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1.  Functional tooth restoration by next-generation bio-hybrid implant as a bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6044.
Bio-hybrid artificial organs are an attractive concept to restore organ function through precise biological cooperation with surrounding tissues in vivo. However, in bio-hybrid artificial organs, an artificial organ with fibrous connective tissues, including muscles, tendons and ligaments, has not been developed. Here, we have enveloped with embryonic dental follicle tissue around a HA-coated dental implant, and transplanted into the lower first molar region of a murine tooth-loss model. We successfully developed a novel fibrous connected tooth implant using a HA-coated dental implant and dental follicle stem cells as a bio-hybrid organ. This bio-hybrid implant restored physiological functions, including bone remodelling, regeneration of severe bone-defect and responsiveness to noxious stimuli, through regeneration with periodontal tissues, such as periodontal ligament and cementum. Thus, this study represents the potential for a next-generation bio-hybrid implant for tooth loss as a future bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy.
PMCID: PMC4131220  PMID: 25116435
2.  The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4867.
The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.
PMCID: PMC4007090  PMID: 24785116
3.  Medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, as a model for human obesity-related glomerulopathy 
Obesity, an ongoing significant public health problem, is a part of complex disease characterized as metabolic syndrome. Medaka and zebrafish are useful aquatic experimental animals widely used in the field of toxicology and environmental health sciences and as a human disease models. In medaka, simple feeding of a high fat diet (HFD) can induce body weight gain, excessive accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and steatohepatists, which mimics human metabolic syndrome. In the present study, to explore the possibility that the adult medaka fed with HFD (HFD-medaka) can be used as an animal model for human metabolic syndrome-associated glomerular disease, including obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG), we analyzed structural alterations and protein expression in the mesonephric kidney of HFD-medaka. We found that the histopathology was consistent with glomerulomegaly accompanied by the dilation of glomerular capillaries and proliferative expansion of the mesangium, a condition partially comparable to human ORG. Moreover, expressions of several kinds of kidney disease-related proteins (such as MYH9, SM22α) were significantly elevated. Thus, the HFD-medaka has a high potential as an animal model useful for exploring the mechanism underling human ORG.
PMCID: PMC3587682  PMID: 23353086
high fat diet; glomerulus; medaka; obesity-related glomerulopathy
4.  Nephrin and Podocin functions are highly conserved between the zebrafish pronephros and mammalian metanephros 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2013;9(2):457-465.
The slit diaphragm (SD) is a highly specialized intercellular junction between podocyte foot processes and is crucial in the formation of the filtration barrier in the renal glomeruli. Zebrafish Nephrin and Podocin are important in the formation of the podocyte SD and mutations in NEPHRIN and PODOCIN genes cause human nephrotic syndrome. In the present study, the zebrafish Podocin protein was observed to be predominantly localized in the pronephric glomerular podocytes, as previously reported for Nephrin. To understand the function of Podocin and Nephrin in zebrafish, splice-blocking morpholino antisense oligonucleotides were used. Knockdown of Podocin or Nephrin by this method induced pronephric glomerular hypoplasia with pericardial edema. Human NEPHRIN and PODOCIN mRNA rescued this glomerular phenotype, however, the efficacy of the rescues was greatly reduced when mRNA-encoding human disease-causing NEPHRIN-R1109X and PODOCIN-R138Q were used. Furthermore, an association between zebrafish Nephrin and Podocin proteins was observed. Notably, Podocin-R150Q, corresponding to human PODOCIN-R138Q, markedly interacted with NEPHRIN compared with wild-type PODOCIN, suggesting that this strong binding capacity of mutated PODOCIN impairs the transport of NEPHRIN and PODOCIN out of the endoplasmic reticulum. The results suggest that the functions of Nephrin and Podocin are highly conserved between the zebrafish pronephros and mammalian metanephros. Accordingly, the zebrafish pronephros may provide a useful tool for analyzing disease-causing gene mutations in human kidney disorders.
PMCID: PMC3896505  PMID: 24337247
human metanephros; nephrin; nephrotic syndrome; podocin; zebrafish pronephros
5.  Comparative study of spinopelvic sagittal alignment between patients with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(11):2181-2187.
