Despite interventions to promote regular mammography, underserved women face barriers to mammography. This is evident in high no-show appointment rates in community-based clinics. Understanding why women fail to follow-through with appointments may help improve adherence.
We conducted a focus group with women who were non-adherent to mammograms to evaluate psychosocial and structural barriers and design intervention messages. In phase two we conducted a small randomized controlled trial (RCT) to pilot test a brief telephone coaching adherence intervention (vs. control) to address barriers.
Eligible women were non-adherent to their mammography screening appointment at a community-based setting. Psychosocial factors and perceptions of barriers were measured via a baseline survey and used to tailor the telephone coaching session. In the RCT, the primary outcome was whether women rescheduled and kept their appointment (yes vs. no). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results.
Fifty-four women participated in the study (17 in phase 1 and 31 in phase 2); 89% were Black and 11% were Latina. Overall, prior to the intervention, women had low perceptions of risk (m=4.2; SD=2.4) and cancer worry (m=4.2; SD=2.6) and these characteristics informed the telephone coaching. After the intervention, most women (94.5%) rescheduled their missed appointment. More women in the intervention group kept their appointment (54%) than those in the usual care group (46%).
It appears feasible to implement a RCT in non-adherent underserved women. Addressing psychosocial and structural barriers in a brief telephone intervention may reduce non-adherence. Future studies that will test the efficacy of this approach are warranted.
Mammography; Low-income; Minority; Breast cancer; Disparities; RCT
Cancer-related stress is heavily influenced by culture. This study explored similarities and differences in survivorship care concerns among Chinese American and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer survivors.
A sequential, mixed-method design (inductive/qualitative research-phase I and deductive/quantitative research-phase II) was employed. Eligible women identified from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were age ≥21, diagnosed with stage 0-IIa breast cancer between 2006–2011, and had no recurrence or other cancers. In phase I, we conducted 4 Chinese (n=19) and 4 NHW (n=22) focus groups, and 31 individual telephone interviews (18 Chinese immigrants, 7 Chinese US-born, and 6 NHW). Content analysis was conducted to examine qualitative data. In phase II, another 296 survivors (148 NHW age-matched to 148 Chinese cases) completed a cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were conducted to examine quantitative data.
Qualitative data revealed “socioeconomic wellbeing” (SWB) as a dominant survivorship concern, which was operationalized as a cancer survivor’s perceived economic and social resources available to access care. Quantitative data showed that low-acculturated Chinese immigrants reported the poorest SWB, controlling for covariates. Highly-acculturated Chinese immigrants and the US-born Chinese/NHW group reported similar SWB. Women who had low income levels or chemotherapy had poorer SWB.
SWB emerged as an important aspect of breast cancer survivorship. Immigration stress, cancer care costs, and cultural values all contributed to immigrants’ socioeconomic distress. Immigrant and US-born breast cancer survivors experienced different socioeconomic circumstances and well-being following treatment. Our findings warrant further investigation of socioeconomic distress and survivorship outcomes.
Socioeconomic well-being; Mixed-method; Cancer survivorship; Ethnicity; Chinese Americans; Acculturation
Asian Americans have consistently reported poorer communication with
physicians compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). This qualitative study
sought to elucidate the similarities and differences in communication with
physicians between Chinese and NHW breast cancer survivors.
Forty-four Chinese and 28 NHW women with early-stage breast cancer
(stage 0-IIa) from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry participated in
focus group discussions or individual interviews. We oversampled Chinese
women because little is known about their cancer care experiences. In both
interview formats, questions explored patients’ experiences and
feelings when communicating with physicians about their diagnosis,
treatment, and follow-up care.
