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1.  STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Immunogenicity of the Ewing Family of Tumors In Vitro 
Sarcoma  2012;2012:987239.
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) represents an aggressive spectrum of malignant tumour types with common defining histological and cytogenetic features. To evaluate the functional activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in ESFT, we evaluated its activation in primary tissue sections and observed the functional consequences of its inhibition in ESFT cell lines. STAT3 was activated (tyrosine 705-phosphorylated) in 18 out of 31 primary tumours (58%), either diffusely (35%) or focally (23%). STAT3 was constitutively activated in 3 out of 3 ESFT cell lines tested, and its specific chemical inhibition resulted in complete loss of cell viability. STAT3 inhibition in ESFT cell lines was associated with several consistent changes in chemokine profile suggesting a role of STAT3 in ESFT in both cell survival and modification of the cellular immune environment. Together these data support the investigation of STAT3 inhibitors for the Ewing family of tumors.
doi:10.1155/2012/987239
PMCID: PMC3270470  PMID: 22315522
2.  Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by the active form of vitamin D 
Vitamin D is well characterized for its role in mineral homeostasis and maintenance of normal skeletal architecture. Vitamin D has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disease states including diabetes, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. In these diseases poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have also proved effective as anti-inflammatory agents. Here we present data demonstrating that the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a PARP inhibitor. UV irradiation-mediated PARP activation in human keratinocytes can be inhibited by treatment with vitamin D, 7-dehydrocholesterol or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 reversed the PARP inhibitory action of vitamin D and 7-dehydrocholesterol, indicating that conversion to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediates their PARP inhibitory action. Vitamin D may protect keratinocytes against over-activation of PARP resulting from exposure to sunlight. PARP inhibition may contribute to the pharmacological and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D.
PMCID: PMC2494848  PMID: 17487428
keratinocytes; oxidative stress; poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase; 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,7-dehydrocholesterol
3.  Lysis of Halobacteria in Bacto-Peptone by Bile Acids 
All tested strains of halophilic archaebacteria of the genera Halobacterium, Haloarcula, Haloferax, and Natronobacterium lysed in 1% Bacto-Peptone (Difco) containing 25% NaCl, whereas no lysis was observed with other strains belonging to archaebacteria of the genera Halococcus, Natronococcus, and Sulfolobus, methanogenic bacteria, and moderately halophilic eubacteria. Substances in Bacto-Peptone which caused lysis of halobacteria were purified and identified as taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of peptones revealed that Bacto-Peptone contained nine different bile acids, with a total content of 9.53 mg/g, whereas much lower amounts were found in Peptone Bacteriological Technical (Difco) and Oxoid Peptone. Different kinds of peptones can be used to distinguish halophilic eubacteria and archaebacteria in mixed cultures from hypersaline environments.
PMCID: PMC202585  PMID: 16347619

Results 1-3 (3)