There is little information on cigarette use and smoking cessation in Asian Pacific Islanders. This study explored factors associated with tobacco use in the largest Asian American ethnic group – Chinese American men.
Chinese American men age 17 or older, recruited by convenience sampling, were interviewed by a male trilingual and bicultural interviewer. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were coded using PRECEDE framework under two categories: cigarette use and smoking cessation.
Smoking, favorably perceived and valued, plays an important role in Chinese society. Lack of appropriate information and some beliefs pose challenges to effective tobacco control. Participants expressed willingness to adhere to no smoking rules and regulation. Attitudes and perceptions in the U.S. towards cigarette smoking, which differ from those in China, reinforce attitudes more favorable to smoking cessation.
Themes elicited challenge mainstream smoking cessation approaches for Chinese American men. Further exploration of these results are needed to develop effective tobacco control in this and possibly other Asian American populations.
In the United Sates, populations with limited English proficiency (LEP) report barriers to seeking emergency care and experience significant health disparities, including being less likely to survive cardiac arrest than whites. Rapid utilization of 9-1-1 to access emergency services and early bystander CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is crucial for successful resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Little is understood about Asian LEP communities’ preparedness for emergencies. In this exploratory survey, we sought to assess intentions to call 9-1-1 in an emergency and knowledge of CPR in the Cambodian LEP community. We conducted an in-person interview with 667 Cambodian adults to assess their intentions to call 9-1-1 and their awareness of and training in bystander CPR. While the majority of participants stated that they would call 9-1-1 in an emergency, almost one-third of the sample would call a friend or family member. Awareness of CPR was very high but training in CPR was lower, especially for women. A higher level of English proficiency and greater proportion of time in the US was a strong predictor of CPR training and intention to call 9-1-1 in an emergency. This suggests that greater efforts need to be made to reach the most linguistically-isolated communities (those with little or no English) with emergency information in Khmer.
CPR; immigrants; limited English proficiency; language; emergency preparedness
There is a growing emphasis on the role of organizations as settings for dissemination and implementation. Only recently has the field begun to consider features of organizations that impact on dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This manuscript identifies and evaluates available measures for 5 key organizational-level constructs: (1) leadership; (2) vision; (3) managerial relations; (4) climate; and (5) absorptive capacity. Overall the picture was the same across the five constructs—no measure was used in more than one study, many studies did not report the psychometric properties of the measures, some assessments were based on a single response per unit, and the level of the instrument and analysis did not always match. We must seriously consider the development and evaluation of a robust set of measures that will serve as the basis of building the field, allow for comparisons across organizational types and intervention topics, and allow a robust area of dissemination and implementation research to develop.
To evaluate the current (2001–2002) capacity of community-based mammography facilities to deliver screening and diagnostic services in the United States.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Institutional review board approvals and patient consent were obtained. A mailed survey was sent to 53 eligible mammography facilities in three states (Washington, New Hampshire, and Colorado). Survey questions assessed equipment and staffing availability, as well as appointment waiting times for screening and diagnostic mammography services. Criterion-related content and construct validity were obtained first by means of a national advisory committee of academic, scientific, and clinical colleagues in mammography that reviewed literature on existing surveys and second by pilot testing a series of draft surveys among community mammography facilities not inclusive of the study facilities. The final survey results were independently double entered into a relational database with programmed data checks. The data were sent encrypted by means of file transfer protocol to a central analytical center at Group Health Cooperative. A two-sided P value with α = .05 was considered to show statistical significance in all analyses.
Forty-five of 53 eligible mammography facilities (85%) returned the survey. Shortages of radiologists relative to the mammographic volume were found in 44% of mammography facilities overall, with shortages of radiologists higher in not-for-profit versus for-profit facilities (60% vs 28% reported). Shortages of Mammography Quality Standards Act–qualified technologists were reported by 20% of facilities, with 46% reporting some level of difficulty in maintaining qualified technologists. Waiting times for diagnostic mammography ranged from less than 1 week to 4 weeks, with 85% performed within 1 week. Waiting times for screening mammography ranged from less than 1 week to 8 weeks, with 59% performed between 1 week and 4 weeks. Waiting times for both diagnostic and screening services were two to three times higher in high-volume compared with low-volume facilities.