Physician empathy at the time of diagnosis was important to both
ethnic groups; however, during treatment and follow-up care,
physicians’ ability to treat cancer and alleviate physical symptoms
was a higher priority. NHW and US-born Chinese survivors were more likely to
assert their needs, whereas Chinese immigrants accepted physician advice
even when it did not alleviate physical problems (e.g., pain). Patients
viewed all physicians as the primary source for information about cancer
care. Many Chinese immigrants sought additional information from primary
care physicians and stressed optimal communication over language
Physician empathy and precise information were important for cancer
patients. Cultural differences such as the Western emphasis on individual
autonomy vs. Chinese emphasis on respect and hierarchy can be the basis for
the varied approaches to physician communication we observed. Interventions
based on cultural understanding can foster more effective communication
between immigrant patients and physicians ultimately improving patient
Patient-Physician communication; Chinese Americans; Culture; Breast Cancer
Older Chinese Americans are at greater risk of contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV) because they were born before the implementation of universal childhood vaccination policies. This study examined the prevalence of HBV screening, test results, and predictors of HBV screening among older Chinese.
Two hundred fifty-two Chinese immigrants (older than 50 years) recruited from Chinese-speaking physicians’ offices in the Washington, DC, area participated in a cancer screening questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted.
Among the 164 participants (65%) who underwent HBV screening, 66% reported that they were susceptible to HBV infection. Stronger self-care beliefs, longer US residency, lower HBV knowledge, and lack of physician recommendations were independently and negatively associated with HBV screening.
Many older Chinese did not adhere to HBV screening guidelines because of cultural views and information deficiency. Culturally appropriate interventions aimed to enhance their knowledge and communication with physicians about HBV is needed for promoting screening
hepatitis B screening; hepatitis B virus infection; Chinese Americans; self-care beliefs
The mammalian transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8) is highly expressed in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. TRPM8 is activated by cold temperature or compounds that cause a cooling sensation, such as menthol or icilin. TRPM8 may play a role in cold hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia in various pain syndromes. Therefore, TRPM8 antagonists are pursued as therapeutics. In this study we explored the feasibility of blocking TRPM8 activation with antibodies. We report the functional characterization of a rabbit polyclonal antibody, ACC-049, directed against the third extracellular loop near the pore region of the human TRPM8 channel. ACC-049 acted as a full antagonist at recombinantly expressed human and rodent TRPM8 channels in cell based agonist-induced 45Ca2+ uptake assays. Further, several poly-and monoclonal antibodies that recognize the same region also blocked icilin activation of not only recombinantly expressed TRPM8, but also endogenous TRPM8 expressed in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons revealing the feasibility of generating monoclonal antibody antagonists. We conclude that antagonist antibodies are valuable tools to investigate TRPM8 function and may ultimately pave the way for development of therapeutic antibodies.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most fatal types of malignancy, is increasing worldwide, and particularly in Egypt where there is a confluence of its contributing factors, including high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, widespread use of pesticides, and diets that are contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rural areas. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to HCV infection and pesticides use in rural Egypt, where over half of the population resides and agriculture is the predominant occupation.
From two rural villages we recruited 67 residents aged 18–80 years, who completed a 40-item survey that included questions about demographics, knowledge of and protective measures relevant to pesticides use in the home and in agriculture, awareness and perceptions of HCV infection and its treatment and prevention.
Among the 67 study participants, gender distribution was equal, the mean age was 47.2, and one third never attended school. More than 50% reported using pesticides at home, but fewer reported having some knowledge about its health effects. Twelve participants were agricultural workers, and 11 of them applied pesticides in the field and knew about their toxicity; however only one person was correctly using the appropriate protective equipment. Among all the participants, 52 did not know what causes HCV infection, and 42 of those who knew it was a virus mentioned incorrect modes of transmission; and 30 did not know the disease manifestations.
In rural Egypt, there is a significant lack of knowledge of HCV infection and its transmission mode and limited use of protective measures against pesticides despite familiarity with these chemicals.
HCV; Pesticides; Liver cancer; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Knowledge
Research comparing the effects of culturally-targeted and generic but linguistically appropriate intervention programs is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a culturally-targeted video, a generic video, and a fact sheet (control) in promoting mammography screening among Chinese-American immigrants.
