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1.  Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration 
Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.
doi:10.3390/ijms16012130
PMCID: PMC4307353  PMID: 25607736
degenerative disc disease (DDD); running exercise; cell proliferation; disc regeneration
2.  Effects of Combined Anisodamine and Neostigmine Treatment on the Inflammatory Response and Liver Regeneration of Obstructive Jaundice Rats after Hepatectomy 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:362024.
Background. Cholestasis is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major liver resection. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a combined anisodamine and neostigmine (Ani+Neo) treatment on the inflammatory response and liver regeneration in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ) after partial hepatectomy. Materials and Methods. OJ was induced in the rats by bile duct ligation. After 7 days biliary drainage and partial hepatectomy were performed. These rats were assigned to a saline group or an Ani+Neo treatment group. The expressions of inflammatory mediators, liver regeneration, and liver damage were assessed at 48 h after hepatectomy. Results. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α, in the remnant livers, and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were substantially reduced in the Ani+Neo group compared with saline group (P < 0.05). The Ani+Neo treatment obviously promoted liver regeneration as indicated by the liver weights and Ki-67 labeling index (P < 0.05). The serum albumin and γ-GT levels and liver neutrophil infiltration also significantly improved in the Ani+Neo group (P < 0.05) compared with the saline group. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that the combined anisodamine and neostigmine treatment is able to improve the liver regeneration in rats with OJ by substantially alleviating the inflammatory response.
doi:10.1155/2014/362024
PMCID: PMC4244971  PMID: 25478569
3.  Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(9):17406-17429.
One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.
doi:10.3390/s140917406
PMCID: PMC4208231  PMID: 25232915
gas sensors; semiconducting nanowires; field effect transistors
4.  Attribute Reduction Based on Property Pictorial Diagram 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:109706.
This paper mainly studies attribute reduction which keeps the lattice structure in formal contexts based on the property pictorial diagram. Firstly, the property pictorial diagram of a formal context is defined. Based on such diagram, an attribute reduction approach of concept lattice is achieved. Then, through the relation between an original formal context and its complementary context, an attribute reduct of complementary context concept lattice is obtained, which is also based on the property pictorial diagram of the original formal context. Finally, attribute reducts in property oriented concept lattice and object oriented concept lattice can be acquired by the relations of attribute reduction between these two lattices and concept lattice of complementary context. In addition, a detailed illustrative example is presented.
doi:10.1155/2014/109706
PMCID: PMC4163284  PMID: 25247200
5.  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and mortality in China in 2010 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):381-387.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is common in South China. Although regional epidemiological data on NPC in China is available, national epidemiological data have been unavailable up to now. The goal of this study was to analyze the NPC incidence and mortality data in some domestic cancer registries, estimate these rates in China in 2010, and provide scientific information that can be harnessed for NPC control and prevention. To accomplish this goal, NPC incidence and mortality data for 2010 were collected from 145 Chinese cancer registries from which data were included in the 2013 National Cancer Registry Annual Report. Such indices as its incident and death numbers, crude rates, age-standardized rates and truncated rates were calculated and analyzed. The incidence and mortality in China and constituent areas were estimated according to the national population in 2010. An estimated 41,503 new cases and 20,058 deaths were attributed to NPC in China in 2010, accounting for 1.34% of all new cancer cases and 1.03% of all cancer-related deaths that year in China. Crude incidence and mortality were 3.16/100,000 and 1.53/100,000, respectively. World age-standardized incidence and mortality were 2.44/100,000 and 1.18/100,000, respectively. Incidence and mortality were higher among males than among females and slightly higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Among seven Chinese administrative regions, NPC incidence and mortality were obviously higher in South China than in other regions and lowest in North China. The male and female age-specific incidence and mortality both rose quickly from age 25-29 years, but peaked at different ages and varied by location. These results demonstrated that NPC incidence and mortality in China especially in South China were at high levels in the world, and suggested that control and prevention efforts should be enhanced.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10086
PMCID: PMC4135367  PMID: 25096544
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; incidence; mortality; China
6.  Incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, 2010 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):388-394.