Survey results show shortages of radiologists and certified mammography technologists.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest.
Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained. Complexity of CPR procedure, advantages of calling 9-1-1, lack of confidence, and possible liability discourage LEP individuals to learn CPR. LEP individuals welcome simplified Hands-Only CPR and are willing to perform CPR with instruction from 9-1-1 operators. Expanding the current training to include Hands-Only CPR and dispatcher-assisted CPR may motivate Chinese LEP individuals to get trained for CPR.
Hepatitis B testing is recommended for immigrants from countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic. However, only about one-half of Chinese in North America have received hepatitis B testing. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B lay health worker intervention for Chinese Americans/Canadians. Four hundred and sixty individuals who had never been tested for hepatitis B were identified from community-based surveys of Chinese conducted in Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia. These individuals were randomly assigned to receive a hepatitis B lay health worker intervention or a direct mailing of physical activity educational materials. Follow-up surveys were completed six months after randomization. Self-reported hepatitis B testing was verified through medical records review. A total of 319 individuals responded to the follow-up survey (69% response rate). Medical records data verified hepatitis B testing since randomization for nine (6%) of the 142 experimental group participants and three (2%) of the 177 control group participants (p=0.04). At follow-up, a higher proportion of individuals in the experimental arm than individuals in the control arm knew that hepatitis B can be spread by razors (p<0.001) and during sexual intercourse (p=0.07). Our findings suggest that lay health worker interventions can impact hepatitis B-related knowledge. However, our hepatitis B lay health worker intervention had a very limited impact on hepatitis B testing completion. Future research should evaluate other intervention approaches to improving hepatitis B testing rates among Chinese in North America.
Chinese Americans/Canadians; Hepatitis B; Lay health worker
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a growing health issue in Canada, especially given that population growth is now largely the result of immigration. Immigrants from countries with high HBV prevalence and low levels of HBV vaccination have an excess risk of liver disease and there is a need for increased diligence in HBV blood testing and possibly vaccination among these populations.
This study describes the sociodemographic characteristics associated with a history of HBV testing and HBV vaccination in immigrants from several countries with high HBV prevalence who are attending English classes.
759 adult immigrants attending English as a Second Language classes completed a self-administered questionnaire asking about sociodemographic characteristics and history of HBV testing and HBV vaccination. Descriptive statistics and adjusted ORs were calculated to explore these associations.
71% reported prior HBV testing, 8% reported vaccination without testing, and 21% reported neither testing nor vaccination. Age, education and country of birth all showed significant effects for both testing and vaccination.
Health care practitioners need to be cognizant of HBV testing, and possibly vaccination, in some of their patients, including immigrants from countries with endemic HBV infection. Infected persons need to be identified by blood testing in order receive necessary care to prevent or delay the onset of liver disease as well as to adopt appropriate behaviours to reduce the risk of transmission to others. Close contacts of infected persons also require HBV testing and subsequent vaccination (if not infected) or medical management (if infected).
Hepatitis B; diagnosis; primary prevention; immigrants
Chinese immigrants to North America experience cancer-related health disparities and underutilize preventive care. Little is known about Chinese immigrants' sources of health information.
A population-based survey of Chinese immigrants was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia and Seattle, Washington.
The study group included 899 individuals. Less than three-quarters of the respondents reported receiving health information from healthcare providers and only a minority used the Internet as a source of health information. We found significant differences between the sources of health information in Seattle and Vancouver.
Health educators should consider available media outlets as well as the characteristics of a target community when planning intervention programs for Chinese immigrants.
