Osteosarcoma is primary malignant tumour of bone. Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in a number of human cancers and a ubiquitously expressed zinc-finger transcription factor. The present study aimed to first explore the relationship between the expression level of the KLF6 gene in osteosarcoma and the occurrence of bone tumours.
KLF6 mRNA and protein expression levels in osteosarcoma and normal bone tissue were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. KLF6 mRNA and protein expression levels in osteosarcoma cells and normal osteoblasts were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
Both the expression of KLF6 mRNA and protein in osteosarcoma cells and tissues were significantly lower than that in normal cells and tumour-adjacent tissues.
KLF6 is a putative tumor suppressor gene involved in osteosarcoma which can be used as a new therapeutic target and an important marker for early diagnosis and postoperative monitoring.
Transcriptome analysis has played an essential role for revealing gene expression and the complexity of regulations at transcriptional level. RNA-seq is a powerful tool for transcriptome profiling, which uses deep-sequencing technologies to directly determine the cDNA sequence. Here, we utilized RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of Mycobacteriummarinum (M. marinum), which is a useful model to study the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Two profiles of exponential and early stationary phase cultures were generated after a physical ribosome RNA removal step. We systematically described the transcriptome and analyzed the functions for the differentiated expressed genes between the two phases. Furthermore, we predicted 360 operons throughout the whole genome, and 13 out of 17 randomly selected operons were validated by qRT-PCR. In general, our study has primarily uncovered M. marinum transcriptome, which could help to gain a better understanding of the regulation system in Mtb that underlines disease pathogenesis.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Asian populations have identified novel risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight such loci and investigated their disease associations in three independent Caucasian SLE case–control cohorts recruited from Sweden, Finland and the United States. The disease associations of the SNPs in ETS1, IKZF1, LRRC18-WDFY4, RASGRP3, SLC15A4, TNIP1 and 16p11.2 were replicated, whereas no solid evidence of association was observed for the 7q11.23 locus in the Caucasian cohorts. SLC15A4 was significantly associated with renal involvement in SLE. The association of TNIP1 was more pronounced in SLE patients with renal and immunological disorder, which is corroborated by two previous studies in Asian cohorts. The effects of all the associated SNPs, either conferring risk for or being protective against SLE, were in the same direction in Caucasians and Asians. The magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the SNPs were also comparable across different ethnic groups. On the contrary, remarkable differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations were observed for all associated SNPs. In conclusion, most of the novel SLE risk loci identified by GWASs in Asian populations were also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations. We observed both similarities and differences with respect to the effect sizes and risk allele frequencies across ethnicities.
systemic lupus erythematosus; genetic-association study; Asian; Caucasian
AIM: To investigate Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) expression in gastric cancer and its relationship with angiogenesis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four patients with gastric cancer who underwent successful curative resection were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fifty tumor-adjacent healthy gastric tissues (≥ 5 cm from the tumor margin) obtained during the original resection were randomly selected for comparative analysis. In situ expression of KLF8 and CD34 proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry. The intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was determined by manually counting the immunostained CD34-positive endothelial cells in three consecutive high-magnification fields (× 200). The relationship between differential KLF8 expression and MVD was assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient test. χ2 test was performed to evaluate the effects of differential KLF8 expression on clinicopathologic factors. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox survival analyses were used to assess the prognostic value of differential KLF8 expression in gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of KLF8 protein were detected in gastric cancer tissues than in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (54.5% vs 34.0%, P < 0.05). KLF8 expression was associated with tumor size (P < 0.001), local invasion (P = 0.005), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.029), distant metastasis (P = 0.023), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.002), as well as the MVD (r = 0.392, P < 0.001). Patients with KLF8 positive expression had poorer overall survival (P < 0.001) and cancer-specific survival (P < 0.001) than those with negative expression. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that KLF8 expression independently affected both overall and cancer-specific survival of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.035 and 0.042, respectively).
