Fecal enemas were first reported to successfully treat life threatening enterocolitis in 1958, but fecal therapy to treat Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection has remained esoteric and not well investigated until recently. In the past few years, systematic reviews of case series and case reports of fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent C. difficile infection have become available and validate use of fecal transplant for C. difficile enterocolitis. Methods of fecal transplant reported in the literature include: nasogastric tube, gastroscope, duodenal tube, colonoscopy, rectal tube, and fecal enemas administered at home; no method has been shown to be superior. A recent randomized study published in New England Journal of Medicine found fecal transplant to be superior to oral vancomycin alone in treatment of recurrent C. difficile enterocolitis. The significance of this trial cannot be underestimated as it lends credibility to the idea of intentionally using microbes to combat disease, providing an alternative to the older paradigm of disease eradication through use of antimicrobials.
Clostridium difficile; Enterocolitis; Pseudomembranous; Fecal transplantation; Vancomycin
The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM). We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium), family history, social (alcohol, smoking) or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging.
The current financial turmoil in the United States has been attributed to multiple reasons including healthcare expenditure. Health care spending has increased from 5.7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1965 to 16 percent of the GDP in 2004. Healthcare is driven with a goal to provide best possible care available at that period of time. Guidelines are generally assumed to have the high level of certainty and security as conclusions generated by the conventional scientific method leading many clinicians to use guidelines as the final arbiters of care. To provide the standard of care, physicians follow guidelines, proposed by either groups of physicians or various medical societies or government organizations like National Comprehensive Cancer Network. This has lead to multiple tests for the patient and has not survived the test of time. This independence leads to lacunae in the standardization of guidelines, hence flooding of literature with multiple guidelines and confusion to patients and physicians and eventually overtreatment, inefficiency, and patient inconvenience. There is an urgent need to restrict articles with Guidelines and develop some strategy like have an intermediate stage of pre-guidelines and after 5-10 years of trials, a systematic launch of the Guidelines. There can be better ways than this for putting together guidelines as has been suggested by multiple authors and researchers.
Guidelines; Controversies in medicine; Conflict of interest; Health economics; Standard of care
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
Ahridya; albino rats; Avika Ghrita; cholesterol; ghee; Go Ghrita
Jara Avastha (stage of old age) is the later phase of life in which maximum decline of bodily elements is observed. Paramanuvibhaga (cell division) takes place at every moment; particularly in old age, it will be fast in comparison with other phases of life. Some organ related changes also take place during this period, which are the decades of Balya, Vridhhi, Chhavi, Medha, Twak, etc., In this study, applied aspects of Medha Hani, Twak Hani, and Drishti Hani were evaluated subjectively as well as objectively. Patients were selected from the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, irrespective of their sex, caste, religion, etc., and randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group A were treated with Panchagavya Ghrita and Group B with plain Go Ghrita for 90 days and the dose of drug was 10 g/day at Nirannakala (early morning with empty stomach). Both groups showed significant results, the difference in between the groups is statistically insignificant.
Aging; Drishti Hani; Jara; Medha Hani; Panchagavya; Twak Hani
The disease Amlapitta has been selected for the clinical trials because it presents two type of manifestations depending upon the involvement of Agni (Ushnagunadhikya) and Jala (Dravagunadhikya) Mahabhuta. The present research work was focused at Drava Guna, with an aim to assess the efficacy of a drug with quality of Ruksha and Ushna predominance like Bhringaraja in treating Amlapitta with Pitta Drava Guna Vriddhi. Randomized open clinical trials were conducted on 22 patients of Amlapitta who were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated in to two groups. The criteria for selection were the signs and symptoms of Dravagunadhikya Amlapitta, irrespective of sex, religion, etc. Group A consisting of 15 cases received the trial drug Bhringaraja tablet (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) and 7 cases in Group B received rice powder tablet as a placebo (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) for 4 weeks. Special scoring pattern was adopted for the assessment of Amlapitta. Routine pathological tests such as blood, urine, stool, etc. were also carried out. In Group A, 55.33% patients showed marked improvement, whereas moderate improvement was observed in 26.67% patients. Complete cure was found in 06.67% of the patients and mild improvement in the chief complaints was observed in 13.33% patients. All the selected symptoms showed statistically significant results (P<0.01) except the Vidbheda in treated Group A, while in Group B, all symptoms showed statistically insignificant results except the Utklesha and Amlodgara. Total effect of the therapy showed statistically significant effect of the test drug. These results support the hypothesis
Amlapitta; Bhringaraja; Drava; Ruksha; Ushna Guna
The whole-plant, Pergularia daemia (Family: Asclepediaceae), extract (50% alcohol) was investigated for its antiurolithiatic and diuretic activity. Ethylene glycol (0.75% in water) feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Alcoholic extract (400 mg/kg) of P. daemia was given orally in curative and preventive regimens over a period of 28 days. Supplementation with extract significantly (P < 0.001) lowered the urinary excretion and kidney retention levels of oxalate, calcium and phosphate. Furthermore, high serum levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by the extract. The results were comparable with the standard drug, cystone (750 mg/kg). The reduction of stone-forming constituents in urine and their decreased kidney retention reduces the solubility product of crystallizing salts such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, which could contribute to the antiurolithiatic property of the extract. The extract exhibited significant diuretic activity at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight as evidenced by increased total urine volume and the urine concentration of Na+, and K+. These findings affirm assertions made regarding the effectiveness of the extract of this plant against urinary pathologies in the Indian folk medicine.
