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1.  Language of Interview, Self-Rated Health, and the Other Latino Health Puzzle 
American journal of public health  2010;101(7):1306-1313.
Objectives
Despite lower rates of mortality and some forms of morbidity, Latinos report worse self-rated health (SRH) than Whites. These inconsistencies have raised questions about the validity of SRH for cross-ethnic comparisons and its use as a measure of health disparities. We examine whether the translation of this measure into Spanish helps explain these patterns.
Methods
We analyzed levels of SRH under different language conditions using cross-sectional data from the 2002 Chicago Community Adult Health Study and the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Results
Being interviewed in Spanish was associated with significantly higher odds of rating one’s health as fair/poor in both data sets, and adjusting for language of interview substantially reduced the SRH gap between whites and Latinos. Spanish-language interviewees were also more likely to rate their health as “fair” (“regular” in Spanish) than any other response category, after adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, health conditions, and other factors. The association between being interviewed in Spanish and reporting “fair”/“regular” health was strongest when contrasted against response categories representing better health (good, very good, and excellent).
Conclusion
The findings support the hypothesis that the translation of the English word “fair” to “regular” induces Spanish-speaking respondents to report worse levels of health than they otherwise would in English. We recommend caution in interpreting this widely used instrument—especially when making racial/ethnic comparisons—and propose experimental research using different translations of this measure to arrive at one that better equates its meaning in Spanish and English.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.175455
PMCID: PMC3110226  PMID: 21164101
2.  Engaging Urban Residents in Assessing Neighborhood Environments and Their Implications for Health 
Researchers have worked to delineate the manner in which urban environments reflect broader social processes, such as those creating racially, ethnically and economically segregated communities with vast differences in aspects of the built environment, opportunity structures, social environments, and environmental exposures. Interdisciplinary research is essential to gain an enhanced understanding of the complex relationships between these stressors and protective factors in urban environments and health. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways that multiple factors may intersect to influence the social and physical context and health within three areas of Detroit, Michigan. We describe the study design and results from seven focus groups conducted by the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) and how the results informed the development of a survey questionnaire and environmental audit tool. The findings from the stress process exercise used in the focus groups described here validated the relevance of a number of existing concepts and measures, suggested modifications of others, and evoked several new concepts and measures that may not have been captured without this process, all of which were subsequently included in the survey and environmental audit conducted by HEP. Including both qualitative and quantitative methods can enrich research and maximize the extent to which research questions being asked and hypotheses being tested are driven by the experiences of residents themselves, which can enhance our efforts to identify strategies to improve the physical and social environments of urban areas and, in so doing, reduce inequities in health.
doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9053-6
PMCID: PMC1482932  PMID: 16739052
Community-based participatory research; Neighborhood assessment; Qualitative and quantitative methods; Stress process model
3.  Engaging Urban Residents in Assessing Neighborhood Environments and Their Implications for Health 
Researchers have worked to delineate the manner in which urban environments reflect broader social processes, such as those creating racially, ethnically and economically segregated communities with vast differences in aspects of the built environment, opportunity structures, social environments, and environmental exposures. Interdisciplinary research is essential to gain an enhanced understanding of the complex relationships between these stressors and protective factors in urban environments and health. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways that multiple factors may intersect to influence the social and physical context and health within three areas of Detroit, Michigan. We describe the study design and results from seven focus groups conducted by the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) and how the results informed the development of a survey questionnaire and environmental audit tool. The findings from the stress process exercise used in the focus groups described here validated the relevance of a number of existing concepts and measures, suggested modifications of others, and evoked several new concepts and measures that may not have been captured without this process, all of which were subsequently included in the survey and environmental audit conducted by HEP. Including both qualitative and quantitative methods can enrich research and maximize the extent to which research questions being asked and hypotheses being tested are driven by the experiences of residents themselves, which can enhance our efforts to identify strategies to improve the physical and social environments of urban areas and, in so doing, reduce inequities in health.
doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9053-6
PMCID: PMC1482932  PMID: 16739052
Community-based participatory research; Neighborhood assessment; Qualitative and quantitative methods; Stress process model
4.  Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnershipin detroit 
This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six community-based organizations, a city health department, a health care system, and CDC. The Detroit URC is a strong partnership that has accomplished many of its goals, including the receipt of over $11 million in funding for 12 community-based participatory research projects during its initial 4 years. Detroit URC Board members identified a number of facilitating factors for their growth and achievements, such as (1) developing a sound infrastructure and set of processes for making decisions and working together, (2) building trust among partners, (3) garnering committed and active leadership from community partners, and (4) receiving support from CDC. Board members also identified a number of ongoing challenges, including organizational constraints, time pressures, and balancing community interests in interventions and academic research needs. Overall, the Detroit URC represents a partnership approach to identifying community health concerns and implementing potential solutions.
doi:10.1093/jurban/78.3.495
PMCID: PMC3455911  PMID: 11564852
Coalitions; Community-based participatory research; Evaluation; Intervention research; Participatory action research

Results 1-4 (4)