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1.  Gene polymorphism of interleukin 1 and 8 in chronic gastritis patients infected with Helicobacter pylori 
Background
Epidemiological investigations have indicated that Helicobacter pylori induces inflammation in the gastric mucosa regulated by several interleukins. The genes IL1B and IL8 are suggested as key factors in determining the risk of gastritis. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the association of gene polymorphism of interleukin-1 and interleukin-8 with chronic gastrits in H. pylori infected patients. A total of 60 patients underwent endoscopic procedure. Biopsy samples were collected for urease test, histopathological and molecular exams. The DNA of theses samples was extracted for detection of H. pylori and analysis of the genes mentioned above. Patients with gastritis had a higher frequency of H. pylori-positive samples.
Results
H. pylori was detected in 30/60 patients (50%) by PCR. As for polymorphism of interleukin 8 (-251) gene we observed a statistical difference when analyzed TA (p = 0.039) and TT (p = 0.047) genotypes. In the IL1B31 there was a statistical difference in TT (p = 0.01) genotype and in the IL1B-511 there wasn’t any statistical difference.
Conclusion
Our results suggest a strong correlation between the presence of chronic gastritis and infection by H. pylori and that IL1B-31TT and IL8-251TT genotypes appear to act as protective factors against H. pylori infection while IL8-251TA genotype may comprise a risk factor for infection with this bacterium.
doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-17
PMCID: PMC4011515  PMID: 24803922
Helicobacter pylori; Polymorphism; Interleukin
2.  Brachytherapy for cervix cancer: low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy – a meta-analysis of clinical trials 
Background
The literature supporting high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) in the treatment of cervical carcinoma derives primarily from retrospective series. However, controversy still persists regarding the efficacy and safety of HDR brachytherapy compared to low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, in particular, due to inadequate tumor coverage for stage III patients. Whether LDR or HDR brachytherapy produces better results for these patients in terms of survival rate, local control rate and the treatment complications remain controversial.
Methods
A meta-analysis of RCT was performed comparing LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer treated for radiotherapy alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT and Cochrane Library databases, as well as abstracts published in the annual proceedings were systematically searched. We assessed methodological quality for each outcome by grading the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations, and "suggest" for weak recommendations.
Results
Pooled results from five randomized trials (2,065 patients) of HDR brachytherapy in cervix cancer showed no significant increase of mortality (p = 0.52), local recurrence (p = 0.68), or late complications (rectal; p = 0.7, bladder; p = 0.95 or small intestine; p = 0.06) rates as compared to LDR brachytherapy. In the subgroup analysis no difference was observed for overall mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stages I, II and III. The quality of evidence was low for mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stage I, and moderate for other clinical stages.
Conclusion
Our meta-analysis shows that there are no differences between HDR and LDR for overall survival, local recurrence and late complications for clinical stages I, II and III. By means of the GRADE system, we recommend the use of HDR for all clinical stages of cervix cancer.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-28-47
PMCID: PMC2673206  PMID: 19344527
3.  Whole brain radiotherapy with radiosensitizer for brain metastases 
Purpose
To study the efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with radiosensitizer in comparison with WBRT alone for patients with brain metastases in terms of overall survival, disease progression, response to treatment and adverse effects of treatment.
Methods
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed in order to compare WBRT with radiosensitizer for brain metastases and WBRT alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, in addition to Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were researched. Significant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently.
Results
A total of 8 RCTs, yielding 2317 patients were analyzed. Pooled results from this 8 RCTs of WBRT with radiosensitizer have not shown a meaningful improvement on overall survival compared to WBRT alone OR = 1.03 (95% CI0.84–1.25, p = 0.77). Also, there was no difference in local brain tumor response OR = 0.8(95% CI 0.5 – 1.03) and brain tumor progression (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.9 – 1.3) when the two arms were compared.
Conclusion
Our data show that WBRT with the following radiosentizers (ionidamine, metronidazole, misonodazole, motexafin gadolinium, BUdr, efaproxiral, thalidomide), have not improved significatively the overall survival, local control and tumor response compared to WBRT alone for brain metastases. However, 2 of them, motexafin- gadolinium and efaproxiral have been shown in recent publications (lung and breast) to have positive action in lung and breast carcinoma brain metastases in association with WBRT.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-28-1
PMCID: PMC2648943  PMID: 19126230
4.  High-dose-rate brachytherapy for soft tissue sarcoma in children: a single institution experience 
Purpose
To report our experience treating soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with high dose rate brachytherapy alone (HBRT) or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in pediatric patients.
