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BMJ : British Medical Journal (1)
British Heart Journal (1)
Crombie, I K (1)
Crombie, I. K. (1)
Gulland, S. K. (1)
Kenicer, M B (1)
Smith, W C (1)
Smith, W. C. (1)
Tavendale, R. T. (1)
Tunstall-Pedoe, H D (1)
Tunstall-Pedoe, H. D. (1)
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Unemployment, socioenvironmental factors, and coronary heart disease in Scotland.
Crombie, I K
Kenicer, M B
Smith, W C
British Heart Journal
Scotland, which has one of the highest death rates in the world from coronary heart disease, also has considerable regional variation in mortality from this cause. The relation between standardised mortality ratios for coronary deaths (1979-83) for 56 local government districts and a range of socioeconomic factors from the 1981 Census as well as climatic factors and water hardness were investigated. Strong associations were seen with several measures of social disadvantage, the strongest being with percentage of male unemployment. A fitted multiple regression model with mortality from coronary heart disease in men found independent effects of two social variables (percentage male unemployment and percentage social class III-V) and one climatic factor (rainfall). The model explained much (73%) of the geographical variation in mortality from coronary heart disease, but part of the geographical pattern, in particular some of the east-west gradient in mortality, remained unexplained by it. Explanations for the geographical variation and the association with economic factors are currently being sought in terms of individual risk factors in a large screening study, the Scottish Heart Health Study.
Urinary electrolyte excretion, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in the Scottish heart health study.
Smith, W. C.
Crombie, I. K.
Tavendale, R. T.
Gulland, S. K.
BMJ : British Medical Journal
As part of a study of risk factors for coronary heart disease 24 hour urine collections were obtained from 7354 men and women aged 40-59 selected at random from 22 districts throughout Scotland (Scottish heart health study). The mean of two standardised measurements of blood pressure was related to the reported consumption of alcohol and measurements of height, weight, pulse rate, and electrolyte excretion. Several significant correlations were found with both systolic and diastolic pressure, but only the coefficients for age, body mass index, and pulse rate were greater than 0.1. Alcohol consumption showed a weak positive correlation with blood pressure in men. Sodium excretion showed a weak positive correlation with blood pressure in both sexes, and potassium excretion showed weak negative correlations. In multiple regression analysis age, pulse rate, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and potassium excretion had significant independent effects but sodium excretion did not. Although measuring blood pressure twice on one occasion and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion only once may have weakened any potential correlation, the most likely explantation of these results is that the relation between sodium and blood pressure in the population is weak and that potassium and alcohol are of greater importance.
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