CONCLUSION: KLF8 is closely associated with gastric tumor progression, angiogenesis and poor prognosis, suggesting it may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; Krüppel-like factor 8; Angiogenesis; Prognosis
The etiology of congenital heart defect (CHD) is commonly believed to involve the interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to explore the joint effects of the ABCB1 gene C3435T polymorphism and maternal periconceptional toxicants exposure on the CHD risk in a Han Chinese population.
An age and gender matched case-control study with standardized data collection involving 201 pairs was conducted. Periconceptional toxicants exposure was obtained through a structured questionnaire. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used for toxicants exposure assessment. Genotyping of the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was performed by sequencing. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the joint effects of the ABCB1 gene C3435T polymorphism and toxicants exposure on the risk of CHD. Placenta tissues and umbilical cords were collected to investigate the impact of C3435T polymorphism on the transcription and translation activities of ABCB1 gene.
Maternal periconceptional exposures to phthalates (adjusted OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0–2.6) and alkylphenolic compounds (adjusted OR:1.8; 95%CI:1.1–3.0) were associated with a higher incidence of CHDs in general. More cases were carriers of the ABCB1 CC/CT genotypes (OR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1–3.5, P-value: 0.021). Children carrying the CC/CT genotype and periconceptionally exposed to phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds suffered almost 3.5-fold increased risk of having CHD than non-exposed children with TT genotype (adjusted OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1.5–7.9, P-value: 0.003), and the OR changed to 4.4 for septal defects (adjusted OR: 4.4,95%CI:1.8–10.9,P-value:0.001). The ABCB1 mRNA expression of the TT genotype was significantly higher than that of the CC genotype (P = 0.03). Compared with TT genotype, lower P-glycoprotein expression was observed for the CC/CT genotypes.
The C3435T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene of fetus increases the risks of CHD in a Han Chinese population when the mothers are exposed to phthalates and alkylphenolic compounds during the periconceptional period, particularly for septal defects.
Electrochemical promotion of catalysis reactions (EPOC) is one of the most significant discoveries in the field of catalytic and environmental protection. The work presented in this paper focuses on the aspects of reaction mechanism, influencing factors, and recent positive results. It has been shown with more than 80 different catalytic systems that the catalytic activity and selectivity of conductive catalysts deposited on solid electrolytes can be altered in the last 30 years. The active ingredient of catalyst can be activated by applying constant voltage or constant current to the catalysts/electrolyte interface. The effect of EPOC can improve greatly the conversion rate of NOx. And it can also improve the lifetime of catalyst by inhibiting its poisoning.
The ability of pathogenic mycobacteria to adapt to diverse environments is essential for their success as pathogens. Here we describe a transposon-inactivated phoY2 mutant of Mycobacterium marinum. PhoY2 of mycobacteria is a functional homologue of PhoU in Escherichia coli and an important component of the Pho regulon. We found that PhoY2 is required for maintaining intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis and balanced energy and redox states. Disruption of phoY2 resulted in elevated levels of intracellular poly-Pi and ATP and an elevated NAD+/NADH ratio, and the mutant strain exhibited increased sensitivity to environmental stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation as well as SDS and antibiotic treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that PhoY2 is required for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and adaptation to stress conditions, which may provide an explanation for the suggested role of PhoY2 in drug tolerance.
To determine by meta-analysis whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) cotreatment accompanying chemotherapy for breast cancer protects ovarian function.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing GnRH cotreatment with chemotherapy alone in premenopausal women were collected by electronic and manual searches of Pubmed, MEDLINE (OVID), CENTRAL (The Coehrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), CBM, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang data bases. All the data was analyzed by Stata 11.2.
Seven studies with a total of 677 participants met the inclusion criteria. The outcome of meta-analysis implied that, compared with adjuvant chemotherapy alone, the number of patients with resumption of spontaneous menstruation was statistically greater in the GnRH cotreatment patients (OR 2.83; 95% CI, 1.52–5.25).