Methods and materials
Eighteen patients, median age 11 years (range 2 – 16 years) with grade 2–3 STS were treated with HBRT using Ir-192 in a interstitial (n = 14) or intracavitary implant (n = 4). Eight patients were treated with HBRT alone; the remaining 10 were treated with a combination of HBRT and EBRT.
Results
After a median follow-up of 79.5 months (range 12 – 159), 14 patients were alive and without evidence of disease (5-year overall survival rate 84.5%). There were no local or regional failures in the group treated with HBRT alone. One patient developed distant metastases at 14 months and expired after 17 months. In the combined HBRT and EBRT group, there was 1 local failure (22 months), and 3 patients developed pulmonary metastatic disease 18, 38 and 48 months after diagnosis and no these patients were alive at the time of this report. The overall local control to HBRT alone and HBRT plus EBRT were 100 and 90%, respectively. The acute affects most common were local erythema and wound dehiscence in 6 (33%) and 4 (22%) patients.
Late effects were observed in 3 patients (16.5%).
Conclusion
Excellent local control with tolerable side effects have been observed in a small group of paediatric patients with STS treated by HBRT alone or in combination with EBRT.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-3-9
PMCID: PMC2359754  PMID: 18423047
5.  Adjuvant trastuzumab in the treatment of her-2-positive early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized trials 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:153.
Background
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. and Western Europe. Amplification of the her-2/neu gene occurs in approximately 25% of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. The first HER-2/neu-targeted approach to reach the clinic was trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the HER-2/neu protein. Trastuzumab therapy prolongs the survival of patients with metastático HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy and has recently been demonstrated to lead to dramatic improvements in disease-free survival when used in the adjuvant therapy setting in combination with or following chemotherapy. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of completed clinical trials of adjuvant trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Survival, recurrence, brain metastases, cardiotoxicity and directions for future research are discussed.
Methods
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed comparing adjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) to observation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT and Cochrane Library databases, and abstracts published in the annual proceedings were systematically searched for evidence. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria.
Results
Pooled results from that five randomized trials of adjuvant Trastuzumab showed a significant reduction of mortality (p < 0.00001), recurrence (p < 0.00001), metastases rates (p < 0.00001) and second tumors other than breast cancer (p = 0.007) as compared to no adjuvant Trastuzumab patients. There were more grade III or IV cardiac toxicity after trastuzumab (203/4555 = 4.5%) versus no trastuzumab (86/4562 = 1.8%). The likelihood of cardiac toxicity was 2.45-fold higher (95% CI 1.89 – 3.16) in trastuzumab arms, however that result was associated with heterogeneity. The likelihood of brain metastases was 1.82-fold higher (95% CI 1.16 – 2.85) in patients who received trastuzumab.
Conclusion
The results from this meta-analysis are sufficiently compelling to consider 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment for women with HER-2-positive EBC based on the risk: benefit ratio demonstrated in these studies. Adequate assessment of HER-2/neu status is critical, and careful cardiac monitoring is warranted because of cardiac toxicity. Clinical trials should be designed to answer unsolved questions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-153
PMCID: PMC1959236  PMID: 17686164
6.  Breast-conserving surgery with or without radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: a meta-analysis of randomized trials 
Background
To investigate whether Radiation therapy (RT) should follow breast conserving surgery in women with ductal carcinoma in situ from breast cancer (DCIS) with objective of decreased mortality, invasive or non invasive recurrence, distant metastases and contralateral breast cancer rates. We have done a meta-analysis of these results to give a more balanced view of the total evidence and to increase statistical precision.
Methods
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed comparing RT treatment for DCIS of breast cancer to observation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were searched. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria.