We randomized 664 Chinese-American women from the Washington, DC and New York City areas who were >40 years and non-adherent to annual mammography screening guidelines to three study arms (each with ~221 women). The outcome was self-reported mammography screening six months post intervention. Measures of knowledge, Eastern cultural views, and health beliefs were administered before and after the intervention.
The culturally-targeted video, the generic video, and the fact sheet increased mammography utilization by 40.3%, 38.5%, and 31.1% from baseline, respectively. A significant intervention effect was observed only in one subgroup: The culturally-targeted video significantly increased mammography screening among low-acculturated women over the fact sheet (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.04, 2.78). Overall, women who obtained a mammogram during the follow-up period reported significantly fewer barriers to screening after intervention than those who had not obtained screening. Both of the video groups reported fewer barriers after intervention than the control group.
Both theoretically-guided videos increased the likelihood of mammography use to a similar extent. Cultural targeting was only effective for low-acculturated women. Both videos reduced perceived barriers to screening and consequently increased screening behavior.
The results of this study provide empirical evidence on the efficacy of cultural targeting for minority immigrants.
Cultural targeting; Video intervention; Mammography screening; Chinese Americans; Randomized controlled trial
This study utilized data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial to compare a culturally tailored video promoting positive attitudes toward mammography among Chinese immigrant women to a linguistically appropriate generic video and print media. Intervention development was guided by the Health Belief Model. Five hundred and ninety-two immigrant Chinese Americans from the metropolitan Washington, DC, and New York City areas completed telephone interviews before and after intervention. Changes in knowledge, Eastern views of health care (fatalism and self-care), health beliefs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers) and screening intentions were measured. Results showed that both videos improved screening knowledge, modified Eastern views of health care, reduced perceived barriers and increased screening intentions relative to print media (all P < 0.05). The generic video increased screening intention twice as much as the cultural video, although subgroup analysis showed the increase was only significant in women aged 50–64 years. Only Eastern views of health care were negatively associated with screening intentions after adjusting for all baseline covariates. These data suggest that a theoretically guided linguistically appropriate video that targets women from various ethnic groups is as efficacious in modifying attitudes toward mammography screening as a video that is exclusively tailored for Chinese immigrant women.
The number of Chinese-American breast cancer survivors (BCS) is increasing as a result of increasing incidence rates. There has been little research on Chinese BCS’ follow-up cancer care. This qualitative study aims to understand how Chinese-American BCS experience and cope with physical distress relative to non-Hispanic White (NHW) survivors.
Seventy-one BCS (37 Chinese immigrant, 7 US-born Chinese, 27 NHW) were recruited from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry to participate in focus group discussions or one-on-one interviews about their survivorship experiences. All BCS were diagnosed with breast cancer at stage 0-IIA between 2006-2009, and had survived for 1-4 years without recurrence. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, or English. Data analyses followed established qualitative methods of content analysis.
BCS experienced pain and side effects from radiation, surgery, and hormonal therapy. Physical distress subsequently caused emotional concerns about recurrence or metastasis. Most BCS consulted physicians about their physical distress. Chinese immigrant BCS were less likely to have their issues resolved compared to NHW and US-born Chinese who were more likely to question physicians, ask for referrals, and make repeat attempts if their problems were not resolved. Some Chinese immigrant BCS turned to Traditional Chinese Medicine for relief or accepted the idea that physical distress was part of survivorship.
Chinese immigrant BCS may be at risk for greater distress compared with US-born Chinese and NHW BCS because of cultural norms that make them less inclined to express their needs to physicians or challenge physicians when their needs are not met. Furthermore, they may express symptoms in culturally unique ways (e.g., hot-cold imbalances). Further research is needed to determine how to best improve survivorship care experiences in this understudied population, with the goal of decreasing BCS’ physical distress and improving quality of life.
Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women’s ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors’ results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.
breast cancer screening; culture; minority health
We studied M8-B, a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (Tb) in Trpm8+/+ mice and rats, but not in Trpm8−/− mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. The intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing Tb in rats than the intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect Tb at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (Ta), but the same dose readily decreased Tb if rats were kept at a high Ta during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low Ta immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail skin temperatures < 23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in Tb was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system.
thermoregulation; cold sensors; thermopreferendum; hypothermia; melastatin; TRPM8 antagonist; lateral parabrachial nucleus
This study investigated the hypothesis that adherence to colon cancer screening guidelines among Chinese women was associated with Eastern cultural views and anxiety about developing colon cancer.
Cross-sectional data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to examine the hypothesis of this study. Measures of sociodemographics, medical access factors, cultural views of health care, cancer worry, and practices of colon cancer screening were administered by a computer assisted telephone interview.
Four hundred and thirty-three Chinese-American women from Metropolitan Washington, DC age 50 years and older and without a history of colon cancer completed the telephone interview.
Main Outcome Measure
Adherence to utilization of either fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within a year, sigmoidoscopy within five years, or colonoscopy within 10 years was used to define two outcome categories: current screeners and noncurrent screeners.
Controlling for covariates, this study found that: 1) women with more Eastern cultural views were less likely to be current screeners; 2) women who thought about the chance of getting colon cancer had approximately three-fold greater odds of being current screeners than women who never thought about colon cancer; and 3) women receiving physician recommendation for colon cancer screening had more than three-fold increased odds of being current screeners than those who had not received a recommendation.
In addition to the lack of physician recommendation, older Chinese women face cultural and psychological barriers to obtaining timely colon cancer screening. These barriers may be reduced through culturally sensitive intervention studies.
Cancer Worry; Chinese-American Women; Colon Cancer Screening; Colonoscopy; Cultural Views of Health Care; FOBT; Physician Recommendation; Sigmoidoscopy
This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and potential effect of a small-group video intervention led by trained Chinese American lay educators who recruited Chinese American women not up to date on mammography screening. Nine lay educators conducted 14 “breast health tea time workshops” in community settings and private homes that started with watching a culturally tailored video promoting screening followed by a question and answer session and distribution of print materials. Many group attendees did not have health insurance or a regular doctor, had low levels of income and were not proficient in English. Forty-four percent of the attendees reported receipt of a mammogram within 6 months after the small-group session with higher odds of screening among women who had lived in the U.S. less than 10% of their lifetime. Four of the educators were very interested in conducting another group session in the next 6 months.
small-group/video intervention; mammography screening; Chinese American women
Previous studies have shown that long-term oral daily PDE 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) counteract fibrosis, cell loss, and the resulting dysfunction in tissues of various rat organs and that implantation of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) exerts some of these effects. PDE5i and stem cells in combination were found to be more effective in non-MI cardiac repair than each treatment separately. We have now investigated whether sildenafil at lower doses and MDSC, alone or in combination are effective to attenuate LV remodeling after MI in rats.
MI was induced in rats by ligature of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Treatment groups were: “Series A”: 1) untreated; 2) oral sildenafil 3 mg/kg/day from day 1; and “Series B”: intracardiac injection at day 7 of: 3) saline; 4) rat MDSC (106 cells); 5) as #4, with sildenafil as in #2. Before surgery, and at 1 and 4 weeks, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured. LV sections were stained for collagen, myofibroblasts, apoptosis, cardiomyocytes, and iNOS, followed by quantitative image analysis. Western blots estimated angiogenesis and myofibroblast accumulation, as well as potential sildenafil tachyphylaxis by PDE 5 expression. Zymography estimated MMPs 2 and 9 in serum.
As compared to untreated MI rats, sildenafil improved LVEF, reduced collagen, myofibroblasts, and circulating MMPs, and increased cardiac troponin T. MDSC replicated most of these effects and stimulated cardiac angiogenesis. Concurrent MDSC/sildenafil counteracted cardiomyocyte and endothelial cells loss, but did not improve LVEF or angiogenesis, and upregulated PDE 5.
Long-term oral sildenafil, or MDSC given separately, reduce the MI fibrotic scar and improve left ventricular function in this rat model. The failure of the treatment combination may be due to inducing overexpression of PDE5.
