Fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites (SMs) that show a variety of biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing have shown that fungal genomes harbor far more SM gene clusters than are expressed under conventional laboratory conditions. Activation of these “silent” gene clusters is a major challenge, and many approaches have been taken to attempt to activate them and, thus, unlock the vast treasure chest of fungal SMs. This review will cover recent advances in genome mining of SMs in Aspergillus nidulans. We will also discuss current updates in gene annotation of A. nidulans and recent developments in A. nidulans as a molecular genetic system, both of which are essential for rapid and efficient experimental verification of SM gene clusters on a genome-wide scale. Finally, we will describe advances in the use of A. nidulans as a heterologous expression system to aid in the analysis of SM gene clusters from other fungal species that do not have an established molecular genetic system.
Aspergillus; secondary metabolite; polyketide synthase; nonribosomal peptide synthetase; gene cluster
Filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a variety of interesting biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these SMs. Aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. This fungus also produces other SMs, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones, and territram, with interesting bioactivities. This review will cover recent progress in genome mining of SMs identified in this fungus. The identification and characterization of the gene cluster for these SMs, as well as the proposed biosynthetic pathways, will be discussed in depth.
genome mining; Aspergillus terreus; secondary metabolites; natural products
Fungal secondary metabolites (SMs) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. Genome projects have revealed that fungi have many SM biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. To access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in Aspergillus nidulans. We have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into A. nidulans and expressing them. We have validated this system by expressing non-reducing polyketide synthases of Aspergillus terreus and additional genes required for compound production and release. We have obtained compound production and release from six of these NR-PKSs and have identified the products. To demonstrate that the procedure allows transfer and expression of entire secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, we have expressed all the genes of a silent A. terreus cluster and demonstrate that it produces asperfuranone. Further, by expressing the genes of this pathway in various combinations, we have clarified the asperfuranone biosynthetic pathway. We have also developed procedures for deleting entire A. nidulans SM clusters. This allows us to remove clusters that might interfere with analyses of heterologously expressed genes and to eliminate unwanted toxins.
Deletion of cclA, a component of the COMPASS complex of Aspergillus nidulans, results in the production of monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives. Through a set of targeted deletions in a cclA deletion strain, we have identified the genes required for monodictyphenone and emodin analog biosynthesis. Identification of an intermediate, endocrocin, from an mdpHΔ strain suggests that mdpH might encode a decarboxylase. Furthermore, by replacing the promoter of mdpA (a putative aflJ homolog) and mdpE (a putative aflR homolog) with the inducible alcA promoter, we have confirmed that MdpA functions as a coactivator. We propose a biosynthetic pathway for monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives based on bioinformatic analysis and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates.
The sequencing of Aspergillus genomes has revealed that the products of a large number of secondary metabolism pathways have not yet been identified. This is probably because many secondary metabolite gene clusters are not expressed under normal laboratory culture conditions. It is, therefore, important to discover conditions or regulatory factors that can induce the expression of these genes. We report that the deletion of sumO, the gene that encodes the small ubiquitin-like protein SUMO in A. nidulans, caused a dramatic increase in the production of the secondary metabolite asperthecin and a decrease in the synthesis of austinol/dehydroaustinol and sterigmatocystin. The overproduction of asperthecin in the sumO deletion mutant has allowed us, through a series of targeted deletions, to identify the genes required for asperthecin synthesis. The asperthecin biosynthesis genes are clustered and include genes encoding an iterative type I polyketide synthase, a hydrolase, and a monooxygenase. The identification of these genes allows us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for asperthecin.
Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP affecting melanin synthesis was also identified in this species.
Aspernidine A is a prenylated isoindolinone alkaloid isolated from the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A genome-wide kinase knock out library of A. nidulans was examined and it was found that a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, mpkA, deletion strain produces aspernidine A. Targeted gene deletions were performed in the kinase deletion background to identify the gene cluster for aspernidine A biosynthesis. Intermediates were isolated from mutant strains which provided information about the aspernidine A biosynthesis pathway.
Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are a class of fungal secondary metabolites derived from diketopiperazines. Acetylaranotin belongs to one structural subgroup of ETPs characterized by the presence of a seven-membered 4,5-dihydrooxepine ring. Defining the genes involved in acetylaranotin biosynthesis should provide a means to increase production of these compounds and facilitate the engineering of second-generation molecules. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus produces acetylaranotin and related natural products. Using targeted gene deletions, we have identified a cluster of nine genes including one nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene, ataP, which is required for acetylaranotin biosynthesis. Chemical analysis of the wild type and mutant strains enabled us to isolate seventeen natural products from the acetylaranotin biosynthesis pathway. Nine of the compounds identified in this study are previously not reported natural products. Our data allow us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for acetylaranotin and related natural products.
The gliotoxin, a member of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP), has received considerable attention from the scientific community for its wide range of biological activity. Despite the identification of gliotoxin cluster, however, the sequence of steps in the gliotoxin biosynthesis has remained elusive. As an alternative to the gene knock out and biochemical approaches used so far, here we report using a heterologous expression approach to determine the sequence of the early steps of gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. nidulans. We identified the GliC, a monooxygenases that involved in the second step of gliotoxin biosynthesis pathway through the catalyzing the hydroxylation at the α-position of l-Phe.
Biosynthesis; Gliotoxin; Heterologous expression
We re-annotated the A. niger NR-PKS gene, e_gw1_19.204 and its downstream R domain gene, est_GWPlus_C_190476 as a single gene which we name dtbA. Heterologous expression of dtbA in A. nidulans demonstrated that DtbA protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde 1 and 6-ethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde 2. Generation of DtbAΔR+TE chimeric PKSs by swapping the DtbA R domain with the AusA (austinol biosynthesis) or ANID_06448 TE domain enabled the production of two metabolites with carboxylic acids replacing the corresponding aldehydes.
The eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. Recently, a novel YAP-like bZIP, restorer of secondary metabolism A (RsmA), was found in a suppressor screen of an Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (SM) mutant in which overexpression of rsmA was found to partially remediate loss of SM in Velvet Complex mutants. The Velvet Complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples SM with sexual development in fungi. Here we characterized and contrasted SM in mutants of RsmA and four other A. nidulans bZIP proteins (NapA, ZipA, ZipB and ZipC) with predicted DNA binding motifs similar to RsmA. Only two overexpression mutants exhibited both SM and sexual abnormalities that were noteworthy: OE : : rsmA resulted in a 100-fold increase in sterigmatocystin and a near loss of meiotic spore production. OE : : napA displayed decreased production of sterigmatocystin, emericellin, asperthecin, shamixanthone and epishamixanthone, coupled with a shift from sexual to asexual development. Quantification of bZIP homodimer and heterodimer formation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) suggested that these proteins preferentially self-associate.
Despite the advances in cancer therapy and early detection, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor activity of a novel compound, 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (TMPBA) and its mechanism of action, in breast cancer. Results indicated the relatively high sensitivity of human breast cancer cell-7 and MDA-468 cells towards TMPBA with IC50 values of 5.9 and 7.9 μM, respectively compared to hepatocarcinoma cell line Huh-7, hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, and cervical cancer cell line Hela cells. Mechanistically, TMPBA induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells as indicated by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear staining, cell cycle analysis and the activation of caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed the ability of TMPBA to target pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and p53, of which the concerted action underlined its antitumor efficacy. In addition, TMPBA induced alteration of cyclin proteins’ expression and consequently modulated the cell cycle. Taken together, the current study underscores evidence that TMPBA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the modulation of cyclins and p53 expression as well as the modulation of AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling. These findings support TMPBA’s clinical promise as a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy.
