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1.  Periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. 
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.2; p = 0.014), and a borderline association between BV and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 3.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9-10.7; p = 0.061). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that pre-pregnancy counseling should include both oral and vaginal examinations to rule out periodontal disease and BV. This may ultimately have an impact on antenatal healthcare, and decrease the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.
doi:10.1080/10647440500240730
PMCID: PMC1784582  PMID: 16338781
2.  Antigenically Diverse Reference Strains and Autologous Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Are Equally Efficient Antigens in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Analysis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(12):4640-4645.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a major pathogen in periodontitis. Data on the clinical relevance of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against this species are controversial. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how different strains used as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) influence the detection of individuals with elevated serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans. We hypothesized that the highest antibody levels are targeted to the autologous strains. A total of 19 strains—six antigenically diverse reference strains (serotypes a through e and a nonserotypeable strain) and 13 serotyped autologous strains—were used as whole-cell antigens in ELISA. Serum samples were from 26 untreated adult patients with periodontitis, whose subgingival bacterial samples were either culture positive (n = 13) or culture negative (n = 13) for A. actinomycetemcomitans, and from 10 culture-negative nonperiodontitis subjects. The highest individual (P < 0.05) IgG levels against the reference strains were most commonly against serotypes a and b in patients and against serotype c in nonperiodontitis subjects. The culture-positive patients had the highest (P < 0.05) IgG antibody levels against their autologous strains and against the reference strains of the same serotype. On the contrary, for these patients the levels of antibody against the reference strains of other serotypes were comparable to those of the nonperiodontitis subjects. The results indicated that the serum IgG antibody levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans strongly depend on the strains used as antigens in the ELISA. Elevated serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans can be detected equally well using either the autologous strains or a variety of antigenically diverse reference strains as antigens.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.12.4640-4645.2002
PMCID: PMC154631  PMID: 12454165
3.  Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(2):512-518.
Periodontitis is a common chronic oral infection caused by gram-negative bacteria, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis evokes inflammatory host response locally in the periodontium but also systemically. The systemic humoral antibody response against oral pathogens can conveniently be measured by an immunoassay. The aim of the study was to measure serum immunoglobulin G class antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which mixtures of several serotypes of the pathogens were used as antigens to avoid biasing of the results in favor of a particular strain. For A. actinomycetemcomitans the antigen consisted of six strains representing serotypes a, b, c, d, and e and one nonserotypeable strain. In the P. gingivalis ELISA, antigens representing serotypes a, b, and c were used. Serum samples from 90 subjects, including 35 samples from patients with diagnosed periodontitis, 10 samples from periodontally healthy controls, and 45 samples from randomly selected apparently healthy volunteers (referred to as “healthy subjects”), were tested. For both pathogens the antibody levels (means ± standard deviations) of the patients—expressed as area under the dilution curve—were significantly higher than those for healthy controls or healthy subjects, with values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, respectively, as follows: patients, 22.60 ± 9.94 mm2 and 26.72 ± 11.13 mm2; healthy controls, 9.99 ± 3.92 mm2 and 6.90 ± 3.38 mm2; and healthy subjects, 16.85 ± 6.67 mm2 and 8.51 ± 4.23 mm2. The serotype mixture ELISA is suitable for measuring antibodies against periodontal pathogens in large epidemiological studies in order to evaluate the role of periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.2.512-518.2002
PMCID: PMC153358  PMID: 11825965

Results 1-3 (3)