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1.  Situational judgment tests reliably measure professional attributes important for clinical practice 
Over the course of more than 40 years, international research has consistently shown situational judgment tests (SJTs) to be a reliable and valid selection method for assessing a range of professional attributes. However, SJTs still represent a relatively new selection method within the medical profession, and as such it is to be expected that applicant reactions will vary. In this Expert Opinion piece, we respond to Najim et al’s article “The situational judgement test: a student’s worst nightmare” by highlighting three key clarifications. We outline that 1) the UK Foundation Programme’s SJT deliberately measures only a subset (five) of the nine professional attributes important for the role of Foundation Trainee doctor, 2) these attributes are measured in addition to academic attainment, and 3) the SJT represents a cost-effective approach to selection rather than attempting to interview approximately 8,000 candidates each year, which would be logistically impossible. We present these points to inform future research and encourage debate, and conclude that the SJT is an appropriate and fair measurement method to be used as one part of selection to the UK Foundation Programme.
Video abstract
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S110353
PMCID: PMC5214898  PMID: 28096705
situational judgment test; reliability; validity; fairness; candidate perceptions
2.  Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review 
Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S116957
PMCID: PMC5072574  PMID: 27789958
health; acute care; therapeutic interpersonal relationships; relational care integrative review
3.  Impact of an Innovative Classroom-Based Lecture Series on Residents' Evaluations of an Anesthesiology Rotation 
Introduction. Millennial resident learners may benefit from innovative instructional methods. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of a new daily, 15 minutes on one anesthesia keyword, lecture series given by faculty member each weekday on resident postrotation evaluation scores. Methods. A quasi-experimental study design was implemented with the residents' rotation evaluations for the 24-month period ending by 7/30/2013 before the new lecture series was implemented which was compared to the 14-month period after the lecture series began on 8/1/2013. The primary endpoint was “overall teaching quality of this rotation.” We also collected survey data from residents at clinical rotations at two other different institutions during the same two evaluation periods that did not have the education intervention. Results. One hundred and thirty-one residents were eligible to participate in the study. Completed surveys ranged from 77 to 87% for the eight-question evaluation instrument. On a 5-point Likert-type scale the mean score on “overall teaching quality of this rotation” increased significantly from 3.9 (SD 0.8) to 4.2 (SD 0.7) after addition of the lecture series, whereas the scores decreased slightly at the comparison sites. Conclusion. Rotation evaluation scores for overall teaching quality improved with implementation of a new structured slide daily lectures series.
doi:10.1155/2016/8543809
PMCID: PMC4773520  PMID: 26989407
4.  Educational outreach visits to improve venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalised medical patients: a prospective before-and-after intervention study 
Background
Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines on venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention clinical audit and research reveals that hospitalised medical patients frequently receive suboptimal prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, utility and clinical impact of an educational outreach visit (EOV) on the provision of VTE prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients in a 270 bed acute care private hospital in metropolitan Australia.
Methods
The study used an uncontrolled before-and-after design with accompanying process evaluation. The acceptability of the intervention to participants was measured with a post intervention survey; descriptive data on resource use was collected as a measure of utility; and clinical impact (prophylaxis rate) was assessed by pre and post intervention clinical audits. Doctors who admit >40 medical patients each year were targeted to receive the intervention which consisted of a one-to-one educational visit on VTE prevention from a trained peer facilitator. The EOV protocol was designed by a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals using social marketing theory.
Results
Nineteen (73%) of 26 eligible participants received an EOV. The majority (n = 16, 85%) felt the EOV was effective or extremely effective at increasing their knowledge about VTE prophylaxis and 15 (78%) gave a verbal commitment to provide evidence-based prophylaxis. The average length of each visit was 15 minutes (IQ range 15 to 20) and the average time spent arranging and conducting each visit was 92 minutes (IQ range 78 to 129). There was a significant improvement in the proportion of medical patients receiving appropriate pharmacological VTE prophylaxis following the intervention (54% to 70%, 16% improvement, 95% CI 5 to 26, p = 0.004).
Conclusions
EOV is effective at improving doctors’ provision of pharmacological VTE prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. It was also found to be an acceptable implementation strategy by the majority of participants; however, it was resource intensive requiring on average 92 minutes per visit.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-398
PMCID: PMC3852069  PMID: 24103108
Educational outreach visit; Implementation science; Venous thromboembolism prevention
5.  Preventing hypothermia in elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery patients: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:14.
