the fact that the triazine derivative was not sufficiently potent for detection as an inhibitor in the traditional two electrode voltage clamp assay for M2 channel activity, but its discovery in the yeast assay led to testing of analogues of which one was as potent as amantadine.
Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of hemoglobinopathies in Guangdong province.
Materials and Methods
Peripheral blood samples were collected from 15299 “healthy” unrelated subjects of dominantly ethnic Hakka in the Meizhou region, on which hemoglobin electrophoresis and routine blood tests were performed. Suspected cases with hemoglobin variants and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) were further characterized by PCR, DNA sequencing, reverse dot blot (RDB) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In addition, 1743 samples were randomly selected from the 15299 subjects for thalassemia screening, and suspected thalassemia carriers were identified by PCR and RDB.
The gene frequency of hemoglobin variants was 0.477% (73/15299). The five main subgroups of the ten hemoglobin variants were Hb E, Hb G-Chinese, Hb Q-Tahiland, Hb New York and Hb J-Bangkok. 277 cases (15.89%, 277/1743) of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCV<82 fl) were found by thalassemia screening, and were tested by a RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 196 mutant chromosomes: including 124 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 72 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. These results give a heterozygote frequency of 11.24% for common α and β thalassemia in the Hakka population in the Meizhou region. 3 cases of HPFH/δβ-thalassemia were found, including 2 cases of Vietnamese HPFH (FPFH-7) and a rare Belgian Gγ(Aγδβ)0–thalassemia identified in Chinese.
Our results provide a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in Hakka people of the Meizhou region. The estimated numbers of pregnancies each year in the Meizhou region, in which the fetus would be at risk for β thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart’s hydrops fetalis, and Hb H disease, are 25 (95% CI, 15 to 38), 40 (95% CI, 26 to 57), and 15 (95% CI, 8 to 23), respectively.
China has seen a massive resurgence of rabies cases in the last 15 years with more than 25,000 human fatalities. Initial cases were reported in the southwest but are now reported in almost every province. There have been several phylogenetic investigations into the origin and spread of the virus within China but few reports investigating the impact of the epidemic on neighboring countries. We therefore collected nucleoprotein sequences from China and South East Asia and investigated their phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship. Our results indicate that within South East Asia, isolates mainly cluster according to their geographic origin. We found evidence of sporadic exchange of strains between neighboring countries, but it appears that the major strain responsible for the current Chinese epidemic has not been exported. This suggests that national geographical boundaries and border controls are effective at halting the spread of rabies from China into adjacent regions. We further investigated the geographic structure of Chinese sequences and found that the current epidemic is dominated by variant strains that were likely present at low levels in previous domestic epidemics. We also identified epidemiological linkages between high incidence provinces consistent with observations based on surveillance data from human rabies cases.
Rabies as a fatal zoonotic disease continues to be a public threat to global public health. After India, China reports the second highest number of human cases, with more than 117,500 deaths and three major epidemics since 1950. China remains in the middle of the third epidemic. In this work we investigate the impact of China on rabies in South East (SE) Asia. We collected nucleoprotein sequences from samples isolated throughout SE Asia and investigated their phylogenetic and geographic relationships. Our results indicate that clear geographic patterns exist within rabies virus in SE Asia, with isolates mainly clustered according to their geographic origin. While we found evidence of the sporadic exchange of strains between neighboring countries, the major strain responsible for the current Chinese epidemic does not appear to spread to neighboring countries. Our findings suggest that national geographical boundaries and border controls act as effective barriers to halt the spread of rabies from China into adjacent regions. We further investigated the geographic structure of Chinese sequences and found the current epidemic is dominated by variant strains that likely evolved from previous domestic epidemics. Our study provides valuable insight for rabies control and prevention in China and SE Asia.
Post-translational modification by SUMO was proposed to modulate the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by polyQ-expanded ataxin-3. We have previously shown that ataxin-3 was a new target of SUMOylation in vitro and in vivo. Here we identified that the major SUMO-1 binding site was located on lysine 166. SUMOylation did not influence the subcellular localization, ubiquitination or aggregates formation of mutant-type ataxin-3, but partially increased its stability and the cell apoptosis. Our findings revealed the role of ataxin-3 SUMOylation in SCA3/MJD pathogenesis.
