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1.  Barriers to medication taking among Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study 
Nonadherence to medications among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be a major barrier to appropriate management of the disease. Published studies of barriers to medication adherence in T2DM suggest a Western bias, which may not adequately describe the Kuwaiti experience.
The purpose of this study was to explore barriers to medication adherence among Kuwaiti adults with T2DM.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis.
Barriers to medication adherence were identified. Emerging themes were: 1) lack of education/awareness about diabetes/medications, 2) beliefs about medicines/diabetes, 3) spirituality and God-centered locus of control, 4) attitudes toward diabetes 5) perceptions of self-expertise with the disease and body awareness, 6) social stigma, 7) perceptions of social support, 8) impact of illness on patient’s life, 9) perceptions of health care providers’ attitudes toward patients, and 10) health system-related factors, such as access difficulties and inequalities of medication supply and services.
Personal, sociocultural, religious, health care provider, and health care system-related factors may impede medication adherence among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes. Interventions to improve care and therapeutic outcomes in this particular population must recognize and attempt to resolve these factors.
PMCID: PMC4629974  PMID: 26604702
medication adherence; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Kuwait; qualitative
2.  Community Pharmacists role in obesity treatment in Kuwait: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:863.
Obesity is a growing health concern in Kuwait. Obesity has been identified as a key risk factor for many chronic diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that community pharmacists' involvement is associated with successful weight management in developed countries. This study was conducted to investigate the role of community pharmacists in obesity counseling, and to identify the barriers to counseling in Kuwait.
A descriptive cross-sectional study involved 220 community pharmacies that were selected via stratified and systematic random sampling. A pretested self-administered questionnaire collected information on frequency and comfort level with obesity counseling, and the perceived effectiveness of four aspects of obesity management (diet and exercise, prescribed antiobesity medications, diet foods, and nonprescription products and dietary supplements). Information on perceived confidence in achieving positive outcomes as a result of counseling and barriers to counseling was also collected. Descriptive and Spearman’ r analysis were conducted using SPSS version 17. Responses with Likert scale rating 1(low score) to 5 (high score) and binary choices (yes/no) were presented as mean (SD) and (95% CI), respectively.
The response rate was 93.6%. The overall mean (SD) responses indicated that pharmacists counseled obese patients sometimes to most of the time, 3.67 (1.19) and were neutral to comfortable with counseling about aspects of obesity management, 3.77 (1.19). Respondents perceived obesity management aspects to be somewhat effective, 3.80 (1.05). Of the four aspects of obesity management, diet and exercise, and diet foods were the highest ranked in terms of frequency of counseling, comfort level and perceived effectiveness. Pharmacists were neutral to confident in achieving positive outcomes as a result of obesity counseling, 3.44 (1.09). Overall mean responses of counseling obese patients by pharmacists were positively correlated with their perceived comfort with counseling and perceived effectiveness of obesity management aspects. The most anticipated barriers to obesity counseling were lack of patient awareness about pharmacists' expertise in counseling 76.2% (95% CI: 69.7-81.7) and pharmacists’ opinions that obese patients lack willpower and are non-adherent to weight reduction interventions 71.8% (95% CI: 65.1-77.8).
Strengths, weaknesses and barriers related to obesity counseling by pharmacists in Kuwait were identified, and suggestions were provided to strengthen that role.
PMCID: PMC3491033  PMID: 23057422
Community pharmacists; Obesity; Obesity counseling; Kuwait
3.  Practice, awareness and opinion of pharmacists toward disposal of unwanted medications in Kuwait 
The disposal of unwanted medications has been a concern in many countries, as pharmaceutical waste enters the ecosystem, ultimately having an effect on human health and environment. Earlier studies in Kuwait found that the method of disposal by the public was by disposing in the garbage or by flushing down the drain. In accordance with patient preference and environment safety, it would be appropriate to use local government pharmacies as collection points for proper disposal.
To determine the practice of pharmacists, working in government healthcare sectors, with regard to disposal of returned unwanted medications by the public. This study also aims to assess pharmacists’ awareness toward the impact of improper disposal on the environment and to investigate whether pharmacists agree to have their pharmacies as collection points for future take-back programs.
A random sample of 144 pharmacists from the six main governmental hospitals and 12 specialized polyclinics in Kuwait, completed a self-administered questionnaire about their practice of disposal, awareness and opinion on using pharmacies as collection points for proper disposal of UMs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
A total of 144 pharmacists completed the survey. Throwing UMs in the trash was the main method of disposal by majority of the respondents (73%). Only 23 pharmacists disposed UMs according to the guidelines of Ministry of Health, Kuwait (MOH). However, about 82% are aware that improper disposal causes damage to the environment and 97% agree that it is their responsibility to protect the environment. About 86–88% of the pharmacists agree to have government hospital pharmacies and polyclinics as collection points for future take-back programs.
Even though the current practice of disposal by majority of pharmacists is inappropriate, they are aware of the damage and acknowledge their responsibilities toward environment protection. Concerned authorities should monitor and implement proper disposal guidelines in all pharmacies. Majority of pharmacists support the idea of having the government pharmacies as collection points for safe disposal of UMs in Kuwait.
PMCID: PMC3744962  PMID: 23960793
Unwanted medications; Pharmaceutical waste; Environment; Pharmacist; Kuwait

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