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1.  Development and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled-release pellets by fluid bed coating process 
The aim of the present study was to develop controlled-release pellets of diltiazem HCl with ethyl cellulose and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate as the release rate retarding polymers by fluid bed coating technique. The prepared pellets were evaluated for drug content, particle size, subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calori metry (DSC), and evaluated for in vitro release. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulations for a period of 3 months. The drug content was in the range of 97%-101%. The mean particle size of the drug-loaded pellets was in the range 700-785 μm. The drug release rate decreased as the concentration of ethyl cellulose increased in the pellet formulations. Among the prepared formulations, FDL10 and FDL11 showed 80% drug release in 16 h, matching with USP dissolution test 6 for diltiazem HCl extended-release capsules. SEM photographs confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature with a smooth surface. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug-loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC studies. Stability studies indicated that the pellets were stable.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.111526
PMCID: PMC3696221  PMID: 23833750
Controlled release; diltiazem HCl; fluid bed coating; multiparticulate dosage forms; sustained release
2.  Design and Development of Polyethylene Oxide Based Matrix Tablets for Verapamil Hydrochloride 
In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h.
PMCID: PMC3757857  PMID: 24019567
In vivo studies; matrix tablets; polyethylene oxides; verapamil hydrochloride
3.  Use of intramedullary fibular strut graft: a novel adjunct to plating in the treatment of osteoporotic humeral shaft nonunion 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(4):1009-1014.
Humeral shaft fractures respond well to conservative treatment and unite without much problem. Since it is uncommon, there is not much discussion regarding the management of nonunion in the literature, and hence this is a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Osteoporosis of the fractured bone and stiffness of the surrounding joints compounds the situation further. The Ilizarov fixator, locking compression plate, and vascularised fibular graft are viable options in this scenario but are technically demanding. We used a fibular strut graft for bridging the fracture site in order to enhance the pull-out strength of the screws of the dynamic compression plate. Six patients in the study had successful uneventful union of the fracture at the last follow-up. The fibula is easy to harvest and produces less graft site morbidity. None of the study patients needed additional iliac crest bone grafting. This is the largest reported series of patients with osteoporotic atrophic nonunion of humerus successfully treated solely using the combination of an intramedullary fibular strut graft and dynamic compression plate.
doi:10.1007/s00264-008-0596-x
PMCID: PMC2898981  PMID: 18563410
4.  A novel approach to juxta-articular aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours: resection arthrodesis using bone transport over an intramedullary nail 
International Orthopaedics  2006;31(2):179-184.
Aggressive juxta-articular giant cell tumours of the lower limbs occurring in young patients are a challenge to the average orthopaedic surgeon. Although it is the treatment of choice for these tumours, wide resection creates a problem for the reconstruction of large bone gaps. We describe our results after resection arthrodesis of such tumours using the technique of bone transport over a long intramedullary nail in 27 patients. This is the first and largest study of its kind in the management of giant cell tumours in the literature. All our patients fared well with this mode of treatment, and none had recurrence or major complications.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0150-7
PMCID: PMC2267554  PMID: 16724184
5.  Ilizarov treatment of complex tibial pilon fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2006;30(2):113-117.
We treated 21 consecutive patients between 1998 and 2002 with complex tibial pilon fractures, eight type B and 13 type C, using percutaneous reduction and fixation with the small diameter Ilizarov apparatus. The average patient age was 34±5.6 years (range 28–52 years). Nine of the patients had open fractures (two type I, four type II, and three type IIIA). The patients were followed up regularly at 6-month intervals for 2 years. All fractures united. The fixator was removed at an average of 26.6±4.2 weeks (range 20–34 weeks). The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot score was excellent in 11 patients, good in five, fair in four, and poor in one. Thirteen patients were able to squat and climb stairs.
doi:10.1007/s00264-005-0038-y
PMCID: PMC2532070  PMID: 16435148

Results 1-5 (5)