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1.  Clinical trial of carbon ion radiotherapy for gynecological melanoma 
Journal of Radiation Research  2014;55(2):343-350.
Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) is an advanced modality for treating malignant melanoma. After we treated our first case of gynecological melanoma using C-ion RT in November 2004, we decided to conduct a clinical trial to evaluate its usefulness for the treatment of gynecological melanoma. The eligibility criteria for enrollment in this study were histologically proven malignant melanoma of the gynecological regions with lymph node metastasis remaining in the inguinal and pelvic regions. The small pelvic space, including the GTV and the metastatic lymph node, was irradiated with up to a total dose of 36 GyE followed by a GTV boost of up to a total dose of 57.6 GyE or 64 GyE in 16 fractions. A series of 23 patients were treated between November 2004 and October 2012. Patient age ranged from 51–80 with a median of 71. Of the tumor sites, 14 were located in the vagina, 6 in the vulva, and 3 in the cervix uteri. Of the 23 patients, 22 were irradiated with up to a total dose of 57.6 GyE, and 1 patient was irradiated with up to a total dose of 64 GyE. Chemotherapy and interferon-β were also used to treat 11 of the patients. Acute and late toxicities of Grade 3 or higher were observed in 1 patient treated with concurrent interferon-β. The median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 6–53 months). There was recurrence in 14 patients, and the 3-year local control and overall survival rates were 49.9% and 53.0%, respectively. C-ion RT may become a non-invasive treatment option for gynecological melanoma.
PMCID: PMC3951082  PMID: 24536019
carbon ion radiotherapy; gynecological melanoma
2.  Upregulated expression of FGF13/FHF2 mediates resistance to platinum drugs in cervical cancer cells 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2899.
Cancer cells often develop drug resistance. In cisplatin-resistant HeLa cisR cells, fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13/FHF2) gene and protein expression was strongly upregulated, and intracellular platinum concentrations were kept low. When the FGF13 expression was suppressed, both the cells' resistance to platinum drugs and their ability to keep intracellular platinum low were abolished. Overexpression of FGF13 in parent cells led to greater resistance to cisplatin and reductions in the intracellular platinum concentration. These cisplatin-resistant cells also showed increased resistance to copper. In preoperative cervical cancer biopsy samples from poor prognoses patients after cisplatin chemoradiotherapy, FGF13-positive cells were detected more abundantly than in the biopsy samples from patients with good prognoses. These results suggest that FGF13 plays a pivotal role in mediating resistance to platinum drugs, possibly via a mechanism shared by platinum and copper. Our results point to FGF13 as a novel target and useful prognostic guide for cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC3795355  PMID: 24113164
3.  Impact of boost irradiation on pelvic lymph node control in patients with cervical cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2013;55(1):139-145.
Radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) is not well established in cervical cancer. In this study the correlation between size of lymph nodes and control doses of RT was analyzed. Between January 2002 and December 2007, 245 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated with a combination of external beam irradiation with or without boost irradiation and high-dose rate brachytherapy were investigated. Size of lymph node was measured by computed tomography before RT and just after 50 Gy RT. Of the 245 patients, 78 had PLN metastases, and a total of 129 had enlarged PLNs diagnosed as metastases; 22 patients had PLN failure. The PLN control rate at 5 years was 79.5% for positive cases and 95.8% for negative cases. In cases with positive PLNs, 12 of 129 nodes (9.3%) developed recurrences. There was significant correlation between PLN control rate and size of PLN after 50 Gy (<10 mm: 96.7%, ≥ 10 mm: 75.7 % (P<0.001)). In addition, the recurrence in these poor-response nodes was significantly correlated with dose of RT. Nine of 16 nodes receiving ≤ 58 Gy had recurrence, but none of 21 nodes receiving > 58 Gy had recurrence (P = 0.0003). These results suggested that the response of lymph nodes after RT was a more significant predictive factor for recurrence than size of lymph node before RT, and poor-response lymph nodes might require boost irradiation at a total dose of > 58 Gy.
PMCID: PMC3885130  PMID: 23912599
uterine cervical cancer; radiation therapy; boost irradiation; lymph node metastasis; pelvic lymph node
4.  Interfractional change of high-risk CTV D90 during image-guided brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2013;54(6):1138-1145.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate interfractional changes of the minimum dose delivered to 90% of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV D90) and D2cc of the bladder and rectum during brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer patients. A total of 52 patients received external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). For each of four ICBT applications, a pelvic CT scan was performed and the HR-CTV was delineated. Retrospectively, these patients were divided into two groups: (i) the standard dose group with 6 Gy to point A in each ICBT, and (ii) the adaptive dose group with a modified dose to point A to cover the HR-CTV with the 6-Gy isodose line as much as possible. The HR-CTV D90 was assessed in every session, and analyzed as interfractional changes. In the standard dose group, the interfractional changes of the HR-CTV D90 showed a linear increase from the first to the third of the four ICBT (average 6.1, 6.6, 7.0 and 7.1 Gy, respectively). In contrast, those of the adaptive dose group remained almost constant (average 7.2, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 Gy, respectively). Especially, in the case of a large HR-CTV volume (≥35 cm3) at first ICBT, the total HR-CTV D90 of the adaptive dose group with brachytherapy was significantly higher than that of the standard dose group. There were no significant differences in total D2cc in bladder and rectum between the two groups. Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy based on interfractional tumor volume change improves the dose to the HR-CTV while keeping rectal and bladder doses within acceptable levels.
PMCID: PMC3823790  PMID: 23732770
uterine cervical cancer; radiotherapy; high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3D image-based planning; dose-volume histogram analysis
5.  Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report 
Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon-ion radiotherapy and its superior dose distribution may provide more effective tumor control in treatment for re-irradiation of the marginal recurrences in radiation resistant tumors other than cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC3679789  PMID: 23561250
Carbon-ion radiotherapy; Marginal recurrences; Cervical cancers
6.  Risk factors for rectal bleeding associated with I-125 brachytherapy for prostate cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2012;53(6):923-929.
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy. Between April 2005 and September 2009, 89 patients with T1c-2cN0M0 prostate cancer were treated with permanent I-125 seed implantation alone. The prostate prescription dose was 145 Gy, and the grade of rectal bleeding was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Post-treatment planning was performed with fusion images of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging 4–5 weeks after brachytherapy. Patient characteristics and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine risk factors for bleeding. The calculated parameters included the rectal volume in cubic centimeters that received >50–200% of the prescribed dose (RV50–200) and the minimal doses received by 1–30% of the rectal volume (RD1–30). The median follow-up time was 42 months (ranging 18–73 months). Grade 1 rectal bleeding occurred in 24 (27.0%) patients, but no Grade 2 or severe bleeding was observed. Usage of anticoagulants had a significant correlation with the occurrence of bleeding (P = 0.007). The RV100–150 and RD1–10 were significantly higher in patients with rectal bleeding than in those without bleeding. The RV100 was identified as a possible threshold value; the 3-year rectal bleeding rate in patients with an RV100 > 1.0 cm3 was 36%, whereas that with an RV100 ≤ 1.0 cm3 was 14% (P < 0.05). Although no Grade 2 morbidity developed in this study, the RV100 should be kept below 1.0 cm3, especially in additional dose-escalated brachytherapy.
PMCID: PMC3483856  PMID: 22859567
prostate cancer; brachytherapy; rectal bleeding; dose-volume-histogram; anticoagulant

Results 1-6 (6)