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1.  Internet-delivered therapist-guided physical activity for mild to moderate depression: a randomized controlled trial 
PeerJ  2013;1:e178.
Objective. The main hypothesis, and the objective of the study, was to test if the participants allocated to the treatment group would show a larger reduction in depressive symptoms than those in the control group.
Methods. This study was a randomized nine week trial of an Internet-administered treatment based on guided physical exercise for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A total of 48 participants with mild to moderate depression, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, were randomized either to a treatment intervention or to a waiting-list control group. The main outcome measure for depression was the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The treatment program consisted of nine text modules, and included therapist guidance on a weekly basis.
Results. The results showed significant reductions of depressive symptoms in the treatment group compared to the control group, with a moderate between-group effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.67; 95% confidence interval: 0.09–1.25). No difference was found between the groups with regards to increase of physical activity level. For the treatment group, the reduction in depressive symptoms persisted at six months follow-up.
Conclusions. Physical activity as a treatment for depression can be delivered in the form of guided Internet-based self-help.
Trial Registration. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01573130).
doi:10.7717/peerj.178
PMCID: PMC3792189  PMID: 24109561
Physical activity; Depression; Internet; Psychotherapy; Treatment; RCT
2.  Reasons for Consulting a Doctor on the Internet: Web Survey of Users of an Ask the Doctor Service 
Background
In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters.
Objective
To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet.
Methods
Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) and 2586 (71%) women, was conducted. We excluded 186 queries from users. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to the question "Why did you choose to ask a question at Infomedica's 'Ask the Doctor' service?"
Results
1223 surveys were completed (response rate 34%). Of the participants in the survey 322 (26%) were male and 901 (74%) female. As major reasons for choosing to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet participants indicated: convenience (52%), anonymity (36%), "doctors too busy" (21%), difficult to find time to visit a doctor (16%), difficulty to get an appointment (13%), feeling uncomfortable when seeing a doctor (9%), and not being able to afford a doctors' visit (3%). Further motives elicited through a qualitative analysis of free-text answers were: seeking a second opinion, discontent with previous doctors and a wish for a primary evaluation of a medical problem, asking embarrassing or sensitive questions, seeking information on behalf of relatives, preferring written communication, and (from responses by expatriates, travelers, and others) living far away from regular health care.
Conclusions
We found that an Internet based Ask the Doctor service is primarily consulted because it is convenient, but it may also be of value for individuals with needs that regular health care services have not been able to meet.
doi:10.2196/jmir.5.4.e26
PMCID: PMC1550573  PMID: 14713654
Internet; remote consultation; physician-patient relations; access to information; information services; anonyms and pseudonyms
3.  Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled study with focus on pelvic floor muscle training 
Bju International  2013;112(3):362-372.
What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10–35% of women, and it is sometimes very distressful. Pelvic floor exercises are the first line of treatment, but access barriers or embarrassment may prevent women from seeking help. There is a need for new, simple, and effective ways to deliver treatment.Management of SUI without face-to-face contact is possible, and Internet-based treatment is a new, promising treatment alternative.
Objective
To compare two treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post.
Patients and Methods
Randomised, controlled trial conducted in Sweden 2009–2011. Computer-generated block-randomisation, allocation by independent administrator. No ‘blinding’.The study included 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years, with SUI ≥1 time/week. Consecutive online recruitment.The women had 3 months of either; (i) An Internet-based treatment programme (124 women), including e-mail support and cognitive behavioural therapy assignments or (ii) A treatment programme sent by post (126). Both programmes focused mainly on pelvic floor muscle training.Primary outcomes: symptom-score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, ICIQ-UI SF) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life, ICIQ-LUTSQoL). Secondary outcomes: (i) Patient Global Impression of Improvement, (ii) Incontinence aids, (iii) Patient satisfaction, (iv) Health-specific QoL (EQ5D-Visual Analogue Scale), and (v) Incontinence episode frequency. Follow-up after 4 months via self-assessed postal questionnaires.
Results
In all, 12% (30 women) were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed highly significant improvements (P < 0.001) with large effect sizes (>0.8) with both interventions, but there were no significant differences between groups in primary outcomes. The mean (sd) changes in symptom-score were: Internet 3.4 (3.4), Postal 2.9 (3.1) (P = 0.27). The mean (sd) changes in condition-specific QoL were: Internet 4.8 (6.1), Postal 4.6 (6.7) (P = 0.52).Compared with the postal-group, more participants in the Internet-group perceived they were much or very much improved (40.9% (43/105) vs 26.5% (30/113), P = 0.01), reported reduced usage of incontinence aids (59.5% (47/79) vs 41.4% (34/82), P = 0.02) and were satisfied with the treatment programme (84.8% (89/105) vs 62.9% (71/113), P < 0.001).Health-specific QoL improved in the Internet-group (mean change 3.7 (10.9), P = 0.001), but not in the postal-group (1.9 (13.0), P = 0.13).Overall, 69.8% (120/172) of participants reported complete lack of leakage or reduced number of leakage episodes by >50%.
Conclusions
Concerning primary outcomes, treatment effects were similar between groups whereas for secondary outcomes the Internet-based treatment was more effective.Internet-based treatment for SUI is a new, promising treatment alternative.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11713.x
PMCID: PMC3798106  PMID: 23350826
stress urinary incontinence; randomised controlled study; Internet; pelvic floor muscle training; self-management; cognitive behavioural therapy

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