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1.  Genes Expressed in Dental Enamel Development Are Associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization 
Archives of oral biology  2013;58(10):1434-1442.
Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06–1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e–012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98–56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH.
PMCID: PMC3769477  PMID: 23790503
Dental Enamel; Amelogenesis; Dental Enamel Hypoplasia; Dental Caries; Dental Caries Susceptibility
2.  What is the Best Root Surface Treatment for Avulsed Teeth? 
The Open Dentistry Journal  2014;8:175-179.
Dental avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic tooth injuries since it causes damage to several structures and results in avulsion of the tooth from its socket. Management protocols for avulsed teeth should include management of the pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in order to improve the long-term prognosis and survival of these teeth. The prognosis of the treatment as well as the survival of an avulsed tooth depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as the duration of the tooth’s extra-alveolar period, replantation time, the type of storage medium, PDL status and duration of splinting.
Recent research has led to the development of storage media. However, there is not yet a single solution that fulfills all requirements to be considered as the ideal medium for temporary storage of avulsed teeth, and research on this field should carry on. On the other hand in case of delayed replantation, due to the great risk of tooth loss after avulsion, different root surface treatments have been proposed to prevent and delay root resorption before replantation. For this purpose, researchers have applied some different root surface treatment modalities in delayed replantation of avulsed teeth. Several protocols have been used to maintain PDL viability; some involve fluorides, steroids, sodium alendronate, enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2). Among these applications, bFGF shows promising results in the regeneration of natural tooth structures and tissues. Better understanding of mechanism of bFGF may help to improve new technologies of regeneration of tooth structures.
PMCID: PMC4192837  PMID: 25317212
Avulsion; dental trauma; replantation; root surface treatment; storage media; survival rate.
3.  Clinical and radiological evaluation of inverse impaction of supernumerary teeth 
Objective: To describe the clinical and radiological features of children with inverted supernumerary teeth. Study Design: Thirty eight patients with inverted supernumerary teeth (ST) were enrolled in this descriptive and restrospective study. Data from patient records including age, gender, status of dentition, number of ST, number of ST in inverted position, coexistence of ST in inverted and normal direction of eruption, location, orientation, morphology, clinical complications, management and radiography were assessed during 3-years period. Results: Thirty eight patients with a mean age of 9.10±1.97 years (range:6-13) and a strong male preponderance of 3.7:1 (male:30, female:8) had a total of 69 ST, of which 41 were in inverted position. Thirty five patients had one (92.1%) inverted tooth, whereas 3 patients had two inverted teeth per case (7.9%). All cases were located in the maxilla. Midline was the most frequent site for the single inverted supernumerary tooth in 18 (47.4%) patients, followed equally by the right and left premaxillary region in 10 patients each (26.3%). Regarding morphology, 30 patients had conical (78.9%) and 8 (21.1%) had incisiform ST. No tuberculate shaped ST was detected. There was no statistically significant difference between number of inverted teeth and delayed tooth eruption, diastema, local malocclusion, palatinal swelling (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between complications and age (p>0.05). Surgical removal at the time of diagnosis with subsequent follow-up during completion of permanent dentition was the treatment approach in all cases. Conclusions: Thorough clinical examination followed by a comprehensive radiographic screening is the crucial determinant of an accurate diagnosis of an impacted ST. Early diagnosis and timely management are key factors to prevent or minimize the complications, which may influence function and esthetics of the teeth and even psychological condition of the growing child.
Key words:Supernumerary tooth, impaction, inverted.
PMCID: PMC3731089  PMID: 23722132
4.  Dental Implant Systems 
Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.
PMCID: PMC2871132  PMID: 20480036
titanium materials; dental implant system; compatibility; surface engineering; gradual functional materials

Results 1-4 (4)