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1.  Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Drug Users in Western China: Implications for HIV Transmission 
Abstract
The prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China and the implications for HIV transmission in this population are described. A cross-sectional survey of male drug users was conducted in methadone maintenance therapy clinics and detoxification centers in three western provinces of China between September 2009 and December 2010. Participants in the study completed a questionnaire about demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, drug use history, sexual risk behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 1,304 drug users surveyed, nearly 54% never used condoms during sexual intercourse with a spouse or cohabitant, and this behavior was associated with coming from Chongqing (OR=1.86, p<0.05), being aged 36 and older (OR=5.03, p<0.05), being married or cohabiting (OR=1.68, p<0.05), having first taken drugs at age 30 and above (OR=1.80, p<0.05), and having received AIDS advice or detection from authorities in the past year (OR=1.95, p<0.05). Twenty-six percent had had sex with casual sexual partners in the past year, and this behavior was associated with being married or cohabiting (OR=0.30, p<0.05), first taking drugs at age 31 and above (OR=0.42, p<0.05), and receiving AIDS advice or HIV detection from authorities in the past year (OR=0.70, p<0.05). About 34% never used a condom when having sex with casual sexual partners, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=2.81, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=2.73, p<0.05). Almost 14% had had commercial sex in the past year, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=6.26, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=5.44, p<0.05) and having exchanged needles or received clean needles from the Needle Exchange Centers in the past year (OR=2.76, p<0.05). Nearly 23% had never used condoms when having commercial sex, and this behavior was associated with having received free condoms from authorities in the past year (OR=0.26, p<0.05). Sexual risk behaviors among drug users in Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang are common. Additional intervention strategies are needed to control the spread of HIV in this population.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0272
PMCID: PMC3607904  PMID: 23210514
2.  Comparison of Three Intervention Models for Promoting Circumcision among Migrant Workers in Western China to Reduce Local Sexual Transmission of HIV 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e76107.
Objective
Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China.
Methods
A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits.
Results
All three models significantly increased the participants’ knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670) of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002) compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12) or three-stage model (P=0.10).
Conclusions
A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076107
PMCID: PMC3786908  PMID: 24098770
3.  Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum: a 5-Year Surveillance in Shanghai, China 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(11):3674-3677.
Previously, a small study showed that 14f was the predominant subtype of Treponema pallidum in Shanghai, China. The result was quite different from the genotype distribution in other areas of China. This study aimed to identify the strain types of Treponema pallidum in samples collected over a 5-year period in Shanghai. From 2007 to 2011, genital swabs were collected from patients with syphilis from the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital. Positive specimens were typed by the enhanced typing method by adding a tp0548 gene to the existing arp and tpr genotype system. In total, 304 of the 372 enrolled patients yielded fully typeable DNA. Ten arp types (4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 19), 3 tpr types (a, d, and o), and 5 tp0548 types (a, c, f, g, and i) were identified. In total, 12 subtypes were identified with a combination of the arp and tpr genes. Subtype 14d was found in 270 samples (88.8%). When the combination included the tp0548 gene, the 12 CDC subtypes identified were divided into 14 strain types. The predominant type was 14d/f (88.8%), followed by 15d/f (3.6%), 13d/f (1.3%), and 19d/c (1.3%). Two of the 44 14d/f-infected patients and both of the 19d/c-infected patients who underwent a lumbar puncture were diagnosed with neurosyphilis. This study showed that the predominant type in Shanghai was 14d/f. While this is in keeping with data from other areas in China, it is different from an earlier report showing that 14f is the most common genotype in Shanghai. Further studies are needed to better understand the association between strain types and neurosyphilis.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01195-12
PMCID: PMC3486273  PMID: 22972832
4.  Factors Influencing Chinese Male's Willingness to Undergo Circumcision: A Cross-Sectional Study in Western China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e30198.
Background
Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC.
Results
Of the respondents (n = 2,219), 44.6% (989/2,219) reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%), redundant foreskin (59.4%), prevention of penile cancer (50.2%), enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%), and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%). The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR = 15.98), residing in Xinjiang province (OR = 3.69), being younger than 25 (OR = 1.60), knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR = 1.78), and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR = 1.36).
Conclusion
The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030198
PMCID: PMC3257276  PMID: 22253919
5.  Men Who Have Sex with Men and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Disease Control in China 
Cell research  2005;15(11-12):858-864.
Objectives:
To address the role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemic in China.
Goal:
To explore the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and the existing prevention efforts among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
Study Design:
Review of behavioral and STD/HIV prevention studies addressing MSM in China.
Results:
Sexual risk behaviors including unprotected group sex, anal sex, casual sex, and commercial sex were prevalent among Chinese MSM. Many Chinese MSM also engaged in unprotected sex with both men and women. Most MSM either did not perceive that they were at risk of HIV/AIDS or underestimated their risk of infection. Surveillance and intervention research among these men are still in the preliminary stages.
Conclusions:
Chinese MSM are at risk for HIV/STD infection and potential transmission of HIV to the general population. In addition to sexual risk reduction among MSM, reduction of homosexualityrelated stigma should be part of effective intervention efforts. Volunteers from the MSM community and health care workers in primary health care system may serve as valuable resources for HIV/STD prevention and control among MSM.
doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290359
PMCID: PMC1791010  PMID: 16354560
6.  In Vitro Effects of Spectinomycin and Ceftriaxone Alone or in Combination with Other Antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatis 
The in vitro effects of spectinomycin and ceftriaxone, alone or in combination with erythromycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline, against Chlamydia trachomatis were investigated by the checkerboard method and compared by Ridit (reference identical unit) analysis. A combination of spectinomycin with erythromycin or doxycycline was found to be more effective than that of ceftriaxone.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.4.1584-1586.2005
PMCID: PMC1068603  PMID: 15793145

Results 1-6 (6)