Diuretic activity; ethylene glycol; hyperoxaluria; Lipid peroxidation; urolithiasis
A simple, accurate, rapid, specific and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method was developed for estimation of content uniformity of atenolol and losartan potassium in its combined tablet dosage form. The method involves formation and solving the simultaneous equation using 226.4 and 254 nm as two wavelengths for atenolol and losartan, respectively. Developed method was employed to determine the atenolol and losartan content in ten individual tablet units of five market formulations. Methanol was used as solvent. The method was validated. From the results, it was concluded that all brands are within the content uniformity limit, 85-115%.
Atenolol; content uniformity; losartan potassium; simultaneous equation method
The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study.
Abheshaja; Adverse drug reaction; Pippali; Piper longum Linn.; Kaphaja Kasa
Variations in bony morphology have been associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. The primary aim of this study was to compare the tibial slope in the teenage pediatric population with open physes, with and without ACL injury. The secondary aims were to compare the notch width index (NWI) and determine the influence of gender and age on tibial slope and NWI.
Thirty-nine teenage pediatric subjects were included in this study, 16 with and 23 without ACL injury. Medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope and NWI as measured on plain radiographs were compared between the groups using an independent t-test. Comparison of tibial slope and NWI was also performed between male and female subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient between age and tibial slope and NWI was calculated.
The medial tibial slope averaged 10.2 (±3.9) degrees, the lateral tibial slope 11.5 (±3.9) degrees, and the NWI 0.26. There was a significant difference in medial tibial slope between the ACL-injured (12.1 degrees) subjects and the controls (8.9 degrees) (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in lateral tibial slope or NWI between the groups. There was no significant difference in the medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope and NWI between the male and female subjects. Subject age was not correlated with medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope or NWI.
There was an increased medial tibial slope in ACL-injured teenagers with open physes, when compared to a control group of teenager with open physes without ACL injury.
Posterior tibial slope; Notch width index; Anterior cruciate ligament; ACL; Open physes; Pediatric
Ayurvedic management is not only concerned with the cure of the diseased person, but is also meant to maintain the health of the healthy person because it is used for Dhatusamya. Langhana is the prime tool in the process of Dhatusamya. In this research study, Upavasa plus Pachana and Upavasa (among ten types of Langhanas) are applied in two different groups, using the random sampling method. Upavasa is taken as Hina Matra Bhojana — that is, gradually increasing the dose of Ahara (by Padanshika Krama) was applied on the basis of the Ahara Shakti of the Atura and status of the Agnisada. Furthermore, for the Pachana, Shunthi (Zingiber officinale) was selected. The subjects for the study were patients who had signs and symptoms of Agnisada and were between the age group of 20 and 60 years. In Group A (Upavasa plus Pachana) 83.77% and in Group B (Upavasa) 72.97% improvement was found, which was statistically highly significant (< 0.001). Upavasa plus Pachana and Upavasa were both found beneficial in promoting the Agni in patients with Agnisada. However, in the percentage-wise comparison Group A showed better result than Group B.
Langhana; Upavasa; Hinamatra Bhojana; Padamshika Krama
The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years.
The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario.