Census data indicate that Cambodian Americans are economically disadvantaged and linguistically isolated. In addition, cancer registry data show that Southeast Asians experience several cancer-related health disparities (e.g., markedly elevated risks of cervical and liver cancer). The Seattle regional Asian American Network for Cancer, Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) site has implemented a community-based cancer awareness program for Cambodian immigrants in collaboration with a Cambodian community coalition. Our cancer awareness program has the following goals: to assist individuals and organizations in advocating for a healthy community, to provide information within a cultural context, and to deliver information in ways that are useful and meaningful to the community. The program was guided by a community assessment that included the use of published data as well as information from qualitative interviews, focus groups, and quantitative surveys. Examples of community awareness activities include group presentations at community-based organizations (e.g., during English as a second language classes), health fair participation (including at nontraditional venues such as a farmers’ market serving Cambodians), and educational displays in neighborhood locations (e.g., at Cambodian video stores). In addition, the Seattle AANCART site has both inventoried and developed culturally appropriate Khmer language cancer education materials and disseminated materials through the ETHNOMED website. Our approach recognizes that limited English language proficiency may preclude many Cambodians from understanding publicly disseminated information, and Cambodian immigrants are often isolated and tend to stay close to their own neighborhoods.
AANCART; cancer; Asian; Cambodian; qualitative research
Under-representation of minority and female participants prompted the U.S. legislature to mandate the inclusion of women and minorities in federally funded research. Recruitment of minorities to participate in clinical trials continues to be challenging. Although Asian Americans constitute one of the major minority groups in the U.S., published literature contains sparse data concerning the participation of Asian Americans in cancer clinical trials. The authors completed qualitative, semistructured interviews with 34 participants: Chinese-American female cancer patients ages 20–85 years or their family members. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, or English and were audiotaped. Chinese interviews were translated into English, and all interviews were transcribed subsequently into English. A team of five coders individually reviewed then met to discuss the English transcripts. The authors used the constant comparative technique throughout the entire coding process as part of the analysis. Among participants, 62% lacked any knowledge of clinical trials, and many expressed negative attitudes toward clinical trials. Barriers to participation included inadequate resources, language issues, and a lack of financial and social support. Facilitating factors included recommendations by a trusted oncologist or another trusted individual and information in the appropriate language. It is noteworthy that family members played an important role in the cancer experience of these participants. To promote participation, there is a need to increase knowledge of clinical trials among Chinese cancer patients. It also is necessary to examine the applicability of current patient-physician communication and interaction models. In addition, decision-making based on Asian philosophies within the context of Euro-American bio-ethics requires further study.
traditional Chinese medicine; patient participation; Asian Americans; clinical trials
To compare screening mammography and Pap testing among Chinese women in Seattle, Washington to Vancouver, and British Columbia.
Using community-based sampling methods, trilingual female interviewers surveyed Chinese women in Seattle and Vancouver. Multiple preventive health behaviors and health care access variables were assessed. Mammography analysis included 409 women aged 50–74 years. Pap testing analysis included 973 women aged 20–69 years. Main outcome measures were ever use and use in the last 2 years of screening mammography and Pap testing.
Chinese women in Vancouver were younger, more educated and fluent in English. Unadjusted rates of mammography and Pap testing were similar between the two cities. Provider type was consistently associated with screening in both cities; female providers had the highest rates and Chinese male providers the lowest. Adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated similar mammography use in the two cities. However, for Pap testing, women in Seattle had higher odds of screening compared to Vancouver.
Despite universal health care coverage and baseline characteristics typically associated with greater utilization of preventive screening services, Chinese women in Vancouver did not have higher rates of screening mammography and Pap testing compared to Chinese women in Seattle.
Chinese; PAP testing; Mammography; Preventive screening; Universal health coverage
Breast carcinoma is the most common major malignancy among several Asian-American populations. This study surveyed mammography screening knowledge and practices among Chinese-American women.
In 1999, the authors conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey in Seattle, Washington. Bilingual and bicultural interviewers administered surveys in Mandarin, Cantonese, or English at participants’ homes.