Stem cells; Myocardial infarction; Heart failure; PDE5 inhibitors; Fibrosis
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently prescribed to patients with Barrett’ s esophagus (BE), but in a subset, they can induce significant hypergastrinemia. Elevated levels of gastrin have been associated with tumorigenic effects in a number of gastrointestinal cancers. We decided to investigate the association between serum gastrin levels and dysplasia in BE.
We performed a cross-sectional study and enrolled patients with BE without dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), or adenocarcinoma (AC), as well as gastroesophageal reflux disease controls, all chronically taking PPIs. Fasting serum gastrin was measured, and data were collected on patient characteristics, medication use, and the highest degree of BE neoplasia.
A total of 95 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 64.7 (±10.0) years, and 70.5 % were male. The median serum gastrin level was 40 pM. There was no significant difference in gastrin levels with increased degrees of BE neoplasia (overall P = 0.68). In multivariable analysis, the highest quartile of gastrin was associated with significantly increased odds of advanced neoplasia (HGD or AC) (odds ratio (OR): 5.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.20–24.8).
In BE patients taking PPIs, an elevated serum gastrin is associated with a history of HGD or AC. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether patients with nondysplastic BE and elevated serum gastrin are at increased risk for neoplastic progression.
Chinese-American women have much lower mammography screening rates than the general population. This study examined the collective impact of knowledge, cultural views, and health beliefs on intentions to obtain mammography among Chinese women who had not had a mammogram in the previous year.
Five-hundred, sixty-six immigrant Chinese women from the Washington, DC and New York metropolitan areas completed baseline assessments for a longitudinal intervention study. Validated surveys were used to measure variables of interest. The outcomes were 1) past mammography use (ever versus never) and 2) future screening intention.
Only 35% of the participants reported intentions to obtain mammograms, with approximately 19% of the never users reporting intentions (vs. 44% ever users). Ever users had higher knowledge (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.25), less Eastern cultural views (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70–0.87), and perceived fewer barriers (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70–0.87) than never users, controlling for covariates. Never users were more likely to be recent immigrants, have low income and English ability, and lack regular sources of care than ever users (all p<.001). Multivariate models showed that ever users who were employed, received physician recommendations, had less Eastern views, and perceived higher susceptibility were more likely to have intentions. Among never users, only being ages 40–49 and perceiving fewer barriers led to increased intention.
Understanding cultural patterns and health beliefs in Chinese women is critical to changing their screening behaviors. Interventions that address their common beliefs and specific group barriers are optimal for promoting mammography adherence.
Mammography adherence; Chinese-American women; Cultural views; Health Belief Model
Cancer screening rates are low among Chinese American women, a mostly immigrant minority population. This is possibly because they do not receive cancer screening recommendations from their physicians. The objective of this study was to determine if the rate at which physicians recommend cancer screening to older Chinese American women differs according to the language used during visits.
Data for the cross-sectional study were collected from a telephone survey of older Chinese American women residing in the Washington, DC, area. A total of 507 asymptomatic Chinese American women aged ≥50 who had a regular physician participated in this study. The main outcome was women's self-reported perception of having received a recommendation from their physician for mammography, Pap tests, or colorectal cancer screening in the past 2 years. The main independent variable was the language used during visits (English vs. Chinese). Patient age, educational level, employment status, cultural views, physician specialty, physician gender, and length of relationship with the physician were included in the multiple logistic regression analyses.
Chinese women who communicated with their physicians in English were 1.71 (95% CI 1.00-2.96) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.00-3.00) times more likely to report having received mammography and colorectal cancer screening recommendations, respectively (p < 0.05). Physicians in family medicine or general practice were 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.40) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.06-2.48) times more likely to recommend cancer screening than those in other specialties.
Chinese American women who conversed with their physicians in Chinese were less likely to perceive receiving cancer screening recommendations. Future research is needed to identify physician-specific knowledge, attitude, and cultural barriers to recommending cancer screening.