Materials and Methods:
All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S) were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated.
The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161), 11.8% (519/4381), 11.1% (649/5867), 13% (908/6983), 14% (1385/9911) and 17.34% (1756/10133) in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau.
Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.
HIV; prevalence; prediction; India
Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.
Blood Sugar; Alloxan; Hypoglycaemic; Diabetic
The administration of Plumbago zeylanica root (50% EtOH) extract to |intact rats at the dose of 150 mg/kg [body weight for 60 days caused arrest of spermatogenesis. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cell nuclei were reduced. The production of spermatocytes (primary and secondary) and spermatids were significantly reduced (P£ 0.001; 83.57%, 89.69% and 69.47% respectively). The total number of immature and mature Leydig cells was significantly decreased (P£ 0.001; 68.62% and 71.14%), where as degenerating cells were significantly increased (58.26%). Decreased testicular cell population reflects contraceptive or antispermatogenic nature of Plumbago zeylanica extract and may be of vital use in fertility control.
N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT) as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent) reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.
Curcumin is the active component of dried rhizome of Curcuma longa, a perennial herb belonging to ginger family, cultivated extensively in south and southeastern tropical Asia. It is widely consumed in the Indian subcontinent, south Asia and Japan in traditional food recipes. Extensive research over last few decades has shown that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with powerful therapeutic potential against a variety of cancers. It suppresses proliferation and metastasis of human tumors through regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases and other enzymes. It induces apoptotic cell death and also inhibits proliferation of cancer cells by cell cycle arrest. Pharmacokinetic data has shown that curcumin undergoes rapid metabolism leading to glucuronidation and sulfation in the liver and excretion in the feces, which accounts for its poor systemic bioavailability. The compound has, therefore, been formulated and administered using different drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polysaccharides, phospholipid complexes and nanoparticles that can overcome the limitation of bioavailability to some extent. Attempts to avoid rapid metabolism of curcumin until now have been met with limited success. This has prompted researchers to look for new synthetic curcumin analogs in order to overcome the drawbacks of limited bioavailability and rapid metabolism, and gain efficacy with reduced toxicity. In this review we provide a summarized account of novel synthetic curcumin formulations and analogs, and the recent progress in the field of cancer prevention and treatment.
Curcumin; curcumin analogs; anticancer; novel formulations
Orthopedic and dental implants manifest increased failure rates when inserted into low density bone. We determined whether chemical pretreatments of a titanium alloy implant material stimulated new bone formation to increase osseointegration in vivo in trabecular bone using a rat model. Titanium alloy rods were untreated or pretreated with heat (600°C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD). The rods were then coated with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (1 nM) or left uncoated and surgically implanted into the rat femoral medullary cavity. Animals were euthanized 3 or 6 weeks later, and femurs were removed for analysis. The number of trabeculae in contact with the implant surface, surface contact between trabeculae and the implant, and the length and area of bone attached to the implant were measured by histomorphometry. Implant shear strength was measured by a pull-out test. Both pretreatments and fibronectin enhanced the number of trabeculae bonding with the implant and trabeculae-to-implant surface contact, with greater effects of fibronectin observed with pretreated compared to untreated implants. RFGD pretreatment modestly increased implant shear strength, which was highly correlated (r2 = 0.87 – 0.99) with measures of trabecular bonding for untreated and RFGD-pretreated implants. In contrast, heat pretreatment increased shear strength 3 to 5-fold for both uncoated and fibronectin-coated implants at 3 and 6 weeks, suggesting a more rapid increase in implant-femur bonding compared to the other groups. In summary, our findings suggest that the heat and RFGD pretreatments can promote the osseointegration of a titanium alloy implant material.
Dental implant; fibronectin; osteoblast; cell differentiation; bone mineralization; osseointegration
SADS is defined as sudden death under the age of 40 years old in the absence of structural heart disease. Family screening studies are able to identify a cause in up to 50% of cases-most commonly long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada and early repolarization syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) using standard clinical screening investigations including pharmacological challenge testing. These diagnoses may be supported by genetic testing which can aid cascade screening and may help guide management. In the current era it is possible to undertake molecular autopsy provided suitable samples of DNA can be obtained from the proband. With the evolution of rapid sequencing techniques it is possible to sequence the whole exome for candidate genes. This major advance offers the opportunity to identify novel causes of lethal arrhythmia but also poses the challenge of managing the volume of data generated and evaluating variants of unknown significance (VUS). The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell technology could enable evaluation of the electrophysiological relevance of specific ion channel mutations in the proband or their relatives and will potentially enable screening of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation survivors combining genetic and electrophysiological studies in derived myocytes. This also could facilitate the assessment of personalized preventative pharmacological therapies. This review will evaluate the current screening strategies in SADS families, the role of molecular autopsy and genetic testing and the potential applications of molecular and cellular diagnostic strategies on the horizon.