Liver cancer is a common malignant tumor in China and a major health concern. We aimed to estimate the liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2010 using liver cancer data from some Chinese cancer registries and provide reference for liver cancer prevention and treatment. We collected and evaluated the incidence and mortality data of liver cancer in 2010 from 145 cancer registries, which were included in the 2013 Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report, calculated crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities, and estimated new liver cancer cases and deaths from liver cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2010 from Chinese practical population. The estimates of new liver cancer cases and deaths were 358,840 and 312,432, respectively, in China in 2010. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR China), and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR world) were 27.29/100,000, 21.35/100,000, and 20.87/100,000, respectively; the crude, ASR China, and ASR world mortalities were 23.76/100,000, 18.43/100,000, and 18.04/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality were the highest in western regions, higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and higher in males than in females. The age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer showed a rapid increase from age 30 and peaked at age 80-84 or 85+. Our results indicated that the 2010 incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, especially in undeveloped rural areas and western regions, were among high levels worldwide. The strategy for liver cancer prevention and treatment should be strengthened.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10088
PMCID: PMC4135368  PMID: 25104174
Liver cancer; incidence; mortality; China
7.  The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):402-405.
To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10084
PMCID: PMC4135370  PMID: 25011459
Cancer registry; malignant tumor; incidence; mortality; China
8.  Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain 
Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.
doi:10.3390/ijms150712135
PMCID: PMC4139834  PMID: 25007069
human pheochromocytoma cell; cell transplantation; microencapsulation; analgesia; cancer-induced bone pain
9.  Cytoplasmic Retention of a Nucleocytoplasmic Protein TBC1D3 by Microtubule Network Is Required for Enhanced EGFR Signaling 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94134.
The hominoid oncogene TBC1D3 enhances epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and induces cell transformation. However, little is known regarding its spatio-temporal regulation and mechanism of tumorigenesis. In the current study, we identified the microtubule subunit β-tubulin as a potential interaction partner for TBC1D3 using affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry analysis. The interaction between TBC1D3 and β-tubulin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Using the same method, we also revealed that TBC1D3 co-precipitated with endogenous α-tubulin, another subunit of the microtubule. In agreement with these results, microtubule cosedimentation assays showed that TBC1D3 associated with the microtubule network. The β-tubulin-interacting site of TBC1D3 was mapped to amino acids 286∼353 near the C-terminus of the TBC domain. Deletion mutation within these amino acids was shown to abolish the interaction of TBC1D3 with β-tubulin. Interestingly, the deletion mutation caused a complete loss of TBC1D3 from the cytoplasmic filamentous and punctate structures, and TBC1D3 instead appeared in the nucleus. Consistent with this, wild-type TBC1D3 exhibited the same nucleocytoplasmic distribution in cells treated with the microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole, suggesting that the microtubule network associates with and retains TBC1D3 in the cytoplasm. We further found that deficiency in β-tubulin-interacting resulted in TBC1D3's inability to inhibit c-Cbl recruitment and EGFR ubiquitination, ultimately leading to dysregulation of EGFR degradation and signaling. Taken together, these studies indicate a novel model by which the microtubule network regulates EGFR stability and signaling through tubulin dimer/oligomer interaction with the nucleocytoplasmic protein TBC1D3.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094134
PMCID: PMC3979746  PMID: 24714105
10.  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and mortality in China in 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(8):453-460.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare globally but common in China and exhibits a distinct ethnic and geographic distribution. In 2009, the National Central Cancer Registry in China provided real-time surveillance information on NPC. Individual NPC cases were retrieved from the national database based on the ICD-10 topography code C11. The crude incidence and mortality of NPC were calculated by sex and location (urban/rural). China's population in 1982 and Segi's world population structures were used to determine age-standardized rates. In regions covered by the cancer registries in 2009, the crude incidence of NPC was 3.61/100,000 (5.08/100,000 in males and 2.10/100,000 in females; 4.19/100,000 in urban areas and 2.42/100,000 in rural areas). Age-standardized incidences by Chinese population (ASIC) and Segi's world population (ASIW) were 2.05/100,000 and 2.54/100,000, respectively. The crude mortality of NPC was 1.99/100,000 (2.82/100,000 in males and 1.14/100,000 in females; 2.30/100,000 in urban areas and 1.37/100,000 in rural areas). The age-standardized mortalities by Chinese population (ASMC) and world population (ASMW) were 1.04/100,000 and 1.35/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality of NPC were higher in males than in females and higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Both age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low in persons younger than 30 years old, but these rates dramatically increased. Incidence peaked in the 60-64 age group and mortality peaked in the over 85 age group. Primary and secondary prevention, such as lifestyle changes and early detection, should be carried out in males and females older than 30 years of age.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10118
PMCID: PMC3845582  PMID: 23863562
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
11.  Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(4):162-169.
Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths in China. To aid the government in establishing a control plan for this disease, we provided real-time surveillance information by analyzing liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2009 reported by the National Central Cancer Registry. Liver cancer incidence and cases of death were retrieved from the national database using the ICD-10 topography code “C22”. Crude incidence and mortality were calculated and stratified by sex, age, and location (urban/rural). China's population in 1982 and Segi (world) population structures were used for age-standardized rates. In cancer registration areas in 2009, the crude incidence of liver cancer was 28.71/100,000, making it the fourth most common cancer in China, third most common in males, and fifth most common in females. The crude mortality of liver cancer was 26.04/100,000, making it the second leading cause of cancer death in China and urban areas and the third leading cause in rural areas. Incidence and mortality were higher in males than in females and were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. The age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low among age groups under 30 years but dramatically increased and peaked in the 80–84 years old group. These findings confirm that liver cancer is a common and fatal cancer in China. Primary and secondary prevention such as health education, hepatitis B virus vaccination, and early detection should be carried out both in males and females, in urban and rural areas.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10027
PMCID: PMC3845572  PMID: 23489585
Liver cancer; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
12.  Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008 
Objective
Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.
Methods
There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate.
Results
The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreas cancer, which accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum varied by areas and sex in rural areas, cancers from digestive system were more common, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, while incidence rates of lung cancer and colorectal cancer were much higher in urban areas. In addition, breast cancer was the most common cancer in urban women followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
Conclusion
Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and female breast cancer contributed to the increased incidence of cancer, which should be paid more attention to in further national cancer prevention and control program. Different cancer control strategies should be carried out due to the varied cancer spectrum in different groups.
doi:10.1007/s11670-012-0171-2
PMCID: PMC3555287  PMID: 23359321
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; Epidemiology, China
13.  Qualitative evaluation of a diabetes electronic decision support tool: views of users 
Background
Quality care of type 2 diabetes is complex and requires systematic use of clinical data to monitor care processes and outcomes. An electronic decision support (EDS) tool for the management of type 2 diabetes in primary care was developed by the Australian Pharmaceutical Alliance. The aim of this qualitative study was to evaluate the uptake and use of the EDS tool as well as to describe the impact of the EDS tool on the primary care consultation for diabetes from the perspectives of general practitioners and practice nurses.
Methods
This was a qualitative study of telephone interviews. General Practitioners and Practice Nurses from four Divisions of General Practice who had used the EDS tool for a minimum of six weeks were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the interview transcripts were coded and thematically analysed using NVivo 8 software.
Results
In total 15 General Practitioners and 2 Practice Nurses completed the interviews. The most commonly used feature of the EDS tool was the summary side bar; its major function was to provide an overview of clinical information and a prompt or reminder to diabetes care. It also assisted communication and served an educational role as a visual aide in the consultation. Some participants thought the tool resulted in longer consultations. There were a range of barriers to use related to the design and functionality of the tool and to the primary care context.
