To identify socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with having cortical, nuclear, posterior sub-capsular (PSC), and mixed lens opacities.
Population-based, cross-sectional study
Five thousand nine hundred forty-five Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California.
Participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and slit-lamp assessment of lens opacities using the Lens Opacities Classification System II. Univariate and stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors associated with each type of lens opacity.
Main Outcome Measures
Odds ratios for socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with cortical only, nuclear only, PSC only, and mixed lens opacities.
Of the 5945 participants with gradable lenses, 468 had cortical only lens opacities, 217 had nuclear only lens opacities, 27 had PSC only opacities, and 364 had mixed lens opacities. Older age, higher hemoglobin A1c, and history of diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for cortical only lens opacities. Older age, smoking, and myopic refractive error were independent risk factors for nuclear only lens opacities. Higher systolic blood pressure and history of diabetes were independent risk factors for posterior sub-capsular lens opacities. Older age, myopic refractive error, history of diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, female gender, and presence of large drusen were independent risk factors for mixed lens opacities.
The modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors identified in this study provide insight into the mechanisms related to the development of lens opacification. Improved glycemic control, smoking cessation and prevention, and blood pressure control may help to reduce the risk of having lens opacities and their associated vision loss.