Evidence from RCTs suggests a potential benefit of GnRH cotreatment with chemotherapy in premenopausal women, producing higher rates of spontaneous resumption of menses.
To date there has been no large-scale international study that examined the use of clozapine in older patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the use of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in older patients with schizophrenia in East Asia during the period between 2001 and 2009.
Information on 1,157 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 50 or older in five East Asian countries and territories (China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan) was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) project. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and prescription of psychotropic medications were recorded.
Clozapine was prescribed for 20.6% of the pooled sample; 19.0% in 2001, 19.4% in 2004 and 22.9% in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients taking clozapine had a longer duration of illness, more negative symptoms and were less likely to receive first generation antipsychotic and anticholinergic drugs, but more likely to report weight gain compared to those not receiving clozapine. Compared to those in other sites, older patients in China were more likely to receive clozapine.
The prescription of clozapine for older Asian schizophrenia inpatients has remained at a stable level during the past decade. The appropriateness of use of clozapine in China needs to be further explored.
Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet (HQJZ) is a famous Chinese medicine formula for treatment of various gastrointestinal tract diseases. This study investigated the role of HQJZ in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis and its underlying mechanism. Colonic mucosal injury was induced by TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the HQJZ treatment group, HQJZ was administered (2 g/kg) for 14 days starting from day 1 after TNBS infusion. Colonic mucosal injury occurred obviously 1 day after TNBS challenge and did not recover distinctively until day 15, including an increase in macro- and microscopic scores, a colonic weight index, a decrease in colonic length, a number of functional capillaries, and blood flow. Inverted intravital microscopy and ELISA showed colonic microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory responses after TNBS stimulation, respectively. TNBS decreased occludin, RhoA, and ROCK-I, while increasing Rac-1, PAK-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. In addition, ATP content and ATP5D expression in colonic mucosa decreased after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with HQJZ significantly attenuated all of the alterations evoked by TNBS, promoting the recovery of colonic injury. The present study demonstrated HQJZ as a multitargeting management for colonic mucosal injury, which set in motion mechanisms involving improvement of energy metabolism.
The rapid progress in fetal echocardiography has lead to early detection of congenital heart diseases. Increasing evidences have shown that prenatal diagnosis could be life saving in certain cases. However, there is no agreement on which protocol is most adaptive diagnostic one. Thus, we use meta-analysis to conduct a pooled performance test on 5 diagnostic protocols.
We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and WHO clinical trails registry center to identify relevant studies up to August, 2012. We performed meta-analysis in a fixed/random-effect model using Meta-disc 1.4. We used STATA 11.0 to estimate the publication bias and SPSS 17.0 to evaluate variance.
We use results from 81 studies in 63 articles to analyze the pooled accuracy. The overall performance of pooled sensitivities of spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC), extend cardiac echography examination (ECEE) and 4 chambers view + outflow tract view + 3 vessels and trachea view (4 CV+OTV+3 VTV) were around 0.90, which was significant higher than that of 4 chambers view + outflow tract view or 3 vessels and trachea view (4 CV+OTV/3 VTV) and 4 chambers view (4 CV). Unfortunately the pooled specificity of STIC was 0.92, which was significant lower than that of other 4 protocols which reached at 1.00. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves value of STIC, ECEE, 4 CV+OTV+3 VTV, 4 CV+OTV/3 VTV and 4 CV were 0.9700, 0.9971, 0.9983, 0.9929 and 0.9928 respectively.
These results suggest a great diagnostic potential for fetal echocardiography detection as a reliable method of fetal congenital heart disease. But at least 3 sections view (4 CV, OTV and 3 VTV) should be included in scan protocol, while the STIC can be used to provide more information for local details of defects, and can not be used to make a definite diagnosis alone with its low specificity.
East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history.