Background
Patients having arthroscopic shoulder surgery frequently experience periods of inadvertent hypothermia. This common perioperative problem has been linked to adverse patient outcomes such as myocardial ischaemia, surgical site infection and coagulopathy. International perioperative guidelines recommend patient warming, using a forced air warming device, and the use of warmed intraoperative irrigation solutions for the prevention of hypothermia in at-risk patient groups. This trial will investigate the effect of these interventions on patients’ temperature, thermal comfort, and total recovery time.
Method/Design
The trial will employ a randomised 2 x 2 factorial design. Eligible patients will be stratified by anaesthetist and block randomised into one of four groups: Group one will receive preoperative warming with a forced air warming device; group two will receive warmed intraoperative irrigation solutions; group three will receive both preoperative warming and warmed intraoperative irrigation solutions; and group four will receive neither intervention. Participants in all four groups will receive active intraoperative warming with a forced air warming device. The primary outcome measures are postoperative temperature, thermal comfort, and total recovery time. Primary outcomes will undergo a two-way analysis of variance controlling for covariants such as operating room ambient temperature and volume of intraoperative irrigation solution.
Discussion
This trial is designed to confirm the effectiveness of these interventions at maintaining perioperative normothermia and to evaluate if this translates into improved patient outcomes.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number
ACTRN12610000591055
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-14
PMCID: PMC3411492  PMID: 22817672
6.  The requirement for prior consent to participate on survey response rates: a population-based survey in Grampian 
Background
A survey was carried out in the Grampian region of Scotland with a random sample of 10,000 adults registered with a General Practitioner in Grampian. The study complied with new legislation requiring a two-stage approach to identify and recruit participants, and examined the implications of this for response rates, non-response bias and speed of response.
Methods
A two-stage survey was carried out consistent with new confidentiality guidelines. Individuals were contacted by post and asked by the Director of Public Health to consent to receive a postal or electronic questionnaire about communicating their views to the NHS. Those who consented were then sent questionnaires. Response rates at both stages were measured.
Results
25% of people returned signed consent forms and were invited to complete questionnaires. Respondents at the consent stage were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR) response rate of women compared to men = 1.5, 95% CI 1.4, 1.7), less likely to live in deprived postal areas (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.45, 0.78) and more likely to be older (OR for people born in 1930–39 compared to people born in 1970–79 = 2.82, 95% CI 2.36, 3.37). 80% of people who were invited to complete questionnaires returned them. Response rates were higher among older age groups. The overall response rate to the survey was 20%, relative to the original number approached for consent (1951/10000).
Conclusion
The requirement of a separate, prior consent stage may significantly reduce overall survey response rates and necessitate the use of substantially larger initial samples for population surveys. It may also exacerbate non-response bias with respect to demographic variables.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-3-21
PMCID: PMC293468  PMID: 14622444
7.  Developing consumer‐led maternity services: a survey of women’s views in a local healthcare setting 
Objective This paper describes a prospective study of women’s views and experiences of maternity services. The aim was to examine the way women make choices and decisions about maternity care and the factors which influence decision making, with a view to developing services which best meet the needs of the population. Patient choice issues reviewed included: choice of place of birth, choice of lead professional and choices in labour management.
Design, setting and participants A cohort of women attending maternity booking clinics, within the catchment area of Peterhead Maternity Unit (PMU) in north‐east Scotland, were surveyed by means of postal questionnaires at three stages during their contact with maternity services. A subset of women also took part in in‐depth interviews.
Results Not all women were given information about all the available options for place of birth and many women were unclear of the differences between them. Factors influencing choice of place of birth can change, with the medical aspects of maternity care becoming more important as the pregnancy progresses. Women rated the importance of seeing the same staff at antenatal visits highly, but were less concerned with their ability to choose which professional to see. More importance was attached to being able to choose a particular midwife rather than a particular obstetrician. Women’s choices with regard to labour management were largely met. Insufficient information, however, was provided about choices in pain relief.
Conclusions The survey revealed the importance of locally based research, involving all stakeholders, in developing services which best meet the needs of a population.
doi:10.1046/j.1369-6513.1999.00059.x
PMCID: PMC5060106  PMID: 11281896
consumer‐led services; maternity services; patient choice; survey

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