The survey cooperation rate (responses among reachable and eligible households) was 72% with 350 eligible women (age ≥ 40 years with no prior history of breast carcinoma or double mastectomy). Seventy-four percent of women reported prior mammography screening, and 61% of women reported screening in the last 2 years. In multivariate analysis, a strong association was found between mammography screening and recommendations by physicians and nurses (prior screening: odds ratio [OR], 16.0; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 7.8–35.0; recent screening: OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 3.8–13.6). This finding applied to both recent immigrants (< 15 years in the U.S.) and earlier immigrants (≥ 15 years in the U.S.). Thirty-two percent of women reported that the best way to detect breast carcinoma was a modality other than mammogram.
The authors recommend a multifaceted approach to increase mammography screening by Chinese-American women: recommendations from the provider plus targeted education to address the effectiveness of screening mammography compared with breast self examination and clinical breast examination.
mammography; screening; Asian; Chinese
Chinese American immigrants are a growing part of the United States population. Cervical cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among Chinese Americans. Pap smear testing is less common in Chinese American immigrants than in the general population. During 1999, we conducted a community-based survey of Chinese American women living in Seattle. We assessed knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and history of Pap smear testing along with socioeconomic and acculturation characteristics. The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample included 472 women. Most cervical cancer risk factors were recognized by less than half of our participants. Factors independently associated with knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors included marital status, employment, and education. Respondents with the highest knowledge had greater odds of ever receiving a Pap smear, compared to those respondents with the lowest knowledge (OR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1,5.8). Our findings suggest a need for increased recognition of cervical cancer risk factors among Chinese American immigrants. Culturally and linguistically appropriate educational interventions for cervical cancer risk factors should be developed, implemented and evaluated.
cervix neoplasms; Chinese Americans; risk factors
Chinese American women have high rates of invasive cervical cancer, compared to the general population. However, little is known about the Pap testing behavior of ethnic Chinese immigrants.
We conducted a community-based survey of Chinese immigrants living in Seattle, Washington, during 1999. Two indicators of cervical cancer screening participation were examined: at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing in the last 2 years.
The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample for this analysis included 647 women. Nearly one quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and only 60% had been screened recently. Factors independently associated with cervical cancer screening use included marital status, housing type, and age at immigration.
Our findings confirm low levels of cervical cancer screening among Chinese immigrants to North America. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Pap testing intervention programs for less acculturated Chinese women should be developed, implemented, and evaluated.
Chinese immigrants; cervical cancer; Pap testing
We summarized previous and ongoing cancer control research among Cambodian immigrants in Washington.
A literature review of articles and published abstracts was conducted.
Cambodian Americans have a limited understanding of Western biomedical concepts, and low levels of cancer screening participation.
Culturally appropriate cancer control interventions for Cambodian Americans should be developed, implemented, and evaluated.
We examined levels of Pap testing and factors associated with screening participation among Cambodian refugees.
A community-based, in-person survey was conducted in Seattle during late 1997 and early 1998. Interviews were completed by 413 women; the estimated response rate was 73%. We classified respondents into four Pap testing stages of adoption: precontemplation/contemplation (never screened), relapse (ever screened but did not plan to be screened in the future), action (ever screened and planned to be screened in the future), and maintenance (recently screened and planned to be screened in the future). Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to examine various factors.
About one-quarter (24%) of the respondents has never been screened, and a further 22% had been screened but did not plan to obtain Pap tests in the future. Fifteen percent were in the action stage and 39% were in the maintenance stage. The following factors were independently associated with cervical cancer screening stages: previous physician recommendation; younger age; beliefs about Pap testing for post-menopausal women, screening for sexually inactive women, and regular checkups; provider ethnicity; prenatal care in the US; and problems finding interpreters.
Our findings confirm low Pap testing rates among Cambodian immigrants, and suggest that targeted interventions should be multifaceted.
Little information is available on the breast cancer screening behavior of Cambodian American women.
We identified households from multiple sources using Cambodian surnames and conducted a cross-sectional survey, administered by bilingual and bicultural interviewers. Breast cancer screening stages of adoption were examined based on concepts from the transtheoretical model of behavioral change.