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) is reported to be an effective adjunct for the management of nonunion long-bone fractures. Most studies implement PEMF treatment after 6 months or longer of delayed union or nonunion following fracture treatment. Despite these variations in treatment, the early application of PEMF following a diagnosis of a postoperative delayed union has not been specifically analyzed. In this study, the outcomes of postoperative delayed union of long-bone fractures treated with an early application of PEMF were evaluated as compared with a sham-treated control group.
In this prospective, randomized controlled study, a total of 58 long-bone fracture patients, who presented with delayed union of between 16 weeks and 6 months, were randomly split into two groups and subjected to an early application of PEMF or sham treatment. Clinical and radiological assessments were performed to evaluate the healing status. Treatment efficacy was assessed at three month intervals.
Patients in the PEMF group showed a higher rate of union than those in the control group after the first three months of treatment, but this difference failed to achieve statistical significance. At the end of the study, PEMF treatment conducted for an average of 4.8 months led to a success rate of 77.4%. This was significantly higher than the control, which had an average duration of 4.4 months and a success rate of 48.1%. The total time from operation to the end of the study was a mean of 9.6 months for patients in the PEMF group.
Fracture patients treated with an early application of PEMF achieved a significantly increased rate of union and an overall reduced suffering time compared with patients that receive PEMF after the 6 months or more of delayed union, as described by others.
Electromagnetic field; Delayed union; Fracture healing; Long-bone fracture
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease that involved multiple organ systems. Diagnosis is usually not difficult. However, SLE involved spleen with spontaneous rupture is a rare condition that has been only 5 cases reported previously; and no definite pathologic diagnosis has been reported. We present the case of a 54 year-old white American woman who had SLE for 10 years with multiple immunosuppressive agents treatment at stable condition. She had acute abdomen presented to the emergency department and received timely surgical treatment which confirmed she had spontaneous spleen rupture (SSR). Detailed pathologic study, with control of a traumatic rupture spleen of almost the same age and sex, revealed marked congestion of the red pulp and atrophy of white pulp notified in the SLE spleen. Congestion of red pulp may be the cause of SSR in the SLE spleen.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; spleen; spontaneous rupture
Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers.
We developed a novel drug screening system for anti-influenza A virus by targeting the M2 proton channel. In the SPP (Single Protein Production) system, E. coli cell growth occurs only in the presence of effective M2 channel inhibitors, and thus simple measurement of cell growth was used as readouts for drug screening. Two potential inhibitors for M2 (V27A) mutant were verified using this method, which inhibit both the mutant and wild-type M2 channels.
Transcriptional activation by estrogen receptor (ER) is a key step to breast oncogenesis. Given previous findings that ADA3 is a critical component of HAT complexes that regulate ER function and evidence that overexpression of other ER coactivators such as SRC-3 is associated with clinical outcomes in breast cancer, the current study was designed to assess the potential significance of ADA3 expression/localization in human breast cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed ADA3 expression in breast cancer tissue specimens and assessed the correlation of ADA3 staining with cancer progression and patient outcome. Tissue microarrays prepared from large series of breast cancer patients with long-term follow-ups were stained with anti-ADA3 monoclonal antibody using immunohistochemistry. Samples were analyzed for ADA3 expression followed by correlation with various clinicopathological parameters and patients’ outcomes. We report that breast cancer specimens show predominant nuclear, cytoplasmic, or mixed nuclear + cytoplasmic ADA3 staining patterns. Predominant nuclear ADA3 staining correlated with ER+ status. While predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 staining negatively correlated with ER+ status, but positively correlated with ErbB2, EGFR, and Ki67. Furthermore, a positive correlation of cytoplasmic ADA3 was observed with higher histological grade, mitotic