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1.  Anaesthetic Management of a Case of Down’s Syndrome with Achalasia Cardia 
Achalasia cardia is a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by dilatation of the oesophagus and collection of food and fluids in the oesophagus leading to massive regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Down’s syndrome has multisystem effects which can also present as difficult airway. Here, we present a case of a 14-year-old girl, a case of Down’s syndrome with Achalasia cardia and mitral valve prolapse posted for Heller’s cardiomyotomy. Anaesthetic concerns were difficult airway due to Downs’s syndrome, massive aspiration risks of Achalasia cardia and haemodynamic instability due to mitral regurgitation. In spite of proper preparation of the patient there was massive regurgitation of oesophageal contents during intubation which was managed successfully. Haemodynamic changes due to mitral valve prolapse also had to be taken care of during the intraoperative period. Postoperative period was uneventful and the child was discharged after one week.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/21986.8616
PMCID: PMC5121765  PMID: 27891427
Aspiration; Heller’s cardiomyotomy; Mitral valve prolapse
2.  Anaesthesia for non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2016;60(4):234-241.
Non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy posts additional concerns to anaesthesiologists. The chief goals are to preserve maternal safety, maintain the pregnant state and achieve the best possible foetal outcome. The choice of anaesthetic technique and the selection of appropriate anaesthetic drugs should be guided by indication for surgery, nature, and site of the surgical procedure. Anaesthesiologist must consider the effects of the disease process itself and inhibit uterine contractions and avoid preterm labour and delivery. Foetal safety requires avoidance of potentially dangerous drugs and assurance of continuation of adequate uteroplacental perfusion. Until date, no anaesthetic drug has been shown to be clearly dangerous to the human foetus. The decision on proceeding with surgery should be made by multidisciplinary team involving anaesthesiologists, obstetricians, surgeons and perinatologists. This review describes the general anaesthetic principles, concerns regarding anaesthetic drugs and outlines some specific conditions of non-obstetric surgeries.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.179445
PMCID: PMC4840802  PMID: 27141105
Anaesthesia; foetal development; non-obstetric surgery; pregnancy; teratogenicity
3.  Six percent hetastarch versus lactated Ringer's solution – for preloading before spinal anesthesia for cesarean section 
Background:
Regional anesthesia has been the choice of preference for elective cesarean sections. This study was designed to determine whether preoperative administration of 6% hetastarch decreases the incidence of hypotension.
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted on 50 nonlaboring American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II women undergoing elective cesarean section. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and were preloaded either with 1000 ml Ringer's lactate (RL) or 500 ml of 6% hetastarch 30 min prior to the surgery. Spinal anesthesia was performed with patients in the left lateral position and 2 cc (10 mg) of 0.5% of bupivacaine injected into subarachnoid space. Hemodynamic variables (heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and SpO2) were recorded from prior to preloading until the recovery from the subarachnoid blockade.
Results:
Our study showed the incidence of hypotension to be 28% in the hetastarch group and 80% in the RL group. Rescue ephedrine requirements for the treatment of hypotension were significantly less in patients who were preloaded with 6% hetastarch prior to cesarean section. The neonatal outcome, as determined by Apgar scores was good and similar in both groups.
Conclusion:
Hence, we conclude that 6% hydroxyl ethyl starch is more effective than lactated Ringers solution and that its routine use for preloading prior to spinal anesthesia should be considered.
doi:10.4103/0259-1162.164729
PMCID: PMC4767097  PMID: 26957687
Cesarean; preloading; spinal
4.  A randomized controlled study comparing intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture and isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture in common urological procedures 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2016;60(1):44-49.
Background and Aims:
Bupivacaine is available in isobaric and hyperbaric forms for intrathecal use and opioids are used as additives to modify their effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and haemodynamic effect of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture and hyperbaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture in common urological procedures.
Methods:
One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing urological procedures were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received 3 ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl while Group 2 received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 25 μg fentanyl. The parameters measured include heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, onset and duration of motor and sensory blockade. Student's unpaired t-test and the χ2 test were used to analyse the results, using the SPSS version 11.5 software.
Results:
The haemodynamic stability was better with isobaric bupivacaine fentanyl mixture (Group 1) than with hyperbaric bupivacaine fentanyl mixture (Group 2). The mean onset time in Group 1 for both sensory block (4 min) and motor block (5 min) was longer compared with Group 2. The duration of sensory block (127.8 ± 38.64 min) and motor block (170.4 ± 27.8 min) was less with isobaric bupivacaine group compared with hyperbaric bupivacaine group (sensory blockade 185.4 ± 16.08 min and motor blockade 201.6 ± 14.28 min). Seventy percent of patients in Group 2 had maximum sensory block level of T6 whereas it was 53% in Group 1. More patients in Group 1 required sedation compared to Group 2.