Latinas are the fastest growing racial ethnic group in the United States and have an incidence of breast cancer that is rising three times faster than that of non-Latino white women, yet their mammography use is lower than that of non-Latino women.
We explored factors that predict satisfaction with health-care relationships and examined the effect of satisfaction with health-care relationships on mammography adherence in Latinas.
Design and Setting
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 166 Latinas who were ≥40 years old. Women were recruited from Latino-serving clinics and a Latino health radio program.
Mammography adherence was based on self-reported receipt of a mammogram within the past 2 years. The main independent variable was overall satisfaction with one’s health-care relationship. Other variables included: self report of patient-provider communication, level of trust in providers, primary language, country of origin, discrimination experiences, and perceptions of racism.
Forty-three percent of women reported very high satisfaction in their health-care relationships. Women with high trust in providers and those who did not experience discrimination were more satisfied with their health-care relationships compared to women with lower trust and who experienced discrimination (p < .01). Satisfaction with the health-care relationship was, in turn, significantly associated with mammography adherence (OR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.47–7.58), controlling for other factors.
Understanding the factors that impact Latinas’ mammography adherence may inform intervention strategies. Efforts to improve Latina’s satisfaction with physicians by building trust may lead to increased use of necessary mammography.
Latinas; immigrants; mammograms; satisfaction; adherence
Lineage specification is a critical issue in developmental and regenerative biology. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important participants in that process and used the poorly-understood regulation of megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs) in hematopoiesis as a model system. We report here that miR-150 modulates lineage fate in MEPs. Using a novel methodology capable of profiling miRNA expression in limiting numbers of primary cells, we identify miR-150 as preferentially expressed in the megakaryocytic lineage. Through gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that miR-150 drives MEP differentiation toward megakaryocytes at the expense of erythroid cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identify the transcription factor MYB as a critical target of miR-150 in this regulation. These experiments show that miR-150 regulates MEP fate, and thus establish a role for miRNAs in lineage specification of mammalian multi-potent cells.
The objectives of this qualitative study were to: a) identify common marketing themes and tactics used by the tobacco industry to entice African Americans (AA's) and youth to initiate and maintain smoking behavior, especially smoking mentholated brands of cigarettes, and b) determine AA youths' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about smoking and the tobacco industry. Together, these activities could aid in the development of effective tobacco counter-marketing campaigns for AA youth. Using publicly available tobacco industry documents, computerized searches using standardized keywords were run and results were cataloged and analyzed thematically. Subsequently, 5 focus groups were conducted with n = 28 AA middle school-aged youth. Results suggest that the tobacco industry consistently recruited new AA smokers through a variety of means, including social and behavioral marketing studies and targeted media and promotional campaigns in predominantly AA, urban, and low income areas. AA youth interviewed in this study were largely unaware of these tactics, and reacted negatively against the industry upon learning of them. Youth tended to externalize control over tobacco, especially within the AA community. In designing a counter-marketing campaign for this population, partnering knowledge of tobacco industry practices with youth needs and community resources will likely increase their effectiveness.
We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand–related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression cloning of a cell surface receptor for TALL-1 from a human Burkitt's lymphoma RAJI cell library. The cloned receptor is identical to the previously reported TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI). Murine TACI was subsequently isolated from the mouse B lymphoma A20 cells. Human and murine TACI share 54% identity overall. Human TACI exhibits high binding affinities to both human and murine TALL-1. Soluble TACI extracellular domain protein specifically blocks TALL-1–mediated B cell proliferation without affecting CD40- or lipopolysaccharide-mediated B cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, when injected into mice, soluble TACI inhibits antibody production to both T cell–dependent and –independent antigens. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a B cell library with TACI intracellular domain, we identified that, like many other TNFR family members, TACI intracellular domain interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2, 5, and 6. Correspondingly, TACI activation in a B cell line results in nuclear factor κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell–mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.
TACI; TNFR family; TALL-1; B cell stimulation; autoimmune disease