To date, few studies have focused on spinopelvic sagittal alignment as a predisposing factor for the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The objectives of this study were to compare differences in spinopelvic sagittal alignment between patients with or without DS and to elucidate factors related to spinopelvic sagittal alignment.
Materials and methods
A total of 100 patients with or without DS who underwent surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis were assessed in this study. Fifty patients with DS (DS group) and 50 age- and gender-matched patients without DS (non-DS group) were enrolled. Spinopelvic parameters including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), L4 slope, L5 slope, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL) and sagittal balance were compared between the two groups. In the DS group, the percentage of vertebral slip (% slip) was also measured.
Several spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS, L4 slope, L5 slope, TK and LL, in the DS group were significantly greater than those in the non-DS group, and PI had positive correlation with % slip (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Degrees of correlations among spinopelvic parameters differed between the two groups. In the DS group, PI was more strongly correlated with SS (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) than with PT (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). In the non-DS group, PI was more strongly correlated with PT (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) than with SS (r = 0.38, p < 0.01).
Greater PI may lead to the development and the progression of vertebral slip. Different compensatory mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of spinopelvic sagittal alignment in DS and non-DS patients.
PMCID: PMC3481103  PMID: 22639298
Spinopelvic sagittal alignment; Pelvic incidence; Lumbar spinal canal stenosis; Degenerative spondylolisthesis; Percentage of vertebral slip
6.  Functional salivary gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ 
Nature Communications  2013;4:2498.
Salivary gland hypofunction, also known as xerostomia, occurs as a result of radiation therapy for head cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome or aging, and can cause a variety of critical oral health issues, including dental decay, bacterial infection, mastication dysfunction, swallowing dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Here we demonstrate the full functional regeneration of a salivary gland that reproduces the morphogenesis induced by reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ as a regenerative organ replacement therapy. The bioengineered germ develops into a mature gland through acinar formations with a myoepithelium and innervation. The bioengineered submandibular gland produces saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protects against oral bacterial infection and restores normal swallowing in a salivary gland-defective mouse model. This study thus provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment of xerostomia.
Salivary gland dysfunction as a result of diseases or ageing reduces the quality of life and causes various oral health problems. Here the authors show that the salivary gland function of mice can be recovered by orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ.
PMCID: PMC3806330  PMID: 24084982
7.  Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ 
Nature Communications  2013;4:2497.
The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland.
Lacrimal glands maintain a healthy corneal epithelium but are dysfunctional for example in dry-eye disease. Here, the authors transplant bioengineered lacrimal and harderian gland germs into mice, where they connect to the host duct and nervous system and restore lacrimal gland function.
PMCID: PMC3806342  PMID: 24084941
9.  Loss of apical vertebral derotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: 2-year follow-up using multi-planar reconstruction computed tomography 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(6):1111-1120.
The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 years post-surgical loss of three-dimensional correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients using multi-planar reconstruction computed tomography (CT).
Twenty-seven AIS patients treated by segmental pedicle screw (PS) constructs were included in this study. Correction in the axial plane was evaluated using the “relative apical vertebral rotation angle” (rAVR), defined as the difference between the axial rotation angles of the upper instrumented vertebra and the apical vertebra on reconstructed axial CT images. The Cobb angle of the main curve and apical vertebral translation was measured to evaluate the coronal correction. Thoracic kyphosis was also measured for the evaluation of sagittal profile. Measurements were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 2 years after surgery. The relationships between the correction losses and skeletal maturity, and variety of spinal constructs were also evaluated.
The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the major curve was 59.1° ± 11.2° before and 13.0° ± 7.2° immediately after surgery. Two years later, the mean Cobb angle had increased significantly, to 15.5° ± 7.8°, with a mean correction loss of 2.5° ± 1.5° (p < 0.001). The mean preoperative rAVR of 28.5° ± 8.4° was corrected to 15.8° ± 7.8° after surgery. It had increased significantly to 18.5 ± 8.4 by 2 years after surgery, with a mean correction loss of 2.7° ± 1.0° (p < 0.001). The mean correction losses for both the Cobb angle and rAVR were significantly greater in the skeletally immature patients. The significant correlations were recognized between the correction losses and the proportion of multi-axial screws, and the materials of constructs.