East Asian populations; Y-chromosome; Migrations; Genetic structures
This study aimed to investigate the association of galanin (GAL) gene and the development of depression in the Chinese Han population.
A total of 700 patients with depression who met the diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 673 healthy controls were used in this study. Ligase detection reactions were performed on 10 selected single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the GAL gene. A series of statistical methods were carried out to investigate the correlation between the GAL gene SNP and the patient susceptibility to depression.
The SNPs of rs694066 in the GAL gene showed a positive correlation with MDD. Compared with the healthy controls, lower frequency of G/G genotype and higher frequency of A/G genotype were observed in rs694066 in MDD patients, a lower frequency of G-allele and higher frequency of A-allele were observed in rs694066. These correlations were more pronounced in the 376 female patients and 360 female control subjects than in the 324 male patients and 313 healthy male subjects.
This study investigated the relationship between the GAL gene SNP and the susceptibility to depression in the Chinese Han population. The findings clearly indicate that the GAL gene polymorphism is closely correlated to the incidence of depression in the Chinese Han female patients.
Post-discharge care is challenging due to the high rate of adverse events after discharge. However, details regarding post-discharge care requirements remain unclear. Post-discharge medical counseling (PDMC) by telephone service was set-up to investigate its demand and predictors.
This prospective study was conducted from April 2011 to March 2012 in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan. Patients discharged for home care were recruited and educated via telephone hotline counseling when needed. The patient’s characteristics and call-in details were recorded, and predictors of PDMC use and worsening by red-flag sign were analyzed.
During the study period, 224 patients were enrolled. The PDMC was used 121 times by 65 patients in an average of 8.6 days after discharge. The red-flag sign was noted in 17 PDMC from 16 patients. Of the PDMC used, 50% (n = 60) were for symptom change and the rest were for post-discharge care problems and issues regarding other administrative services. Predictors of PDMC were underlying malignancy and lower Barthel index (BI). On the other hand, lower BI, higher adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index (CCI), and longer length of hospital stay were associated with PDMC and red-flag sign.
Demand for PDMC may be as high as 29% in home care patients within 30 days after discharge. PDMC is needed more by patients with malignancy and lower BI. More focus should also be given to those with lower BI, higher CCI, and longer length of hospital stay, as they more frequently have red flag signs.
Although corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is common, the treatment for it remains limited and largely ineffective. We examined whether implantation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) transgenic bone marrow cells (BMCs) can promote the repair of the necrotic area of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. In this study, we confirmed that HIF-1α gene transfection could enhance mRNA expression of osteogenic genes in BMCs in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity assay and alizarin red-S staining indicated HIF-1α transgenic BMCs had enhanced osteogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Furthermore, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for VEGF revealed HIF-1α transgenic BMCs secreted more VEGF as compared to normal BMCs. An experimental rabbit model of early-stage corticosteroid-induced ONFH was established and used for an evaluation of cytotherapy. Transplantation of HIF-1α transgenic BMCs dramatically improved the bone regeneration of the necrotic area of the femoral head. The number and volume of blood vessel were significantly increased in the necrotic area of the femoral head compared to the control groups. These results support HIF-1α transgenic BMCs have enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of HIF-1α transgenic BMCs can potentially promote the repair of the necrotic area of corticosteroid-induced ONFH.
Three new species of the Oriental bolboceratine genus Bolbochromus Boucomont 1909, Bolbochromus minutus Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Thailand), Bolbochromus nomurai Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Vietnam), and Bolbochromus malayensis Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Malaysia), are described from continental Southeast Asia with diagnoses, distributions, remarks and illustrations. The genus is discussed with emphasis on continental Southeast Asia. A key to species known from Indochina and Malay Penisula is presented. An annotated checklist of Bolbochromus species is presented.