counts, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and positive vascular invasion. Patients with nuclear ADA3 and ER positivity have better breast cancer specific survival and distant metastasis free survival. Significantly, cytoplasmic expression of ADA3 showed a strong positive association with reduced BCSS and DMFS in ErbB2+/EGFR+ patients. Although in multivariate analyses ADA3 expression was not an independent marker of survival, predominant nuclear ADA3 staining in breast cancer tissues correlates with ER+ expression and together serves as a marker of good prognosis, whereas predominant cytoplasmic ADA3 expression correlates with ErbB2+/EGFR+ expression and together is a marker of poor prognosis. Thus, ADA3 cytoplasmic localization together with ErbB2+/EGFR+ status may serve as better prognostic marker than individual proteins to predict survival of patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10549-012-2363-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
ADA3; STAGA; ATAC; Coactivator; ErbB2; ER; PR; Breast cancer
We propose in this paper a robust surface mesh denoising method that can effectively remove mesh noise while faithfully preserving sharp features. This method utilizes surface fitting and projection techniques. Sharp features are preserved in the surface fitting algorithm by considering an anisotropic neighborhood of each vertex detected by the normal-weighted distance. In addition, to handle the mesh with a high level of noise, we perform a pre-filtering of surface normals prior to the neighborhood searching. A number of experimental results and comparisons demonstrate the excellent performance of our method in preserving important surface geometries while filtering mesh noise.
mesh denoising; feature-preserving; surface fitting; anisotropic filtering
Peroxidases are involved in many plant processes including plant defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. We isolated a novel peroxidase gene CanPOD from leaves of pepper cultivar A3. The full-length gene has a 1353-bp cDNA sequence and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 975-bp, which encodes a putative polypeptide of 324 amino acids with a theoretical protein size of 34.93 kDa. CanPOD showed diverse expression levels in different tissues of pepper plants. To evaluate the role of CanPOD in plant stress responses, the expression patterns of CanPOD were examined using Real-Time RT-PCR. The results indicated that CanPOD was significantly induced by Phytophtora capsici. Moreover, CanPOD was also up-regulated in leaves after salt and drought stress treatments. In addition, CanPOD expression was strongly induced by signaling hormones salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, CanPOD was not highly expressed after treatment with cold. Meanwhile, in order to further assess the role of gene CanPOD in defense response to P. capsici attack, we performed a loss-of-function experiment using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique in pepper plants. In comparison to the control plant, the expression levels of CanPOD were obviously decreased in CanPOD-silenced pepper plants. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of P. capsici on detached-leaves and found that the CanPOD-silenced plant leaves were highly susceptible to P. capsici infection. Taken together, our results suggested that CanPOD is involved in defense responses to P. capsici infection as well as abiotic stresses in pepper plants.
pepper; peroxidase; Phytophtora capsici; abiotic stress; virus-induce gene silencing (VIGS)
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26–29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P < 0.10). Litter weight gain (1.77 kg/d) from d 0 to d 14 was tended to increase in 9:1 groups compared with the other two treatments (P < 0.10). A significant difference was observed for the content of α -linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P < 0.01). The effects of different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P < 0.05) was observed at d14. Furthermore, at d 21 of lactation, piglet plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01).
In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.
n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Performance; Fatty acid composition; Immunoglobulin; Cytokines
The neuroinflammatory responses in the spinal cord following bone cancer development have been shown to play an important role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Lipoxins (LXs), endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, represent a unique class of lipid mediators that possess a wide spectrum of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrathecal injection with lipoxin and related analogues on CIBP in rats.