Statistically significant loss of correction in the Cobb angle and apical vertebral axial rotation angle (AVR) were recognized 2 years after surgery using PS constructs. The correction losses, especially AVR, were more evident in the skeletally immature patients, and in patients treated with more multi-axial screws and with titanium constructs rather than with stainless constructs.
PMCID: PMC3366141  PMID: 22438165
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Apical vertebral rotation; Correction loss; Coronal correction
10.  Intrinsic Temperature Sensitivity of Influenza C Virus Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Protein 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(23):13108-13111.
Influenza C virus replicates more efficiently at 33°C than at 37°C. To determine whether hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein (HEF), a surface glycoprotein of influenza C virus, is a restricting factor for this temperature sensitivity, we analyzed the biological and biochemical properties of HEF at 33°C and 37°C. We found that HEF exhibits intrinsic temperature sensitivities for surface expression and fusion activity.
PMCID: PMC3497660  PMID: 23015703
11.  Vertebral derotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine 
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that direct vertebral derotation by pedicle screws (PS) causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients, using computer simulation.
Twenty AIS patients with Lenke type 1 or 2 who underwent posterior correction surgeries using PS were included in this study. Simulated corrections of each patient’s scoliosis, as determined by the preoperative CT scan data, were performed on segmented 3D models of the whole spine. Two types of simulated extreme correction were performed: 1) complete coronal correction only (C method) and 2) complete coronal correction with complete derotation of vertebral bodies (C + D method). The kyphosis angle (T5-T12) and vertebral rotation angle at the apex were measured before and after the simulated corrections.
The mean kyphosis angle after the C + D method was significantly smaller than that after the C method (2.7 ± 10.0° vs. 15.0 ± 7.1°, p < 0.01). The mean preoperative apical rotation angle of 15.2 ± 5.5° was completely corrected after the C + D method (0°) and was unchanged after the C method (17.6 ± 4.2°).
In the 3D simulation study, kyphosis was reduced after complete correction of the coronal and rotational deformity, but it was maintained after the coronal-only correction. These results proved the hypothesis that the vertebral derotation obtained by PS causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine.
PMCID: PMC3441743  PMID: 22691717
12.  Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:424.
Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia.
PMCID: PMC3361021  PMID: 22645640
13.  HTLV-I Tax regulates the cellular proliferation through the down-regulation of PIP3-phosphatase expressions via the NF-κB pathway 
An oncogenic retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), encodes an oncoprotein, Tax, which plays critical roles in leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) through the pleiotropic actions such as transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, and transformation. We have previously reported that PTEN and SHIP- 1, PIP3 inositol phosphatases that negatively regulate the PI3-kinase signaling cascade, are disrupted in ATLL neoplasias. Overactivation of PI3-kinase signaling has an essential role in onset of ATLL. We report here that both PTEN and SHIP-1 are downregulated by Tax through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Tax expression upregulated phosphorylated Akt, a downstream serine/threonine kinase in the PI3-kinase signaling cascade. Activation of NF-κB pathway also suppressed these phosphatases. An IκBΔN mutant which inhibits the activation of NF-κB prevented PIP3 phosphatase downregulation by Tax. The underlying mechanism of NF-κB mediated suppression of PIP3 phosphatases involved sequestration of the coactivator p300 by p65. These down-regulations of PIP3 phosphatases were found to be essential for the Tax-induced cell proliferation. Thus, our results suggest that HTLV-I Tax downregulates PIP3 phosphatases through the NF-κB pathway, resulting in increased activation of the PI3-kinase signaling cascade in human T-cells and contributing to leukemogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3325775  PMID: 22509484
14.  Functional Tooth Regeneration Using a Bioengineered Tooth Unit as a Mature Organ Replacement Regenerative Therapy 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21531.
Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy.
PMCID: PMC3134195  PMID: 21765896
15.  Long-term surgical outcomes of idiopathic spinal cord herniation 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2011;16(4):347-351.
Because of the lack of long-term postoperative follow-up studies of idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), there is little information about the long-term effectiveness and complications of the dural defect enlargement in patients with ISCH. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term effectiveness of this procedure.
