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1.  Nucleolar Organizing Regions and α-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression in a Case of Ameloblastic Carcinoma 
Head and Neck Pathology  2010;4(2):157-162.
Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare lesion of odontogenic origin. It is defined as a malignant epithelial odontogenic tumor that histologically has retained the features of ameloblastic differentiation and also exhibits cytologic features of malignancy, like atypia and mitotic activity. Although this lesion represents a separate entity, differentiating it from ameloblastoma has been often challenging to pathologists. In this case study reporting a case of ameloblastic carcinoma, we have attempted to verify the previous findings on the use of Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs) and immunohistochemical staining for the alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in differentiating ameloblastic carcinoma from ameloblastoma. It was observed that AgNORs was found to be almost twice in ameloblastic carcinoma as it was in ameloblastoma. A difference between the two lesions in the pattern of expression of alpha-SMA was also observed, with alpha-SMA being expressed in the odontogenic epithelium and the stroma of ameloblastic carcinoma whereas, in the case of ameloblastoma, it was found only in the stromal part. These findings suggest that AgNORs and alpha-SMA expression may be used as adjuncts to the routine histopathologic examination to differentiate ameloblastic carcinoma and ameloblastoma.
doi:10.1007/s12105-010-0173-7
PMCID: PMC2878627  PMID: 20333560
Ameloblastic carcinoma; Smooth muscle actin; AgNORs; Ameloblastoma; Epithelial; Odontogenic
2.  Evaluation of two human immunodeficiency virus-1 genotyping systems: ViroSeq™ 2.0 and an in-house method 
Journal of virological methods  2009;159(2):211-216.
Commercial HIV-1 genotypic resistance assays are very expensive, particularly for use in resource-constrained settings like India. Hence a cost effective in-house assay for drug resistance was validated against the standard ViroSeq™ HIV-1 Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, CA, USA). A total of 50 samples were used for this evaluation (21 proficiency panels and 29 clinical isolates). Known resistance positions within HIV-1 protease (PR) region (1–99 codons) and HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase (RT) region (1–240 codons) were included. The results were analysed for each codon as follows: (i) concordant; (ii) partially concordant; (iii) indeterminate and (iv) discordant. A total of 2750 codons (55 codons per patient sample × 50 samples) associated with drug resistance (1050 PR and 1700 RT) were analysed. For PR, 99% of the codon results were concordant and 1% were partially concordant. For RT, 99% of the codon results were concordant, 0.9% were partially concordant and 0.1% were discordant. No indeterminate results were observed and the results were reproducible. Overall, the in-house assay provided comparable results to those of US FDA approved ViroSeq™, which costs about a half of the commercial assay ($ 100 vs. $ 230), making it suitable for resource-limited settings.
doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.03.021
PMCID: PMC2923210  PMID: 19490976
ViroSeq™ HIV-1 genotyping; In-house HIV-1 drug resistance assay; Concordance; Mixtures; Indeterminate rate; HIV-1 genotyping evaluation
3.  Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method 
Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life.
Aims and Objectives:
The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individuals after obtaining digital photographic images of the rugae.
Materials and Methods:
The intra oral photographs of 100 individuals were taken using a SLR digital camera. The custom made external attachment was attached to the camera to standardize all the photographs. A special software was designed called the Palatal Rugae Comparison Software (PRCS Version 2.0) to match the clinical photographs. Five evaluators including 3 dentists, 1 computer professional, and 1 general surgeon were asked to match the rugae pattern using the software. The results were recorded along with time taken by each operator to match all the photos using software.
Results:
The software recorded an accuracy of 99% in identification of individuals.
Conclusion:
The present study supports the fact of individuality of the rugae. Computerized method has given very good results to support the individualization of rugae. Through our study, we feel that palatal rugae patterns will be of great use in the future of forensic odontology.
doi:10.4103/0975-1475.81288
PMCID: PMC3125959  PMID: 21731346
Forensic odontology; human identification; palatal rugae
4.  Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitex trifolia against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage 
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf of Vitex trifolia was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. To assess the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts, various biochemical parameters viz., total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined. Results of the serum biochemical estimations revealed significant reduction in total bilirubin and serum marker enzymes and increase in total protein in the animals treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts. However significant rise in these serum enzymes and decrease in total protein level was noticed in CCl4 treated group indicating the hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective activity is also supported by histological studies of liver tissue. Histology of the liver tissue treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts showed normal hepatic architecture with few fatty lobules. Hence the present study revealed that Vitex trifolia could afford significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.41466
PMCID: PMC2792475  PMID: 20046723
Vitex trifolia; aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts; CCl4; hepatoprotective activity

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