sudden death; screening; ion channel; stem cell; SADS
Bacillus safensis strain VK was isolated from the rhizosphere of a cumin plant growing in the saline desert of Radhanpar, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 3.68-Mb draft genome sequence of B. safensis VK, which might provide information about the salt tolerance and genes encoding enzymes for the strain’s plant growth-promoting potential.
We designed, synthesized and screened a library of analogs of the organophosphate pesticide metabolite paraoxon against a recombinant variant of human serum paraoxonase-1. Alterations of both the aryloxy leaving group and the retained alkyl chains of paraoxon analogs resulted in substantial changes to binding and hydrolysis, as measured directly by spectrophotometric methods or in competition experiments with paraoxon. Increases or decreases in the steric bulk of the retained groups generally reduced the rate of hydrolysis, while modifications of the leaving group modulated both binding and turnover. Studies on the hydrolysis of phosphoryl azide analogs as well as amino-modified paraoxon analogs, the former being developed as photo-affinity labels, found enhanced tolerance of structural modifications, when compared with O-alkyl substituted molecules. Results from computational modeling predict a predominant active site binding mode for these molecules which is consistent with several proposed catalytic mechanisms in the literature, and from which a molecular-level explanation of the experimental trends is attempted. Overall, the results of this study suggest that while paraoxonase-1 is a promiscuous enzyme, there are substantial constraints in the active site pocket, which may relate to both the leaving group and the retained portion of paraoxon analogs.
The Sanger Mouse Genetics Project generates knockout mice strains using the EUCOMM/KOMP-CSD embryonic stem (ES) cell collection and characterizes the consequences of the mutations using a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Upon achieving germline transmission, new strains are subject to a panel of quality control (QC) PCR- and qPCR-based assays to confirm the correct targeting, cassette structure, and the presence of the 3′ LoxP site (required for the potential conditionality of the allele). We report that over 86 % of the 731 strains studied showed the correct targeting and cassette structure, of which 97 % retained the 3′ LoxP site. We discuss the characteristics of the lines that failed QC and postulate that the majority of these may be due to mixed ES cell populations which were not detectable with the original screening techniques employed when creating the ES cell resource.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-013-9467-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2− scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.
Accurate determination of the specific absorption rates (SARs) present during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) experiments and treatments provides a solid physical basis for scientific comparison of results among HIFU studies and is necessary to validate and improve SAR predictive software, which will improve patient treatment planning, control and evaluation. This study develops and tests an analytical solution that significantly improves the accuracy of SAR values obtained from HIFU temperature data. SAR estimates are obtained by fitting the analytical temperature solution for a one-dimensional radial Gaussian heating pattern to the temperature versus time data following a step in applied power and evaluating the initial slope of the analytical solution. The analytical method is evaluated in multiple parametric simulations for which it consistently (except at high perfusions) yields maximum errors of less than 10% at the center of the focal zone compared with errors up to 90% and 55% for the commonly used linear method and an exponential method, respectively. For high perfusion, an extension of the analytical method estimates SAR with less than 10% error. The analytical method is validated experimentally by showing that the temperature elevations predicted using the analytical method’s SAR values determined for the entire 3-D focal region agree well with the experimental temperature elevations in a HIFU-heated tissue-mimicking phantom.
SAR; hyperthermia; HIFU; analytical modeling; thermal modeling
In the title molecule, C20H21N3O, the central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 4.75 (9) and 49.11 (9)°, respectively, with the phenyl and methyl-substituted benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzene rings is 51.76 (8)°. The amino group and carbonyl O atom are involved in an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, π–π interactions are observed between benzene rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.892 (2) Å] and pyrazole rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.626 (2) Å], forming chains along . The H atoms of the methyl group on the p-tolyl substituent were refined as disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.60 (4):0.40 (4) ratio.