Conclusion:
Isobaric bupivacaine fentanyl mixture was found to provide adequate anaesthesia with minimal incidence of haemodynamic instability.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.174813
PMCID: PMC4782423  PMID: 26962255
Bupivacaine; fentanyl; hyperbaric; isobaric; spinal anaesthesia
5.  A prospective randomized controlled study comparing intrathecal bupivacaine combined with fentanyl and sufentanil in abdominal and lower limb surgeries 
Background:
Hyperbaric bupivacaine along with either fentanyl or sufentanil as additive, has been widely used in spinal anesthesia. In the present study, we compared the analgesic effects of intrathecal fentanyl versus sufentanil combined with bupivacaine for surgical procedures over the abdomen and lower limbs.
Settings and Design:
This was randomized controlled study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical school.
Methods:
Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients were randomized into three groups by sealed envelope technique. Group 1 was to receive bupivacaine with fentanyl; group 2 to receive bupivacaine with sufentanil and group 3 to receive bupivacaine with saline (control), intrathecally. The parameters checked were hemodynamic changes, onset and duration of sensory block, duration of analgesia and maximal sensory level achieved.
Statistical Analysis:
The data collected were analyzed using χ2 test and paired Student's t-test.
Results:
The time taken for the onset of analgesia was longest in the control group followed by fentanyl group. The earliest onset of action of 9.35 ± 1.92 min was recorded in sufentanil group. Duration of sensory blockade and analgesia was longest for fentanyl group than the other groups. Adverse effects noted were more for sufentanil group but were self-limiting.
Conclusion:
Fentanyl with bupivacaine produced prolonged analgesia and delayed two-segment regression and demonstrated reduced incidence of complications as compared with intrathecal sufentanil. As the quality of analgesia was complete and comparable, fentanyl emerges as a better option for analgesia and it is much economical too when compared to sufentanil.
doi:10.4103/0259-1162.156287
PMCID: PMC4563967  PMID: 26417119
Bupivacaine; fentanyl; sufentanil
6.  Comparison of efficacy and safety of ropivacaine with bupivacaine for intrathecal anesthesia for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries 
Background:
A prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to study the efficacy and safety of ropivacaine with bupivacaine intrathecally for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries.
Material and Methods:
70 patients aged between 18 to 65 years were randomized into two groups, n = 35 in each group. Group A received 3 ml of (0.5%) isobaric bupivacaine (15 mg) and Group B 3 ml of (0.75%) isobaric ropivacaine (22.5 mg). Spinal anesthesia procedure was standardized. Haemodynamic parameters, onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, level achieved, regression and side effects were compared between the two groups.
Results:
Onset and regression of sensory blockade in ropivacaine group was faster with a P < 0.001 which was statistically significant. Onset of motor blockade was rapid in both the groups but duration of motor blockade was significantly shorter in ropivacaine group. Excellent analgesia, with no side effects and stable haemodynamics was noted in ropivacaine group.
Conclusion:
Hence ropivacaine was safe and equally effective as bupivacaine for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries with early motor recovery, providing early ambulation.
doi:10.4103/0259-1162.123252
PMCID: PMC4173549  PMID: 25885988
Intrathecal ropivacaine; lower abdominal; lower limb surgeries
8.  Comparison of the use of McCoy and TruView EVO2 laryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine immobilization 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(3):248-253.
Context:
The cervical spine has to be stabilized in patients with suspected cervical spine injury during laryngoscopy and intubation by manual in-line axial stabilization. This has the propensity to increase the difficulty of intubation. An attempt has been made to compare TruView EVO2 and McCoy with cervical spine immobilization, which will aid the clinician in choosing an appropriate device for securing the airway with an endotracheal tube (ETT) in the clinical scenario of trauma.
Aims:
To compare the effectiveness of TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilization using manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilization.
Settings and design:
K. M. C. Hospital, Mangalore, This was a randomized control clinical trial.
Methods:
Sixty adult patients of either sex of ASA physical status 1 and 2 who were scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were studied. Comparison of intubation difficulty score (IDS), hemodynamic response, Cormack and Lehane grade, duration of the tracheal intubation and rate of successful placement of the ETT in the trachea between TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes was performed.
Results:
The results demonstrated that TruView has a statistically significant less IDS of 0.33 compared with an IDS of 1.2 for McCoy. TruView also had a better Cormack and Lehane glottic view (CL 1 of 77% versus 40%) and less hemodynamic response.
