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2.  Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains Are Difficult To Select in the Absence of AcrB and TolC 
It has been proposed that lack of a functional efflux system(s) will lead to a lower frequency of selection of resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. We constructed five strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 that lacked efflux gene components of resistance nodulation cell division pumps (acrB, acrD, acrF, acrBacrF, and tolC) plus three strains that lack genes that effect efflux gene expression (marA, soxS, and ramA) and a hypermutable strain (mutS::aph). Strains were exposed to ciprofloxacin at 2× the MIC in agar, in the presence and absence of Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, an efflux pump inhibitor. Mutants were selected from all strains except those lacking acrB, tolC, or acrBacrF. For strains from which mutants were selected, there were no significant differences between the frequencies of resistance. Except for mutants of the ramA::aph strain, two phenotypes arose: resistance to quinolones only and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR). ramA::aph mutants were resistant to quinolones only, suggesting a role for ramA in MAR in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (20 μg/ml) had no effect on the frequencies of resistance or ciprofloxacin MICs. In conclusion, functional AcrB and TolC in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium are important for the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.1.38-42.2006
PMCID: PMC1346778  PMID: 16377664
3.  Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) and peak bone mass: association between intragenic polymorphisms and quantitative ultrasound of the heel 
Background
Variance of peak bone mass has a substantial genetic component, as has been shown with twin studies examining quantitative measures such as bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Evidence implicating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) gene is steadily accumulating. However, a comprehensive look at multiple SNPs at this locus for their association with indices of peak bone mass has not been reported.
Methods
A cohort of 653 healthy Caucasian females 18 to 35 years old was genotyped for seven TGFB1 SNPs. Polymorphisms were detected by restriction endonuclease digestion of amplified DNA segments.
Results
The frequencies of the least common allele at G-800A, C-509T, codon 10 (L10P), codon 25 (R25P), codon 263 (T263I), C861-20T, and 713-8 delC loci were 0.07, 0.33, 0.41, 0.08, 0.04, 0.25 and 0.01, respectively. A significant association was seen between QUS Stiffness Index (QUS-SI) and the SNP at codon 10 and the linked promoter SNP, C-509T. This association remained significant after multiple regression was used to incorporate important clinical covariates – age, BMI, level of activity, family history, and caffeine intake – into the model.
Conclusion
The association of QUS-SI with -509T is consistent with a gene-dose effect, while only individuals homozygous for the codon 10P allele showed a significant increase. In this cohort of young healthy Caucasian females, the T allele at position -509 is associated with greater bone mass as measured by calcaneal ultrasound.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-29
PMCID: PMC1182375  PMID: 15955247

Results 1-3 (3)