Sixteen patients with ISCH were treated surgically by enlargement of the dural defect. The patient’s neurological status and surgical outcome were evaluated by the JOA scores for thoracic myelopathy and the recovery rate (mean follow-up period 9.6 years). Correlations between the surgical outcomes and patients’ age and duration of disease were assessed retrospectively. The patients were also divided into two groups based on the location of the dural defect: the ventro-lateral (VL) group and the ventral (V) group. The difference in the duration of disease, preoperative JOA score, and the recovery rate were compared between the two groups.
There was no recurrence of ISCH after surgery. The mean recovery rate was 42.6%. There was a significant correlation between the patient’s age and the recovery rate, and between the duration of disease and the recovery rate. The median recovery rate was significantly lower in the V group than in the VL group. There were no complications related to CSF leakage after surgery.
Long-term surgical outcomes of enlargement of the dural defect for ISCH were stable and favorable without recurrences or any complications. This procedure should be considered for patients with ISCH before their neurological deficit worsens, especially for the patients in whom the dural defect is located at the ventral part of the dural canal.
PMCID: PMC3140945  PMID: 21544598
16.  Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report 
Scoliosis  2011;6:3.
Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.
PMCID: PMC3065437  PMID: 21414205
17.  Newly established cell lines from mouse oral epithelium regenerate teeth when combined with dental mesenchyme 
The present study attempted to examine whether clonal cell lines of the oral epithelium can differentiate into ameloblasts and regenerate tooth when combined with dental germ mesenchyme. Clonal cell lines with a distinct morphology were established from the oral epithelium of p53-deficient fetal mice at embryonic day 18 (E18). The strain of mouse is shown to be a useful source for establishing clonal and immortalized cell lines from various tissues and at various stages of development. Tooth morphogenesis is almost completed and the oral epithelium is segregated from the dental epithelium at E18. In RT-PCR analysis of cell lines, mucosal epithelial markers (cytokeratin 14) were detected, but ameloblast markers such as amelogenin and ameloblastin were not detected when cells were cultured on plastic dish. They formed stratified epithelia and expressed a specific differentiation marker (CK13) in the upper layer when cultured on feeder layer or on collagen gel for 1–3 wk, demonstrating that they are of oral mucosa origin. Next, bioengineered tooth germs were prepared with cell lines and fetal molar mesenchymal tissues and implanted under kidney capsule for 2–3 wk. Five among six cell lines regenerated calcified structures as seen in natural tooth. Our results indicate that some oral epithelial cells at E18 possess the capability to differentiate into ameloblasts. Furthermore, cell lines established in the present study are useful models to study processes in tooth organogenesis and tooth regeneration.
PMCID: PMC2862945  PMID: 20033791
Oral epithelium; Immortalized cell lines; Tooth regeneration; p53-deficient mouse
18.  Efficient retroviral transduction of human B-lymphoid and myeloid progenitors: marked inhibition of their growth by the Pax5 transgene 
We applied a coculture system for the genetic manipulation of human B-lymphoid and myeloid progenitor cells using murine bone marrow stromal cell support, and investigated the effects of forced Pax5 expression in both cell types. Cytokine-stimulated cord blood CD34+ cells could be transduced at 85% efficiency and 95% cell viability by a single 24-h infection with RD114-pseudotyped retroviral vectors, produced by the packaging cell line Plat-F and bicistronic vector plasmids pMXs-Ig, pMYs-Ig, or pMCs-Ig, encoding EGFP. Infected CD34+ cells were seeded onto HESS-5 cells in the presence of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, allowing the extensive production of B progenitors and granulocytic cells. We examined the cell number and CD34, CD33, CD19, and CD20 lambda and kappa expressions by flow cytometry. Ectopic expression of Pax5 in CD34+ cells resulted in small myeloid progenitors coexpressing CD33 and CD19 and inhibited myeloid differentiation. After 6 weeks, the number of Pax5-transduced CD19+ cells was 40-fold lower than that of control cells. However, the expression of CD20 and the κ/λ chain on Pax5-transduced CD19+ cells suggests that the Pax5 transgene may not interfere with their differentiation. This report is the first to describe the effects of forced Pax5 expression in human hematopoietic progenitors.
PMCID: PMC2668641  PMID: 18415655
B-cell differentiation; Pax5; CD19; Stromal cell; Retroviral vector
19.  Retrospective cohort study between selective and standard C3-7 laminoplasty. Minimum 2-year follow-up study 
European Spine Journal  2007;16(12):2072-2077.