Bolbochromus; new species; Geotrupidae; Bolboceratinae; Southeast Asia
QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ) is a compound Chinese medicine used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the effects of QSYQ on the Doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced disorders in rat cardiac structure and function and the possible mechanism underlying. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated by intraperitoneal injections with DOX at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, once every day for a total of 6 times. After the 6th injection, the rats were evaluated by echocardiographic analysis, and the animals with injured heart (n = 14) were divided into 2 groups and further treated with (n = 7) or without (n = 7) QSYQ by gavage at a dose of 0.2 g/day, once a day, over the next 2 weeks. Two weeks after QSYQ treatment, the following variables were assessed: myocardial blood flow (MBF) by Laser-Doppler Perfusion Imager, the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), myocardial histology, myocardial content of ATP, AMP, free fatty acids (FFAs) and AMP/ATP by ELISA, and expression of PPARα, PGC-1α, and ATP 5D by Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Turkey test for multiple comparisons. DOX challenge significantly increased left ventricular internal diameter and HW/BW and decreased the thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall, the left ventricle ejection fraction, and the left ventricle fractional shortening. DOX also increased AMP, FFA, and AMP/ATP, decreased ATP, and downregulated the protein content of ATP 5D, PPAR α, and PGC-1 α. All these DOX-induced cardiac insults were attenuated significantly by QSYQ treatment. These results show the potential of QSYQ to ameliorate DOX-induced disorders in cardiac structure and function; this effect may be related to the increase in myocardial ATP content via the upregulation of ATP 5D, PPAR α, and PGC-1 α and the oxidation of FFA.
We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain CH/ZMDZY/11 isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) isolates from other parts in China, will help to understand better the epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in China.
Pro-angiogenic factors [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)] and anti-angiogenic factors (endostatin) play important roles in the progression of pancreatic cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the knockdown effect by either VEGF or bFGF siRNA on the expression and secretion of endostatin in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Pancreatic carcinoma cell lines (sw1990, Panc-1 and PCT-3) were treated with VEGF and bFGF siRNA. The expression of VEGF, bFGF and endostatin in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Secretion of endostatin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). bFGF and VEGF siRNA significantly reduced the expression of bFGF and VEGF mRNA, respectively, but did not affect mRNA and protein expression of endostatin in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. However, secretion of endostatin in PCT-3, Panc-1 and sw1990 cells was significantly inhibited by bFGF and VEGF siRNA. This study demonstrated that pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF and bFGF) differentially modulate expression and secretion of anti-angiogenic factors (endostatin). This result may have important implications in the anti-angiogenesis therapy in pancreatic cancer.
pancreatic carcinoma; bFGF; VEGF; siRNA; endostatin
Porcine epidemic diarrhea has re-emerged with devastating impact in central China since October 2010. To investigate and analyze the reason of this outbreak, the M and ORF3 genes of 15 porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDV), which were collected from different areas of central China during October 2010 and December 2011, were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the nucleotides and amino acids were changed at some sites in the M and ORF3 genes of the 15 PEDV strains compared with those genes of CV777 reference strain. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, PEDVs in central China and reference strains could be separated into three groups: G1, G2, and G3. The 15 PEDV strains belonged to G3 group and showed a close relationship with Korean strains (2007), Thai strains (2007–2008), and partial other Chinese strains (2010–2011), but differed genetically from European strains (Br1/87) and the vaccine strain (CV777 vs) being used in China. Furthermore, all 15 PEDV strains from central China and some other isolates in China from 2003 to 2007 (LJB-03, QH, and LZC) belonged to different group. Therefore, PEDV exhibits rapid variation and genetic evolution, and the currently prevailing PEDV strains in central China are a new genotype.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; Molecular epidemiology; Phylogenetic analysis; M gene; ORF3 gene
Two ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ and Δ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+, were synthesized and characterized via proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. This study aims to clarify the anticancer effect of metal complexes as novel and potent telomerase inhibitors and cellular nucleus target drug. First, the chiral selectivity of the compounds and their ability to stabilize quadruplex DNA were studied via absorption and emission analyses, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence-resonance energy transfer melting assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and polymerase chain reaction stop assay. The two chiral compounds selectively induced and stabilized the G-quadruplex of telomeric DNA with or without metal cations. These results provide new insights into the development of chiral anticancer agents for G-quadruplex DNA targeting. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol reveals the higher inhibitory activity of Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ against telomerase, suggesting that Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ may be a potential telomerase inhibitor for cancer chemotherapy. MTT assay results show that these chiral complexes have significant antitumor activities in HepG2 cells. More interestingly, cellular uptake and laser-scanning confocal microscopic studies reveal the efficient uptake of Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ by HepG2 cells. This complex then enters the cytoplasm and tends to accumulate in the nucleus. This nuclear penetration of the ruthenium complexes and their subsequent accumulation are associated with the chirality of the isomers as well as with the subtle environment of the ruthenium complexes. Therefore, the nucleus can be the cellular target of chiral ruthenium complexes for anticancer therapy.