Results
The reviewers identified four large RCTs, yielding 3665 patients. Pooled results from this four randomized trials of adjuvant radiotherapy showed a significant reduction of invasive and DCIS ipsilateral breast cancer with odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 (95% CI 0.33 – 0.60, p < 0.00001) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 – 0.53, p < 0.00001), respectively. There was not difference in distant metastases (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.57–1.91, p = 0.38) and death rates (OR = 1.08, 95%CI 0.65 – 1.78, p = 0.45) between the two arms. There was more contralateral breast cancer after adjuvant RT (66/1711 = 3.85%) versus observation (49/1954 = 2.5%). The likelihood of contralateral breast cancer was 1.53-fold higher (95% CI 1.05 – 2.24, p = 0.03) in radiotherapy arms.
Conclusion
The conclusion from our meta-analysis is that the addition of radiation therapy to lumpectomy results in an approximately 60% reduction in breast cancer recurrence, no benefit for survival or distant metastases compared to excision alone. Patients with high-grade DCIS lesions and positive margins benefited most from the addition of radiation therapy. It is not yet clear which patients can be successfully treated with lumpectomy alone; until further prospective studies answer this question, radiation should be recommended after lumpectomy for all patients without contraindications.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-28
PMCID: PMC1952067  PMID: 17683529
7.  Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases from breast cancer: estimation of survival using two stratification systems 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:53.
Background
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common form of intracranial cancer. The incidence of BM seems to have increased over the past decade. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of data from three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials (1200 patients) has allowed three prognostic groups to be identified. More recently a simplified stratification system that uses the evaluation of three main prognostics factors for radiosurgery in BM was developed.
Methods
To analyze the overall survival rate (OS), prognostic factors affecting outcomes and to estimate the potential improvement in OS for patients with BM from breast cancer, stratified by RPA class and brain metastases score (BS-BM). From January 1996 to December 2004, 174 medical records of patients with diagnosis of BM from breast cancer, who received WBRT were analyzed. The surgery followed by WBRT was used in 15.5% of patients and 84.5% of others patients were submitted at WBRT alone; 108 patients (62.1%) received the fractionation schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Solitary BM was present in 37.9 % of patients. The prognostic factors evaluated for OS were: age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), number of lesions, localization of lesions, neurosurgery, chemotherapy, absence extracranial disease, RPA class, BS-BM and radiation doses and fractionation.
Results
The OS in 1, 2 and 3 years was 33.4 %, 16.7%, and 8.8 %, respectively. The RPA class analysis showed strong relation with OS (p < 0.0001). The median survival time by RPA class in months was: class I 11.7, class II 6.2 and class III 3.0. The significant prognostic factors associated with better OS were: higher KPS (p < 0.0001), neurosurgery (P < 0.0001), single metastases (p = 0.003), BS-BM (p < 0.0001), control primary tumor (p = 0.002) and absence of extracranial metastases (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the factors associated positively with OS were: neurosurgery (p < 0.0001), absence of extracranial metastases (p <0.0001) and RPA class I (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Our data suggests that patients with BM from breast cancer classified as RPA class I may be effectively treated with local resection followed by WBRT, mainly in those patients with single BM, higher KPS and cranial extra disease controlled. RPA class was shown to be the most reliable indicators of survival.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-53
PMCID: PMC1851018  PMID: 17386108
8.  Salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapse after complete PSA response following radical prostatectomy: outcome and prognostic factors for patients who have never received hormonal therapy 
Objectives
To evaluate the results of salvage conformal radiation therapy (3DC-EBRT) for patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) who have achieved complete PSA response and who have never been treated with hormonal therapy (HT).
To present the results of biochemical control, a period free from hormonal therapy and factors related to its prognosis.
Materials and methods
from August 2002 to December 2004, 43 prostate cancer patients submitted to RP presented biochemical failure after achieving a PSA < 0.2 ng/ml. They have never received HT and were submitted to salvage 3DC-EBRT. Median age was 62 years, median preoperative PSA was 8.8 ng/ml, median Gleason Score was 7. Any PSA rise above 0.2 was defined as biochemical failure after surgery. Median 3DC-EBRT dose was 70 Gy, biochemical failure after EBRT was defined as 3 consecutive rises in PSA or a single rise enough to trigger HT.
Results
3-year biochemical non-evidence of disease (BNED) was 71%. PSA doubling time lower than 4 months (p = 0.01) and time from recurrence to salvage EBRT (p = 0.04) were associated with worse chance of biochemical control. Biochemical control of 76% was achieved when RT had been introduced with a PSA lower than 1 ng/ml vs. 48% with a PSA higher than 1 (p = 0.19). Late toxicity was acceptable.