A total of 64 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were assessed in this study. Forty-two patients underwent selective expansive open-door laminoplasty (ELAP). Twenty-two patients who underwent conventional C3-7 ELAP served as controls. There were no significant differences in recovery rate of JOA scores, C2–C7 angle or cervical range of motion between two groups. Incidence of axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis in selective ELAP was significantly lower than those in the C3-7 ELAP. Size of anterior compression mass, postoperative spinal cord positions and decompression conditions were evaluated using preoperative or postoperative MRI in 50 of 64 patients. There was a positive correlation between number of expanded laminae and maximum anterior spaces of spinal cord. Incomplete decompression was developed in three of 37 patients in selective ELAP and in two of 13 patients in C3-7ELAP. Mean size of anterior compression mass at incomplete decompression levels was significantly greater than that at complete decompression levels. Since, there was less posterior movement of the spinal cord in selective ELAP than that in C3-7ELAP, minute concerns about size of anterior compression mass is necessary to decide the number of expanded laminae. Overall, selective ELAP was less invasive and useful in reducing axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis. This new surgical strategy was effective in improving the surgical outcomes of CSM, and short-term results were satisfactory.
PMCID: PMC2140119  PMID: 17726618
Selective cervical laminoplasty; Cervical spondylotic myelopathy; Axial symptoms; Segmental motor paralysis; Posterior shift of spinal cord
20.  Mode of Action of (1′S,2′R)-9-{[1′,2′-Bis(hydroxymethyl) cycloprop-1′-yl]methyl}guanine (A-5021) against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 and Varicella-Zoster Virus 
The mode of action of (1′S,2′R)-9-{[1′,2′-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1′-yl]methyl}guanine (A-5021) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was studied. A-5021 was monophosphorylated at the 2′ site by viral thymidine kinases (TKs). The 50% inhibitory values for thymidine phosphorylation of A-5021 by HSV-1 TK and HSV-2 TK were comparable to those for penciclovir (PCV) and lower than those for acyclovir (ACV). Of these three agents, A-5021 inhibited VZV TK most efficiently. A-5021 was phosphorylated to a mono-, di-, and triphosphate in MRC-5 cells infected with HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. A-5021 triphosphate accumulated more than ACV triphosphate but less than PCV triphosphate in MRC-5 cells infected with HSV-1 or VZV, whereas HSV-2-infected MRC-5 cells had comparable levels of A-5021 and ACV triphosphates. The intracellular half-life of A-5021 triphosphate was considerably longer than that of ACV triphosphate and shorter than that of PCV triphosphate. A-5021 triphosphate competitively inhibited HSV DNA polymerases with respect to dGTP. Inhibition was strongest with ACV triphosphate, followed by A-5021 triphosphate and then (R,S)-PCV triphosphate. A DNA chain elongation experiment revealed that A-5021 triphosphate was incorporated into DNA instead of dGTP and terminated elongation, although limited chain extension was observed. Thus, the strong antiviral activity of A-5021 appears to depend on a more rapid and stable accumulation of its triphosphate in infected cells than that of ACV and on stronger inhibition of viral DNA polymerase by its triphosphate than that of PCV.
PMCID: PMC105870  PMID: 9687413
21.  Fully functional hair follicle regeneration through the rearrangement of stem cells and their niches 
Nature Communications  2012;3:784-.
Organ replacement regenerative therapy is purported to enable the replacement of organs damaged by disease, injury or aging in the foreseeable future. Here we demonstrate fully functional hair organ regeneration via the intracutaneous transplantation of a bioengineered pelage and vibrissa follicle germ. The pelage and vibrissae are reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived cells and adult vibrissa stem cell region-derived cells, respectively. The bioengineered hair follicle develops the correct structures and forms proper connections with surrounding host tissues such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscle and nerve fibres. The bioengineered follicles also show restored hair cycles and piloerection through the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. This study thus reveals the potential applications of adult tissue-derived follicular stem cells as a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.
Bioengineered hair follicles can be produced from embryonic follicle germ cells, but whether these follicles can interact with the surrounding tissue and function normally is unknown. Here, bioengineered hair follicles transplanted into mouse dermis make connections with the surrounding tissue and show normal hair cycles.
PMCID: PMC3337983  PMID: 22510689

Results 1-21 (21)