Conclusions
The EDS tool shows promise as a way of summarising information about patients’ diabetes state, reminder of required diabetes care and an aide to patient education.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-61
PMCID: PMC3426492  PMID: 22759239
14.  Pleiotropic Effects of Deubiquitinating Enzyme Ubp5 on Growth and Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38326.
Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification that influences various cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes remove ubiquitin, maintain ubiquitin homeostasis and regulate protein degradation via the ubiquitination pathway. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important basidiomycete pathogen that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis primarily in the immunocompromised population. In order to understand the possible influence deubiquitinases have on growth and virulence of the model pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, we generated deletion mutants of seven putative deubiquitinase genes. Compared to other deubiquitinating enzyme mutants, a ubp5Δ mutant exhibited severely attenuated virulence and many distinct phenotypes, including decreased capsule formation, hypomelanization, defective sporulation, and elevated sensitivity to several external stressors (such as high temperature, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, high salts, and antifungal agents). Ubp5 is likely the major deubiquitinating enzyme for stress responses in C. neoformans, which further delineates the evolutionary divergence of Cryptococcus from the model yeast S. cerevisiae, and provides an important paradigm for understanding the potential role of deubiquitination in virulence by other pathogenic fungi. Other putative deubiquitinase mutants (doa4Δ and ubp13Δ) share some phenotypes with the ubp5Δ mutant, illustrating functional overlap among deubiquitinating enzymes in C. neoformans. Therefore, deubiquitinating enzymes (especially Ubp5) are essential for the virulence composite of C. neoformans and provide an additional yeast survival and propagation advantage in the host.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038326
PMCID: PMC3375289  PMID: 22719877
15.  Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007 
Objective
Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007.
Methods
In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.
Results
The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.
Conclusion
Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers.
doi:10.1007/s11670-012-0001-6
PMCID: PMC3555260  PMID: 23359628
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; China
16.  Incidence And Mortality Trend of Cervical Cancer in 11 Cancer Registries of China 
Objective
In many countries, the cervical cancer prevalence has declined but less information about the changes is available in China. This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics and trend of cervical cancer in China.
Methods
Cervical cancer data of 11 cancer registries during 1988-2002 in China were analyzed. The age and urban/rural differences and trend of cervical cancer incidence and mortality were described and discussed.
Results
During 1988-2002, a total of 6007 incidence cases and 3749 mortality cases of cervical cancer were reported in the 11 cancer registries. The incidence crude rate of cervical cancer was 3.80/100,000 and the world age adjusted rate was 2.78/100,000. In the same period, the mortality crude rate was 2.37/100,000 and the world age adjusted rate was 1.66/100,000. Declined incidence and mortality trends were observed during this period in urban as well as in rural areas. When calculating the rates by age group, we found that the declining trends were only for older women and increasing trends for younger women, especially for women in the rural areas.
Conclusion
The incidence and mortality rates declined during the period of 1988-2002 in China for older women. The younger women showed an increasing trend during the same period, especially for women in rural area.
doi:10.1007/s11670-011-0010-x
PMCID: PMC3587525  PMID: 23467450
Cervical cancer; Incidence; Mortality; Trend; China
17.  Cancer Incidence And Mortality in China, 2006 
Objective
To describe the cancer incidence and mortality rates in 2006 and evaluate the cancer burden in China.
Methods
Cancer registration data in 2006 from 34 cancer registries were collected, evaluated and pooled to calculate cancer incidence and mortality rates. The data analyses included mortality to incidence ratio (MI), morphological verification percentage (MV%) and proportion of death certification only (DCO%). Cumulative incidence and mortality rates were calculated using crude data, age-standardized data, and specific data for cancer site, age, sex and area (urban or rural).
