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1.  Infant colic and feeding difficulties 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(10):908-912.
Aims: To examine the relation between colic and feeding difficulties and their impact on parental functioning for a primarily clinic referred sample.
Methods: Forty three infants (and their mothers) were enrolled between 6 and 8 weeks of age. Infants were divided into two groups, colic (n = 19) and comparison (n = 24), based on a modified Wessel rule of three criteria for colic. Families were assessed at two visits; one occurred in the laboratory and one occurred in a paediatric radiology office. Outcome measures included the clinical assessment of infant oral motor skills, behavioural observation of mother-infant feeding interactions, maternal questionnaires on infant crying, sleeping and feeding behaviours, and the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in the infants using abdominal ultrasound.
Results: Infants in the colic group displayed more difficulties with feeding; including disorganised feeding behaviours, less rhythmic nutritive and non-nutritive sucking, more discomfort following feedings, and lower responsiveness during feeding interactions. Infants in the colic group also had more evidence of GOR based on the number of reflux episodes on abdominal ultrasound as well as maternal report of reflux. Mothers in the colic group reported higher levels of parenting stress.
Conclusions: Results provide the first systematic evidence of feeding problems in a subgroup of infants with colic. Data also illustrate the impact of these difficulties on parental and infant functioning. The association between feeding difficulties and colic suggests the potential for ongoing regulatory problems in infants presenting with clinically significant colic symptoms.
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.033233
PMCID: PMC1719691  PMID: 15383432
2.  Maternal transmission of immunity to Eimeria maxima: western blot analysis of protective antibodies induced by infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(11):4811-4817.
Infection of breeding hens with Eimeria maxima induces production of parasite-specific antibodies which are transferred, via the egg yolk, to hatchling chicks. These antibodies (immunoglobulin G) are highly protective, mediating up to a 97% reduction in oocyst excretion in challenged hatchlings. However, the degree of maternally derived immunity transferred by the hens to their offspring declines with increasing time after infection of the hens. This decline in immunity is directly related to declining immunoglobulin G titers. However, sera from highly protected hatchlings recognize only a very few E. maxima proteins on Western blots (immunoblots). In particular, a 230-kDa protein band is outstanding for its association with maternally derived immunity to E. maxima in hatchlings. This band was excised from a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) preparative gel of crude merozoite protein extract. The SDS-PAGE cutout was emulsified in Freund's adjuvant and injected, intramuscularly, into six breeding hens on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. Eggs were collected from these hens 28 to 39 days after the second injection, and the hatchlings from these eggs were challenged with 150 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. Subsequent oocyst excretion in these hatchlings was, on average, 54% lower than oocyst excretion by control chicks but only 37% lower (significant at P < 0.05) than that by chicks from hens sham immunized with Freund's adjuvant. The latter result is apparently due to the ability of the adjuvant to induce production of antibodies which recognize Eimeria spp. and thereby transfer some degree of protection to hatchlings. These experiments indicate that protective, maternally derived immunoglobulin G antibodies may be useful for the identification of putative anticoccidial vaccine candidates.
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PMCID: PMC303191  PMID: 7927759
3.  Maternal transmission of immunity to Eimeria maxima: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of protective antibodies induced by infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(4):1348-1357.
Vaccination of broiler chickens against Eimeria infection is problematic because of the need to ensure that birds are protected from the time of hatching. We have therefore investigated the feasibility of protecting hatchling broilers via maternal transfer of protective antibodies from hens to their offspring. Oral infection of broiler breeder hens with 20,000 sporulated Eimeria maxima oocysts caused production of antibodies which were passed into the egg yolk and subsequently to hatchlings. The level of specific antibodies in the yolks to unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, merozoites, and gametocytes was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels in yolks of antibodies to all developmental stages peaked 3 to 4 weeks after infection of the hens. Groups of 10 hatchlings were challenged at 3 days of age by oral infection with 100 sporulated E. maxima oocysts. In the first experiment, the mean 4-day (days 6 to 9 post-infection) total number of oocysts excreted in the feces of chicks from eggs collected 3 weeks after infection of the hens was (0.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(6) (mean +/- standard error) compared with (9.9 +/- 1.4) x 10(6) for the progeny of uninfected hens, which represents a greater than 90% reduction. However, oocyst excretion by chicks from eggs collected 7 or 8 weeks after infection of the hens was only 47 or 68% lower than control values, reflecting declining levels of protective antibodies. In a second experiment, in which the hens were somewhat older and pretreated by intramuscular injection of saline in the emulsifying agent, Arlacel A, the period for which protective antibodies were transferred to hatchlings was prolonged. Thus, oocyst excretion by challenged hatchlings from eggs collected for an 8-week period after infection of the hens was more than 90% lower than oocyst excretion by control chicks, and even hatchlings of eggs collected 19 weeks after infection of the hens showed a 60% reduction in oocyst output. In both experiments, the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to all developmental stages in yolks or hatchling sera were very strongly correlated with maternally derived immunity to E. maxima. In contrast, parasite-specific IgM or IgA was not detectable, either in egg yolk or egg white. These results demonstrate the ability of IgG antibodies to protect against E. maxima in poultry, thus raising the possibility of using protective maternally derived IgG antibodies to identify potentially protective parasite antigens and indicating the feasibility of using maternal immunization as a means for parasite control.
PMCID: PMC186285  PMID: 8132342
4.  Maternal immunization with gametocyte antigens as a means of providing protective immunity against Eimeria maxima in chickens. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(5):2036-2039.
In the present study, we wished to demonstrate the ability of surface gametocyte antigens to induce protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infections in chickens. In order to accomplish this goal, we employed maternal immunization as a means of providing large amounts of specific antibodies to offspring chicks. Upon challenge with sporulated E. maxima oocysts, chicks from hens immunized with affinity-purified gametocyte antigens showed greatly reduced oocyst production compared with chicks from sham-immunized hens. These results suggest that maternal immunization with gametocyte antigens can be used as a means to provide transmission-blocking immunity against E. maxima infections.
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PMCID: PMC257112  PMID: 1563795
5.  Passive immunization of chickens against Eimeria maxima infection with a monoclonal antibody developed against a gametocyte antigen. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(2):557-562.
Eimeria maxima gametocytes contain two major antigens with molecular masses of 56 and 82 kilodaltons (kDa) which are recognized by convalescent sera from immune chickens. Preparations enriched in these two antigens were used to immunize mice, and several monoclonal antibodies which specifically reacted with the 56-kDa antigen were produced. One of these monoclonal antibodies of the immunoglobulin M subclass, along with immune chicken sera raised against affinity-purified 56- and 82-kDa antigens, was used to passively immunize chicks. On the basis of the parameter of total oocyst output, it was found that these antibodies provided partial protection (40 to 50% inhibition) against E. maxima challenge infections.
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PMCID: PMC258493  PMID: 2298492

Results 1-5 (5)