Conclusion
70% of biochemical control in 3 years can be achieved with salvage radiotherapy in selected patients. The importance of PSADT was confirmed in this study and radiotherapy should be started as early as possible. Longer follow up is necessary, but it is possible to conclude that a long interval free from hormonal therapy was achieved with low rate of toxicity avoiding or at least delaying several important adverse effects related to hormonal treatment.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-8
PMCID: PMC1820601  PMID: 17316430
9.  Preoperative external beam radiotherapy and reduced dose brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix: survival and pathological response 
Purpose
To evaluate the pathologic response of cervical carcinoma to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) and outcome.
Materials and methods
Between 1992 and 2001, 67 patients with cervical carcinoma were submitted to preoperative radiotherapy. Sixty-five patients were stage IIb. Preoperative treatment included 45 Gy EBRT and 12 Gy HDRB. Patients were submitted to surgery after a mean time of 82 days. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 81% of patients. Eleven patients with residual cervix residual disease on pathological specimen were submitted to 2 additional insertions of HDRB.
Results
median follow up was 72 months. Five-year cause specific survival was 75%, overall survival 65%, local control 95%. Complete pelvic pathological response was seen in 40%. Surgery performed later than 80 days was associated with pathological response. Pelvic nodal involvement was found in 12%. Complete pelvic pathological response and negative lymphnodes were associated with better outcome (p = .03 and p = .005). Late grade 3 and 4 urinary and intestinal adverse effects were seen in 12 and 2% of patients.
Conclusion
Time allowed between RT and surgery correlated with pathological response. Pelvic pathological response was associated with improved outcome. Postoperative additional HDRB did not improve therapeutic results. Treatment was well tolerated.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-9
PMCID: PMC1817645  PMID: 17316435
10.  Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in the postoperative treatment of an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium complicated by a pelvic kidney 
Background
Pelvic Radiotherapy (RT) as a postoperative treatment for endometrial cancer improves local regional control. Brachytherapy also improves vaginal control. Both treatments imply significant side effects that a fine RT technique can help avoiding. Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) enables the treatment of the target volume while protecting normal tissue. It therefore reduces the incidence and severity of side effects.
Case
We report on a 50 year-old patient with a serous-papiliferous adenocarcinoma of the uterus who was submitted to surgical treatment without lymph node sampling followed by Brachytherapy, and Chemotherapy. The patient had a pelvic kidney, and was therefore treated with IMRT.
So far, the patient has been free from relapse and with normal kidney function.
Conclusion
IMRT is a valid technique to prevent the kidney from radiation damage.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-1-44
PMCID: PMC1660561  PMID: 17116263
11.  Chemotherapy followed by low dose radiotherapy in childhood Hodgkin's disease: retrospective analysis of results and prognostic factors 
Purpose
To report the treatment results and prognostic factors of childhood patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with chemotherapy (CT) followed by low dose radiotherapy (RT).
Patients and methods
This retrospective series analyzed 166 patients under 18 years old, treated from January 1985 to December 2003. Median age was 10 years (range 2–18). The male to female ratio was 2,3 : 1. Lymphonode enlargement was the most frequent clinical manifestation (68%), and the time of symptom duration was less than 6 months in 55% of the patients. In histological analysis Nodular Sclerosis was the most prevalent type (48%) followed by Mixed Celularity (34.6%). The staging group according Ann Arbor classification was: I (11.7%), II (36.4%), III (32.1%) and IV (19.8%). The standard treatment consisted of chemotherapy multiple drug combination according the period of treatment protocols vigent: ABVD in 39% (n-65) of the cases, by VEEP in 13 %(n-22), MOPP in 13 %(n-22), OPPA-13 %(n-22) and ABVD/OPPA in 22 %(n-33). Radiotherapy was device to all areas of initial presentation of disease. Dose less or equal than 21 Gy was used in 90.2% of patients with most part of them (90%) by involved field (IFRT) or mantle field.
Results
The OS and EFS in 10 years were 89% and 87%. Survival according to clinical stage as 94.7%, 91.3%, 82.3% and 71% for stages I to IV(p = 0,005). The OS was in 91.3% of patients who received RT and in 72.6% of patients who did not (p = 0,003). Multivariate analysis showed presence of B symptoms, no radiotherapy and advanced clinical stage to be associated with a worse prognosis.