Results
In 2006, 34 registries with qualified registration data covered a total population of 59,567,322 (46,558,108 in urban areas and 13,009,214 in rural areas). The crude and age-standardized cancer incidence rates were 273.66 per 100,000 and 190.54 per 100,000, respectively. The crude and age-standardized cancer mortality rates were 175.70 per 100,000 and 117.67 per 100,000, respectively. Cancers of lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, and breast in female were the five most common forms of cancer in China, which accounted for 58.99% of all new cancer cases. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer.
Conclusion
Cancer is still an important public health issue in China with an increasing disease burden. Specifically, the incidence rates for lung cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer were increasing, but those for stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were decreasing. However, age-specific incidence rate remained stable, indicating that the aging population was the major source of the increasing cancer burden.
doi:10.1007/s11670-011-0003-9
PMCID: PMC3587531  PMID: 23467577
Cancer; Cancer registration; Incidence; Mortality
18.  Health improvement and prevention study (HIPS) - evaluation of an intervention to prevent vascular disease in general practice 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:57.
Background
The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS) study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization.
Methods/Design
HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange) and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1) a practice questionnaire, (2) GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3) patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4) physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure, (5) a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6) a clinical record audit, and (7) qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the intervention is compared between intervention and control groups after adjusting for baseline differences and clustering at the level of the practice.
Discussion
This study will provide evidence of the effectiveness of a primary care intervention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in general practice patients. It will inform current policies and programs designed to prevent these conditions in Australian primary health care.
Trial Registration
ACTRN12607000423415
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-57
PMCID: PMC2923104  PMID: 20687956
19.  A RARE PRESENTATION OF PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS AS MULTIPLE PUSTULES 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2010;55(3):293-295.
doi:10.4103/0019-5154.70675
PMCID: PMC2965924  PMID: 21063530
20.  Development and early experience from an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practices and allied health providers: the Team-link study 
Background
This paper describes the development and implementation of an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practice and outside allied and community health services and providers.
Methods
A review of organizational theory and a qualitative study of 9 practices was used to design an intervention which was applied in four Divisions of General Practice and 26 urban practices. Clinical record review and qualitative interviews with participants were used to determine the key lessons from its implementation.
Results
Facilitating teamwork across organizational boundaries was very challenging. The quality of the relationship between professionals was of key importance. This was enabled by joint education and direct communication between providers. Practice nurses were key links between general practices and allied and community health services.
Conclusions
Current arrangements for Team Care planning provide increased opportunities for access to allied health. However the current paper based system is insufficient to build relationships or effectively share roles as part of a patient care team. Facilitation is feasible but constrained by barriers to communication and trust.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-104
PMCID: PMC2877025  PMID: 20423471
21.  4-(6-Quinolyl­oxymeth­yl)benzonitrile 
The title compound, C17H12N2O, was synthesized by an ether synthesis from quinolin-6-ol and 4-(bromo­meth­yl)benzonitrile. The phenyl ring of the benzonitrile group makes a dihedral angle of 47.52 (6)° with the plane of the quinoline fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions between a benzene H atom of the benzonitrile group and the benzene ring of the quinoline fragment. In addition, the crystal structure also exhibits a weak inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bond.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809016560
PMCID: PMC2969587  PMID: 21583126
22.  Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Metal Oxide One-Dimensional Nanostructures 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2009;9(12):9903-9924.
This article provides a comprehensive review of recent (2008 and 2009) progress in gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. During last few years, gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide 1D nanostructures have been widely investigated. Additionally, modified or doped oxide nanowires/nanobelts have also been synthesized and used for gas sensor applications. Moreover, novel device structures such as electronic noses and low power consumption self-heated gas sensors have been invented and their gas sensing performance has also been evaluated. Finally, we also point out some challenges for future investigation and practical application.
doi:10.3390/s91209903
PMCID: PMC3267202  PMID: 22303154
gas sensors; semiconducting oxides; one-dimensional nanostructures

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