Our response rate was 73% (398 women in clinical breast exam (CBE) analysis, and 248 in mammography analysis) with approximately 25% each in the maintenance stage. We found significant associations between screening stage with physician characteristics. Asian American female physician increased the likelihood of being in the maintenance stage (CBE, OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.8–37.1; mammogram, OR = 74.7, 95% CI 8.3–674.6), compared to Asian American male physician with precontemplation/contemplation stage as our referent outcome.
Results from this study support the need to promote regular breast cancer screening among Cambodian American women. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breast cancer; Screening; Asian; Stages of adoption
Southeast Asian women have low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing participation. We conducted a group-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a cervical cancer screening intervention program targeting Seattle’s Cambodian refugee community.
Women who completed a baseline, community-based survey were eligible for the trial. Neighborhoods were the unit of randomization. Three hundred and seventy survey participants living in 17 neighborhoods were randomized to intervention or control status. Intervention group women received home visits by outreach workers and were invited to group meetings in neighborhood settings. The primary outcome measure was self-reported Pap testing in the year prior to completing a follow-up survey.
The proportion of women in the intervention group reporting recent cervical cancer screening increased from 44% at baseline to 61% at follow-up (+17%). The corresponding proportions among the control group were 51 and 62% (+11%). These temporal increases were statistically significant in both the intervention (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.027) groups.
This study was unable to document an increase in Pap testing use specifically in the neighborhood-based outreach intervention group; rather, we found an increase in both intervention and control groups. A general awareness of the project among women and their health care providers as well as other ongoing cervical cancer screening promotional efforts may all have contributed to increases in Pap testing rates.
Cambodian Americans; Pap testing; Outreach
Chinese women in North America have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing use. This study examined Pap testing barriers and facilitators among Chinese American women.
A community-based, in-person survey of Chinese women was conducted in Seattle, Washington during 1999. Four hundred and thirty-two women in the 20–79 years age-group were included in this analysis. The main outcome measures were a history of at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing within the last 2 years.
Nineteen percent of the respondents had never received cervical cancer screening and 36% had not been screened in the previous 2 years. Eight characteristics were independently associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: being married, thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concerns about embarrassment or cancer being discovered, having received a physician or family recommendation, having obtained family planning services in North America, and having a regular provider. The following characteristics were independently associated with recent screening: thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concern about embarrassment, having received a physician recommendation, having obtained obstetric services in North America, and having a regular provider.
Pap testing levels among the study respondents were well below the National Cancer Institute’s Year 2000 goals. The findings suggest that cervical cancer control interventions for Chinese are more likely to be effective if they are multifaceted. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chinese Americans; Cervical cancer; Papanicolaou testing
North American Chinese women have lower levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing than other population subgroups. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative cervical cancer screening interventions for Chinese women living in North America.
Four hundred and eighty-two Pap testing underutilizers were identified from community-based surveys of Chinese women conducted in Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia. These women were randomly assigned to one of two experimental arms or control status. Several Chinese-language materials were used in both experimental arms: an education-entertainment video, a motivational pamphlet, an educational brochure, and a fact sheet. Women in the first experimental group (outreach worker intervention) received the materials, as well as tailored counseling and logistic assistance, during home visits by trilingual, bicultural outreach workers. Those in the second experimental group (direct mail intervention) received the materials by mail. The control group received usual care. Follow-up surveys were completed 6 months after randomization to ascertain participants’ Pap testing behavior. All statistical tests were two-sided.
A total of 402 women responded to the follow-up survey (83% response rate). Of these women, 50 (39%) of the 129 women in the outreach group, 35 (25%) of the 139 women in the direct mail group, and 20 (15%) of the 134 women in the control group reported Pap testing in the interval between randomization and follow-up data collection (P<.001 for outreach worker versus control, P = .03 for direct mail versus control, and P = .02 for outreach worker versus direct mail). Intervention effects were greater in Vancouver than in Seattle.
Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions may improve Pap testing levels among Chinese women in North America.