We sought to use a regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach as an index in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients suffering from bipolar depression (BD).
Twenty-six patients with BD and 26 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects participated in the resting-state fMRI scans. We compared the differences in ReHo between the two groups within the DMN and investigated the relationships between sex, age, years of education, disease duration, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) total score, and ReHo in regions with significant group differences.
Our results revealed that bipolar depressed patients had increased ReHo in the left medial frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobe compared to healthy controls. No correlations were found between regional ReHo values and sex, age, and clinical features within the BD group.
Our findings indicate that abnormal brain activity is mainly distributed within prefrontal-limbic circuits, which are believed to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar depression.
Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs), a subfamily of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that are incapable of functioning as growth factors, are intracellular modulators of Na+ channels and have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Although certain FHFs have been found in embryonic heart, they have not been reported in adult heart, and they have not been shown to regulate endogenous cardiac Na+ channels nor participate in cardiac pathophysiology.
We tested whether FHFs regulate Na+ channels in murine heart.
Methods and Results
We demonstrated that isoforms of FGF13 are the predominant FHFs in adult mouse ventricular myocytes. FGF13 binds directly to, and co-localizes with the Na 1.5 Na+ V channel in the sarcolemma of adult mouse ventricular myocytes. Knockdown of FGF13 in adult mouse ventricular myocytes revealed a loss-of-function of NaV1.5: reduced Na+ current (INa) density, decreased Na+ channel availability, and slowed INa recovery from inactivation. Cell surface biotinylation experiments showed a ~45% reduction in NaV1.5 protein at the sarcolemma after FGF13 knockdown, whereas no changes in whole-cell NaV1.5 protein nor mRNA level were observed. Optical imaging in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayers demonstrated slowed conduction velocity and a reduced maximum capture rate after FGF13 knockdown.
These findings show that FHFs are potent regulators of Na+ channels in adult ventricular myocytes and suggest that loss-of-function mutations in FHFs may underlie a similar set of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies that result from NaV1.5 loss-of-function mutations.
Fibroblast growth factor homologous factor; Fibroblast growth factor; Voltage-gated Na+ channels; Channel trafficking
Y-chromosome Haplogroup O is the dominant lineage of East Asians, comprising more than a quarter of all males on the world; however, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we determined the phylogenetic position of recently defined markers (L127, KL1, KL2, P164, and PK4) in the background of Haplogroup O. In the revised tree, subgroup O3a-M324 is divided into two main subclades, O3a1-L127 and O3a2-P201, covering about 20 and 35% of Han Chinese people, respectively. The marker P164 is corrected from a downstream site of M7 to upstream of M134 and parallel to M7 and M159. The marker PK4 is also relocated from downstream of M88 to upstream of M95, separating the former O2* into two parts. This revision evidently improved the resolving power of Y-chromosome phylogeny in East Asia.
Y chromosome; phylogeny; molecular anthropology; East Asian