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1.  Developmental programming for allergy: a secondary analysis of the Mothers, Omega-3, & Mental Health Study 
Objective
Fetal dysregulation of T helper (Th) cell pathways may predispose to allergy, as high cord blood Th2/Th1 ratios have been shown to precede development of allergic diseases. We aimed to determine whether prenatal eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation reduces Th2 to Th1-associated chemokine ratios. We also explored the effect of mode of delivery on Th2/Th1 ratios.
Study design
We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized placebo controlled trial initially performed to assess the effects of DHA or EPA supplementation on pregnancy-related depressive symptoms among 126 participants. Cord plasma specimens from 98 newborns were assayed for chemokines associated with Th2 [TARC (CCL17), MDC (CCL22), Eotaxin (CCL 11)] and Th1 [IP10 (CXCL 10)] by ELISA and Multiplex immunoassays. Ratios of log-transformed chemokines MDC/IP10 and TARC/IP10 were compared between groups by ANOVA. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine associations between treatments and chemokine ratios, adjusting for covariates.
Results
After adjusting for gestational age at delivery, birth weight and mode of delivery, both omega-3 supplementation groups were associated with lower MDC/IP10 ratios than placebo [EPA: coefficient −1.8 (95% CI −3.6, −0.05), p=0.04; DHA: −2.0 (95% CI −3.9, −0.07), p=0.04]. Similar associations were found for TARC/IP10 [EPA: −1.5 (95% CI −3.0 0.06), p=0.06; DHA −2.2 (95% CI −3.8,−0.52), p=0.01]. Cesarean delivery was associated with higher MDC/IP10 [1.6 (95% CI 0.01, 3.3), p=0.049] and TARC/IP10 [1.5, (95%CI 0.1, 2.9), p=0.042] ratios than vaginal delivery.
Conclusions
Prenatal supplementation with EPA and DHA resulted in decreased cord blood Th2/Th1 chemokine ratios. Cesarean delivery was associated with a pronounced Th2 deviation at birth.
doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.01.024
PMCID: PMC3610088  PMID: 23531329
fetal; programming; chemokines; allergy; omega-3
2.  Sex Differences in Subclinical Atherosclerosis by Race/Ethnicity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2011;174(2):165-172.
Sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality are more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, but it is unknown whether this variation is present in the earlier subclinical stages of disease. The authors examined racial/ethnic variation in sex differences in coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intimal media thickness at baseline in 2000–2002 among participants (n = 6,726) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using binomial and linear regression. Models adjusted for risk factors in several stages: age, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioral risk factors, psychosocial factors, and adult socioeconomic position. Women had a lower prevalence of any CAC and smaller amounts of CAC when present than men in all racial/ethnic groups. Sex differences in the prevalence of CAC were more pronounced in non-Hispanic whites than in African Americans and Chinese Americans after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, and further adjustment for behavioral factors, psychosocial factors, and socioeconomic position did not modify these results (for race/sex, Pinteraction = 0.047). Similar patterns were observed for amount of CAC among adults with CAC. Racial/ethnic variation in sex differences for carotid intimal media thickness was less pronounced. In conclusion, coronary artery calcification is differentially patterned by sex across racial/ethnic groups.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwr088
PMCID: PMC3167681  PMID: 21685409
calcification, physiologic; continental population groups; coronary vessels; sex; social class

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