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1.  Proline is required for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:236.
Background
In crosses between the proline-deficient mutant homozygous for p5cs1 and heterozygous for p5cs2 (p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2), used as male, and different Arabidopsis mutants, used as females, the p5cs2 mutant allele was rarely transmitted to the outcrossed progeny, suggesting that the fertility of the male gametophyte carrying mutations in both P5CS1 and P5CS2 is severely compromised.
Results
To confirm the fertility defects of pollen from p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 mutants, transmission of mutant alleles through pollen was tested in two ways. First, the number of progeny inheriting a dominant sulfadiazine resistance marker linked to p5cs2 was determined. Second, the number of p5cs2/p5cs2 embryos was determined. A ratio of resistant to susceptible plantlets close to 50%, and the absence of aborted embryos were consistent with the hypothesis that the male gametophyte carrying both p5cs1 and p5cs2 alleles is rarely transmitted to the offspring. In addition, in reciprocal crosses with wild type, about 50% of the p5cs2 mutant alleles were transmitted to the sporophytic generation when p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 was used as a female, while less than 1% of the p5cs2 alleles could be transmitted to the outcrossed progeny when p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 was used as a male. Morphological and functional analysis of mutant pollen revealed a population of small, degenerated, and unviable pollen grains, indicating that the mutant homozygous for p5cs1 and heterozygous for p5cs2 is impaired in pollen development, and suggesting a role for proline in male gametophyte development. Consistent with these findings, we found that pollen from p5cs1 homozygous mutants, display defects similar to, but less pronounced than pollen from p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 mutants. Finally, we show that pollen from p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 plants contains less proline than wild type and that exogenous proline supplied from the beginning of another development can partially complement both morphological and functional pollen defects.
Conclusions
Our data show that the development of the male gametophyte carrying mutations in both P5CS1 and P5CS2 is severely compromised, and indicate that proline is required for pollen development and transmission.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-236
PMCID: PMC3543202  PMID: 23234543
Proline; Male gametophyte; Arabidopsis; p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2
2.  Proline accumulation in plants 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2009;4(11):1016-1018.
In addition to its role in protein synthesis and the plant cells' response to environmental stresses, circumstantial evidence suggest that proline may also play a role in flowering and development both as a metabolite and as a signal molecule. Although there is a growing consensus that proline is of special importance throughout the reproductive phase (from flower transition to seed development) a general agreement on the molecular and genetic mechanisms proline is involved in, is yet to be established. In this paper we shall review and critically discuss most of the evidence supporting a role for proline in plant development, paying special attention to the recently reported role of proline in flower transition.
PMCID: PMC2819507  PMID: 20009553
proline; flower transition; embryo development; P5CS1; P5CS2
3.  Correlative Association between Resident Plasmids and the Host Chromosome in a Diverse Agrobacterium Soil Population 
Soil samples collected from a fallow field which had not been cultivated for 5 years harbored a population of Agrobacterium spp. estimated at 3 × 107 CFU/g. Characterization of 72 strains selected from four different isolation media showed the presence of biovar 1 (56%) and bv. 2 (44%) strains. Pathogenicity assays on five different test plants revealed a high proportion (33%) of tumorigenic strains in the resident population. All tumorigenic strains belonged to bv. 1. Differentiation of the strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins, and utilization patterns of 95 carbon substrates (Biolog GN microplate) revealed a diversified bv. 1 population, composed of five distinct chromosomal backgrounds (chr A, C, D, E, and F), and a homogeneous bv. 2 population (chr B). chr A, B, C, and D were detected at similar levels throughout the study site. According to opine metabolism, pathogenicity, and agrocin sensitivity, chr A strains carried a nopaline Ti plasmid (pTi), whereas chr C strains had an octopine pTi. In addition, four of six nontumorigenic bv. 1 strains (two chr D, one chr E, and one chr F) had distinct and unusual opine catabolism patterns. chr B (bv. 2) strains were nonpathogenic and catabolized nopaline. Although agrocin sensitivity is a pTi-borne trait, 14 chr B strains were sensitive to agrocin 84, apparently harboring a defective nopaline pTi similar to pAtK84b. The other two chr B strains were agrocin resistant. The present analysis of chromosomal and plasmid phenotypes suggests that in this Agrobacterium soil population, there is a preferential association between the resident plasmids and their bacterial host.
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PMCID: PMC182082  PMID: 16348927

Results 1-3 (3)