Conclusions:
The TruView blade is a useful option for tracheal intubation in patients with suspected cervical spine injury.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.101216
PMCID: PMC3498663  PMID: 23162398
Cervical spine injury; manual in-line axial stabilization; McCoy laryngoscopes; tracheal intubation; TruView EVO2
9.  A comparison of hypotension and bradycardia following spinal anesthesia in patients on calcium channel blockers and β-blockers 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(2):193-196.
Objectives:
Hypotension is a common complication of spinal anesthesia and is frequent in patients with hypertension. Antihypertensive agents decrease this effect by controlling blood pressure. There are conflicting reports on the continuation of antihypertensive drugs on the day of surgery in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Sudden hypotension could have detrimental effect on the organ systems. This study was undertaken to compare the variation in blood pressure in hypertensive patients on β-blockers and calcium channel blockers undergoing spinal anesthesia.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety patients were enrolled for the study, 30 each in the control, β-blocker and the calcium channel blocker groups.
Results:
The incidence of hypotension was not different among the three groups. However, the number of times mephentermine used to treat hypotension was significant in the patients receiving calcium channel blockers while incidence of bradycardia in patients treated with β-blockers was significant (P<0.001).
Conclusion:
The incidence of hypotension following spinal anesthesia is not different in patients receiving β-blockers and calcium channel blockers among the three groups.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.93847
PMCID: PMC3326911  PMID: 22529474
β-blockers; calcium channel blockers; hypotension; spinal anesthesia
10.  Comparative evaluation of midazolam and butorphanol as oral premedication in pediatric patients 
Background:
To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with oral butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) as a premedication in 60 pediatric patients with regards to sedation, anxiolysis, rescue analgesic requirement, and recovery profile.
Materials and Methods:
In a double blinded study design, 60 pediatric patients belonging to ASA class I and II between the age group of 2–12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomized to receive either oral midazolam (group I) or oral butorphanol (group II) 30 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of facemask application for induction of anesthesia. Rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative recovery, and complications were also recorded.
Results:
Butorphanol had better sedation potential than oral midazolam with comparable anxiolysis at the time of separation of children from their parents. Midazolam proved to be a better anxiolytic during venepuncture and facemask application. Butorphanol reduced need for supplemental analgesics perioperatively without an increase in side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or unpleasant postoperative recovery.
Conclusion:
Oral butorphanol is a better premedication than midazolam in children in view of its excellent sedative and analgesic properties. It does not increase side effects significantly.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.92431
PMCID: PMC3275967  PMID: 22345942
Anxiolysis; oral midazolam; oral butorphanol; premedication; pediatric anesthesia; sedation
11.  A comparison of midazolam and clonidine as an oral premedication in pediatric patients 
Background:
To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) versus oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) as a premedication in pediatric patients aged between 2-12 years with regard to sedation and anxiolysis.
Methods:
Sixty pediatric patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive either oral midazolam (group I) 30 min before induction or oral clonidine (group II) 90 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of mask application for induction of anesthesia.
Results:
After premedication, the percentage of children who were sedated and calm increased in both the groups. The overall level of sedation was better in the children in the clonidine group, but children in the midazolam group had a greater degree of anxiolysis at times of venepuncture and mask application. In addition, midazolam did not cause significant changes in hemodynamics unlike clonidine where a significant fall in blood pressure was noted, after premedication, but preinduction.
Conclusion:
We conclude that under the conditions of the study, oral midazolam is superior to clonidine as an anxiolytic in pediatric population. Clonidine with its sedative action especially at the time of separation from parents along with its other perioperative benefits cannot be discounted.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.93045
PMCID: PMC3299128  PMID: 22412769
Anxiolysis; oral clonidine; oral midazolam; pediatric anesthesia; premedication; sedation
12.  Submental intubation in patients with panfacial fractures: A prospective study 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;55(3):299-304.
Submental intubation is an interesting alternative to tracheostomy, especially when short-term postoperative control of airway is desirable with the presence of undisturbed access to oral as well as nasal airways and a good dental occlusion. Submental intubation with midline incision has been used in 10 cases from October 2008 to March 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. All patients had fractures of the jaws disturbing the dental occlusion associated with fracture of the base of the skull, or/and a displaced nasal bone fracture. After standard orotracheal intubation, a passage was created by blunt dissection with a haemostat clamp through the floor of the mouth in the submental area. The proximal end of the orotracheal tube was pulled through the submental incision. Surgery was completed without interference from the endotracheal tube. At the end of surgery, the tube was pulled back to the usual oral route. There were no perioperative complications related to the submental intubation procedure. Average duration of the procedure was less than 6 minutes. Submental intubation is a simple technique associated with low rates of morbidity. It is an attractive alternative to tracheotomy in the surgical management of selected cases of panfacial trauma.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.82685
PMCID: PMC3141161  PMID: 21808409
Airway management; panfacial fractures; submental intubation

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