The CIBP model was induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. Mechanical thresholds were determined by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold to probing with a series of calibrated von Frey filaments. Lipoxins and analogues were administered by intrathecal (i.t.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection. The protein level of LXA4 receptor (ALX) was tested by western blot. The localization of lipoxin receptor in spinal cord was assessed by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR was carried out for detecting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Our results demonstrated that: 1) i.t. injection with the same dose (0.3 nmol) of lipoxin A4 (LXA4), lipoxin B4 (LXB4) or aspirin-triggered-15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATL) could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP on day 7 after surgery. ATL showed a longer effect than the others and the effect lasted for 6 hours. ATL administered through i.v. injection could also attenuate the allodynia in cancer rats. 2) The results from western blot indicate that there is no difference in the expression of ALX among the naive, sham or cancer groups. 3) Immunohistochemistry showed that the lipoxin receptor (ALX)-like immunoreactive substance was distributed in the spinal cord, mainly co-localized with astrocytes, rarely co-localized with neurons, and never co-localized with microglia. 4) Real-time PCR analysis revealed that, compared with vehicle, i.t. injection with ATL could significantly attenuate the expression of the mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the spinal cord in CIBP.
Taken together, the results of our study suggest that LXs and analogues exert strong analgesic effects on CIBP. These analgesic effects in CIBP are associated with suppressing the expression of spinal proinflammatory cytokines.
Lipoxins; Aspirin-triggered-15-epi-lipoxinA4; Astrocytes; Neurons; Proinflammatory cytokines; Cancer-induced bone pain; Spinal cord; Rats
Exposure to fenvalerate was demonstrated to be toxic to the male reproductive system. Our previous data revealed that intracellular calcium plays an important role in regulating the above toxicity, through actions on both T-type calcium channels and endoplasmic reticulum calcium signals. The present study explored the effects of fenvalerate on the expression of calmodulin in mouse testis and GC-2spd(ts) cells, and its association with fenvalerate-induced male reproductive toxicity. Male mice were subjected to different doses (3.71, 18.56, 37.12, 92.81 mg/kg bw) of fenvalerate or vehicle control for 4 weeks. Expression of calmodulin was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis in mouse testis. Similar approaches were utilized in GC-2spd(ts) cells cultured with 5 μM fenvalerate at different time points. In the in vivo study, all mice survived through the entire 4 weeks. Administration of fenvalerate resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in testis weight/body weight, sperm motility, and increased head abnormality rate. By histological staining, mice treated with fenvalerate at higher doses showed dilated seminiferous tubules and disturbed arrangement of spermatogenic cells. Meanwhile, both mRNA and protein expression of calmodulin were significantly increased in the testes of mice exposed to fenvalerate compared to control mice. Moreover, in the in vitro study, 5 μM fenvalerate significantly increased the expression of calmodulin at the mRNA and protein levels in GC-2spd(ts) cells after 8 h of incubation and sustained these levels for at least 24 h. Collectively, these data suggested that enhanced expression of calmodulin correlates with male reproductive damage induced by fenvalerate.
Calmodulin; Fenvalerate; Testis; Germ cells; Male reproductive system
Atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), leading to morbidity and mortality. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has demonstrated protective effect against atherosclerosis, which is believed to be, at least in part, a result of its antioxidative effects. The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM.
Methods and Results
GSPB2 (30 mg/kg body weight/day) were administrated to db/db mice for 10 weeks. Proteomics of the aorta extracts by iTRAQ analysis was obtained from db/db mice. The results showed that expression of 557 proteins were either up- or down-regulated in the aorta of diabetic mice. Among those proteins, 139 proteins were normalized by GSPB2 to the levels comparable to those in control mice. Among the proteins regulated by GSPB2, the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8) was found to be increased in serum level in T2DM patients; the serum level of MFG-E8 was positively correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV). Inhibition of MFG-E8 by RNA interference significantly suppressed whereas exogenous recombinant MFG-E8 administration exacerbated atherogenesis the db/db mice. To gain more insights into the mechanism of action of MFG-E8, we investigated the effects of MFG-E8 on the signal pathway involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 led to increased whereas inhibition of MFG-E8 to decreased expression of MCP-1 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2.
Our data suggests that MFG-E8 plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes through both ERK and MCP-1 signaling pathways. GSPB2, a well-studied antioxidant, significantly inhibited the arterial wall changes favoring atherogenesis in db/db mice by down-regulating MFG-E8 expression in aorta and its serum level. Measuring MFG-E8 serum level could be a useful clinical surrogate prognosticating atherogenesis in DM patients.