The objective of the study was to develop a culturally relevant video and a pamphlet for use as a cervical cancer screening educational intervention among North-American Chinese women. The project conducted 87 qualitative interviews and nine focus groups to develop a culturally tailored intervention to improve Pap testing rates. The intervention consisted of an educational/motivational video, a pamphlet, and home visits. Less acculturated Chinese women draw on a rich tradition of herbal knowledge and folk practices historically based on Chinese medical theory, now mixed with new information from the media and popular culture. The video, the pamphlet, and the outreach workers knowledge base were designed using these results and combined with biomedical information to address potential obstacles to Pap testing. Culturally relevant information for reproductive health promotion was easily retrieved through qualitative interviews and used to create educational materials modeling the integration of Pap testing into Chinese women’s health practices.
Pap testing; cervical cancer; cross-cultural medicine; Chinese; health education
INTRODUCTION: African Americans have higher colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates than whites. They are also more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage disease and less likely to survive for at least five years after diagnosis. Lack of adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations has previously been found to be associated with lower income, lower educational level, and racial/ethnic minority status. METHODS: One hundred-fifty African-American patients (aged 50-79 years) of an inner city hospital, were surveyed by mail and telephone in early 2002. Seventy-six patients completed the survey, and data from 74 surveys were analyzed. RESULTS: Approximately one-half (55%) of the respondents reported having received a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the last 12 months, sigmoidoscopy in the last five years, or colonoscopy in the last 10 years. Thirty-nine percent of the survey participants reported never having received a physician recommendation for FOBT, 60% reported never having received a recommendation for sigmoidoscopy, and 57% reported never having received a recommendation for colonoscopy. Previous physician recommendation was strongly associated (p < 0.001) with levels of FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy use. DISCUSSION: Future studies should examine factors that influence primary care physicians' decision-making about ordering colorectal cancer screening tests, as well as patients' decision-making regarding adherence to physician recommendations.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths and illnesses in US adults, and the prevalence is disproportionately high in underserved populations. In this study, we assessed respondents' understanding of context-specific differences in knowledge and perceptions of disease, risk, and prevention in 6 underserved communities, with the longer-term goal of developing appropriate interventions.
Thirty-nine small-group sessions and 14 interviews yielded data from 318 adults. Each site's researchers coded, analyzed, and extracted key themes from local data. Investigators from all sites synthesized results and identified common themes and differences.
Themes clustered in 3 areas (barriers to cardiovascular health, constraints related to multiple roles, and suggestions for effective communications and programs). Barriers spanned individual, social and cultural, and environmental levels; women in particular cited multiple roles (eg, competing demands, lack of self-care). Programmatic suggestions included the following: personal, interactive, social context; information in language that people use; activities built around cultural values and interests; and community orientation. In addition, respondents preferred health-related information from trusted groups (eg, AARP), health care providers (but with noticeable differences of opinion), family and friends, and printed materials.
Interventions to decrease barriers to cardiovascular health are needed; these strategies should include family and community context, small groups, interactive methods, culturally sensitive materials, and trusted information sources. New-immigrant communities need culturally and linguistically tailored education before receiving more substantive interventions.
Chinese immigrants to North America have substantially higher rates of chronic hepatitis B infection than the general population. One area for strategic development in the field of health education is the design and evaluation of English-as-a-Second language (ESL) curricula. The theoretical perspective of the Health Behavior Framework, results from a community-based survey of Chinese Canadian immigrants with limited English proficiency, and findings from focus groups of ESL instructors as well as Chinese ESL students were used to develop a hepatitis B ESL educational module. This research was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia. Survey data showed that less than three-fifths of the respondents had been tested for hepatitis B, and documented some important hepatitis B knowledge deficits. Further, only about one-quarter had ever received a physician recommendation for hepatitis B serologic testing. The ESL curriculum aims to both promote hepatitis B testing and improve knowledge, and includes seven different ESL exercises: Warm-up, vocabulary cards, information-gap, video, jigsaw, guided discussion, and problem/advice cards. Our quantitative and qualitative methods for curriculum development could be replicated for other health education topics and in other limited English speaking populations.
Chinese immigrants; English as a second language (ESL); Health education; Hepatitis B