Conclusion
This data demonstrating the importance of RT consolidation with low dose and reduced volume, in all clinical stage of childhood HD, producing satisfactory ten years OS and EFS. As the disease is highly curable, any data of long term follow-up should be presented in order to better direct therapy, and to identify groups of patients who would not benefit from radiation treatment.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-1-38
PMCID: PMC1592540  PMID: 17014708
12.  High-risk surgical stage 1 endometrial cancer: analysis of treatment outcome 
Purpose
To report the relapse and survival rates associated to treatment for patients with stage IC, grade 2 or grade 3 and IB grade 3 diseases considered high risk patients group for relapse.
Materials and methods
From January 1993 to December 2003, 106 patients with endometrial cancer stage I were managed surgically in our institution. Based on data from the medical records, 106 patients with epithelial endometrial cancer met the following inclusion criteria: stage IC grade 2 or 3 and IB grade 3 with or without lymphovascular invasion. Staging was defined according to the FIGO surgical staging system. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy consisted of external beam pelvic radiation, vaginal brachytherapy alone or both. The median age was 65 years (range, 32–83 years), lymph node dissection was performed in 45 patients (42.5%) and 14 patients (13.2%) received vaginal brachytherapy only, and 92 (86.8%) received combined vaginal brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. The median dose of external beam radiotherapy administered to the pelvis was 4500 cGy (range 4000 – 5040). The median dose to vaginal surface was 2400 cGy (range 2000 – 3000). Predominant pathological stage and histological grade were IC (73.6%) and grade 3 (51.9%). The lymphovascular invasion was present in 33 patients (31.1%) and pathological stage IC grade 2 was most common (48. 1%) combination of risk factors in this group.
Results
With a follow up median of 58.3 months (range 12.8 – 154), five year overall survival and event free survival were 78.5% and 72.4%, respectively. Locoregional control in five year was 92.4%. Prognostic factors related with survival in univariate analyses were: lymphadenectomy (p = 0.045), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.047) and initial failure site (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analyses the initial failure in distant sites (p < 0.0001) was the only factor associated with poor survival. Acute and chronic gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity grades 3 were not observed.
Conclusion
In conclusion, our results showed that the stage IC, grade 2, 3 and IB grade 3 endometrial cancer was associated with significantly increased risk of distant relapse and endometrial carcinoma-related death independently of salvage treatment modality.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-1-24
PMCID: PMC1555589  PMID: 16887018
13.  Whole brain radiation therapy in management of brain metastasis: results and prognostic factors 
Purpose
To evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and estimate the potential improvement in survival for patients with brain metastases, stratified by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class.
Patients and methods
From January 1996 to December 2000, 270 medical records of patients with diagnosis of brain metastasis, who received WBRT in the Hospital do Cancer Sao Paulo A.C. Camargo in the period, were analyzed. The surgery followed by WBRT was used in 15% of patients and 85 % of others patients were submitted at WBRT alone; in this cohort 134 patients (50%) received the fractionation schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The most common primary tumor type was breast (33%) followed by lung (29%), and solitary brain metastasis was present in 38.1% of patients. The prognostic factors evaluated for overall survival were: gender, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), number of lesions, localization of lesions, primary tumor site, surgery, chemotherapy, absence extracranial disease, RPA class and radiation doses and fractionation.
Results
The OS in 1, 2 and 3 years was 25, 1%, 10, 4% e 4, 3% respectively, and the median survival time was 4.6 months. The median survival time in months according to RPA class after WBRT was: 6.2 class I, 4.2 class II and 3.0 class III (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, the significant prognostic factors associated with better survival were: KPS higher than 70 (p < 0.0001), neurosurgery (p < 0.0001) and solitary brain metastasis (p = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, KPS higher than 70 (p < 0.001) and neurosurgery (p = 0.001) maintained positively associated with the survival.
Conclusion
In this series, the patients with higher perform status, RPA class I, and treated with surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy had better survival.
This data suggest that patients with cancer and a single metastasis to the brain may be treated effectively with surgical resection plus radiotherapy. The different radiotherapy doses and fractionation schedules did not altered survival.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-1-20
PMCID: PMC1526744  PMID: 16808850

Results 1-13 (13)