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1.  Results of a survey by the European Society of Radiology (ESR): undergraduate radiology education in Europe—influences of a modern teaching approach 
Insights into Imaging  2012;3(2):121-130.
The purpose of the present study is to determine in what way a conventional versus a modern medical curriculum influences teaching delivery in formal radiology education.
A web-based questionnaire was distributed by the ESR to radiology teaching staff from 93 European teaching institutions.
Early exposure to radiology in pre-clinical years is typically reported in institutions with a modern curriculum. The average number of teaching hours related to radiology is similar in both curriculum types (60 h). Radiology in modern curricula is mainly taught by radiologists, radiology trainees (50%), radiographers (20%) or clinicians (17%). Mandatory clerkships are pertinent to modern curricula (55% vs. 41% conventional curriculum), which start in the first (13% vs. 4% conventional curriculum) or second year of the training (9% vs. 2% conventional curriculum). The common core in both curricula consists of radiology examinations, to work with radiology teaching files, to attend radiology conferences, and to participate in multidisciplinary meetings.
The influence of a modern curriculum on the formal radiology teaching is visible in terms of earlier exposure to radiology, involvement of a wider range of staff grades and range of profession involved in teaching, and radiology clerkships with more active and integrated tasks.
Main Message
• This study looks at differences in the nature of formal radiology teaching.
PMCID: PMC3314734  PMID: 22696038
Radiology; Teaching; Undergraduate
2.  Computed tomographic analysis of the quality of trunk muscles in asymptomatic and symptomatic lumbar discectomy patients 
No consensus exists on how rehabilitation programs for lumbar discectomy patients with persistent complaints after surgery should be composed. A better understanding of normal and abnormal postoperative trunk muscle condition might help direct the treatment goals.
A three-dimensional CT scan of the lumbar spine was obtained in 18 symptomatic and 18 asymptomatic patients who had undergone a lumbar discectomy 42 months to 83 months (median 63 months) previously. The psoas muscle (PS), the paraspinal muscle mass (PA) and the multifidus muscle (MF) were outlined at the L3, L4 and L5 level. Of these muscles, fat free Cross Sectional Area (CSA) and fat CSA were determined. CSA of the lumbar erector spinae (LES = longissimus thoracis + iliocostalis lumborum) was calculated by subtracting MF CSA from PA CSA. Mean muscle CSA of the left and right sides was calculated at each level. To normalize the data for interpersonal comparison, the mean CSA was divided by the CSA of the L3 vertebral body (mCSA = normalized fat-free muscle CSA; fCSA = normalized fat CSA). Differences in CSA between the pain group and the pain free group were examined using a General Linear Model (GLM). Three levels were examined to investigate the possible role of the level of operation.
In lumbar discectomy patients with pain, the mCSA of the MF was significantly smaller than in pain-free subjects (p = 0.009) independently of the level. The mCSA of the LES was significantly smaller in pain patients, but only on the L3 slice (p = 0.018). No significant difference in mCSA of the PS was found between pain patients and pain-free patients (p = 0.462). The fCSA of the MF (p = 0.186) and of the LES (p = 0.256) were not significantly different between both populations. However, the fCSA of the PS was significantly larger in pain patients than in pain-free patients. (p = 0.012).
The level of operation was never a significant factor.
CT comparison of MF, LES and PS muscle condition between lumbar discectomy patients without pain and patients with protracted postoperative pain showed a smaller fat-free muscle CSA of the MF at all levels examined, a smaller fat- free muscle CSA of the LES at the L3 level, and more fat in the PS in patients with pain. The level of operation was not found to be of importance. The present results suggest a general lumbar muscle dysfunction in the pain group, in particular of the deep stabilizing muscle system.
PMCID: PMC3079706  PMID: 21453531
3.  Extracorporeally irradiated autografts in pelvic reconstruction after malignant tumour resection 
International Orthopaedics  2002;26(3):174-178.
We treated 15 patients suffering from an extracompartmental malignant pelvic tumour by resecting the affected part of the bone, irradiating it extracorporeally with 300 Gy, and reimplanting it after having removed the bulk of the lesion. Adjuvant therapies were used according to the type and extension of the tumour. Follow-up was an average of 4 years 6 months. Complications were seen in 13 patients. Most mechanical complications were related to the use of hip arthroplasties. Internal fixation of the graft failed in one case only, infection was seen in three cases, and seven patients died after local recurrence. Functional scores were fair. Although many complications were seen, this method remains our treatment of choice.
PMCID: PMC3620882  PMID: 12073112

Results 1-3 (3)