4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenoxy)benzoic acid; MCF-7; MDA-468; apoptosis; MAPK kinases; p53; cyclins
Meroterpenoids are natural products produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. A gene targeting system for A. terreus NIH2624 was developed and a gene cluster for terretonin biosynthesis was characterized. The intermediates and shunt products were isolated from the mutant strains and a pathway for terretonin biosynthesis is proposed. Analysis of two meroterpenoid pathways corresponding to terretonin in A. terreus and austinol in A. nidulans reveals that they are closely related evolutionarily.
We recently demonstrated that the phytotoxin cichorine is produced by Aspergillus nidulans. Through a set of targeted deletions, we have found a cluster of seven genes that are required for its biosynthesis. Two of the deletions yielded molecules that give information about the biosynthesis of this metabolite.
Genome sequencing of Aspergillus species including A. nidulans has revealed that there are far more secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters than secondary metabolites isolated from these organisms. This implies that these organisms can produce additional secondary metabolites have not yet been elucidated. The A. nidulans genome contains twelve nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), one hybrid polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS), and fourteen NRPS-like genes. The only NRPS-like gene in A. nidulans with a known product is tdiA which is involved in terrequinone A biosynthesis. To attempt to identify the products of these NRPS-like genes, we replaced the native promoters of the NRPS-like genes with the inducible alcohol dehydrogenase (alcA) promoter. Our results demonstrated that induction of the single NRPS-like gene AN3396.4 led to the enhanced production of microperfuranone. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AN3396.4 in A. niger confirmed that only one NRPS-like gene, AN3396.4, is necessary for the production of microperfuranone.
Aspergillus nidulans; nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like; microperfuranone; biosynthesis
Regulation of secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters in Aspergillus nidulans has been shown to occur through cluster specific transcription factors or through global regulators of chromatin structure such as histone methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, or the putative methyltransferase LaeA. A multi-copy suppressor screen for genes capable of returning SM production to the SM deficient ΔlaeA mutant resulted in identification of the essential histone acetyltransferase EsaA, able to complement an esa1 deletion in Saccharomyces cereviseae. Here we report that EsaA plays a novel role in SM cluster activation through histone 4 lysine 12 (H4K12) acetylation in four examined SM gene clusters (sterigmatocystin, penicillin, terrequinone, and orsellinic acid), in contrast to no increase in H4K12 acetylation of the housekeeping tubA promoter. This augmented SM cluster acetylation requires LaeA for full effect and correlates with both increased transcript levels and metabolite production relative to wild type. H4K12 levels may thus represent a unique indicator of relative production potential, notably of SMs.
Filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. The recent genomic sequencing of several Aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. Several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. A straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new metabolites therefore should be useful. Details are provided herein on the cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and the LC/MS analysis of the metabolic profile. Following is an explanation of silica gel chromatography, HPLC, and preparative TLC. Finally, the NMR characterization of previously unknown A. nidulans metabolites is detailed.
Secondary metabolites; natural products; polyketides; purification methods; Aspergillus nidulans
Norsolorinic acid, isolated from the Aspergillus nidulans, was investigated for its anti-proliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of norsolorinic acid, we assayed its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21/WAF1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand. The results showed that norsolorinic acid induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells without mediation of p53 and p21/WAF1. We suggest that Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic system is the main pathway of norsolorinic acid-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Our study reports here for the first time that the activity of the Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of norsolorinic acid in MCF-7 cells.
norsolorinic acid; breast cancer; p53; Fas/APO-1; Fas ligand; apoptosis
Mining for novel natural compounds is of eminent importance owing to the continuous need for new pharmaceuticals. Filamentous fungi are historically known to harbor the genetic capacity for an arsenal of natural compounds, both beneficial and detrimental to humans. The majority of these metabolites are still cryptic or silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. Mining for these cryptic natural products can be an excellent source for identifying new compound classes. Capitalizing on the current knowledge on how secondary metabolite gene clusters are regulated has allowed the research community to unlock many hidden fungal treasures, as described in this chapter.
Genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the ability to synthesize many more natural products (NPs) than are currently known, but methods for obtaining suitable expression of NPs have been inadequate. We have developed a successful strategy that bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms. By efficient gene targeting, we have replaced, en masse, the promoters of non-reducing polyketide synthase (NR-PKS) genes, key genes in NP biosynthetic pathways and other genes necessary for NR-PKS product formation or release. This has allowed us to determine the products of eight NR-PKSs of A. nidulans, including seven novel compounds, as well as the NR-PKS genes required for the synthesis of the toxins, alternariol (8) and cichorine (19).
The secondary metabolome provides pathogenic fungi with a plethoric and versatile panel of molecules that can be deployed during host ingress. While powerful genetic and analytical chemistry methods have been developed to identify fungal secondary metabolites (SMs), discovering the biological activity of SMs remains an elusive yet critical task. Here, we describe a process for identifying the immunosuppressive properties of Aspergillus SMs developed by coupling a cost-effective microfluidic neutrophil chemotaxis assay with an in vivo zebrafish assay. The microfluidic platform allows the identification of metabolites inhibiting neutrophil recruitment with as little as several nano-grams of compound in microliters of fluid. The zebrafish assay demonstrates a simple and accessible approach for performing in vivo studies without requiring any manipulation of the fish. Using this methodology we identify the immunosuppressive properties of a fungal SM, endocrocin. We find that endocrocin is localized in Aspergillus fumigatus spores and its biosynthesis is temperature-dependent. Finally, using the Drosophila toll deficient model, we find that deletion of encA, encoding the polyketide synthase required for endocrocin production, yields a less pathogenic strain of A. fumigatus when spores are harvested from endocrocin permissive but not when harvested from endocrocin restrictive conditions. The tools developed here will open new “function-omic” avenues downstream of the metabolomics, identification, and purification phases.
Several fungal pathogens produce bioactive small molecules, commonly known as secondary metabolites (SMs) that contribute towards disease development in susceptible hosts. Genome assessment of human pathogenic Aspergillus species indicates these fungi have the capabilities of producing hundreds of SMs, most of which are currently not characterized for their effect on human health and the immune system. This lack of knowledge is directly correlated to the difficulties of obtaining assayable quantities of pure metabolites. To overcome this roadblock in assessing the potential impact of SMs on the immune system, our laboratories have developed a two-tiered cost-effective, high-throughput program utilizing microfluidic platforms and a novel zebrafish model to identify SMs inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis. Using minimal and physiologically relevant amounts of SMs, this systematic approach has identified the A. fumigatus spore SM, endocrocin, as a potent chemotaxis inhibitor. Interestingly, the production of endocrocin is temperature dependent and virulence studies with the endocrocin null mutant implicates the temperature at which the fungus forms spores as a factor in disease development.
Meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. An understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. Using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, surprisingly, two separate gene clusters are required for meroterpenoid biosynthesis. One is a cluster of four genes including a polyketide synthase gene, ausA. The second is a cluster of ten additional genes including a prenyltransferase gene, ausN, located on a separate chromosome. Chemical analysis of mutant extracts enabled us to isolate 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid and ten additional meroterpenoids that are either intermediates or shunt products from the biosynthetic pathway. Six of them were identified as novel meroterpenoids in this study. Our data, in aggregate, allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for the A. nidulans meroterpenoids.
Sclerotiorin, an azaphilone polyketide, is a bioactive natural product known to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase and many other biological targets. To readily access sclerotiorin and analogs, we developed a 2–3 step semisynthetic route to produce a variety of azaphilones starting from an advanced, putative azaphilone intermediate (5) over-produced by an engineered strain of Aspergillus nidulans. The inhibitory activities of the semisynthetic azaphilones against 15-lipoxygenase were evaluated with several compounds displaying low micromolar potency.
A StcA-AfoE hybrid PKS, generated from swapping the AfoE (asperfuranone biosynthesis) SAT domain with the StcA (sterigmatocystin biosynthesis) SAT domian, produced a major new metabolite with the same chain length as the native AfoE product. Structure elucidation allowed us to propose a likely pathway and feeding studies supported the hypothesis that the chain length of PKS metabolites may be under precise control of KS and PT domains.