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1.  A novel peptide interferes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence and survival 
FEBS Open Bio  2014;4:735-740.
Highlights
•The novel peptide SL3 is a strong binder of the virulence-determining protein ESAT-6.•SL3 caused debilitating effects on mycobacterial growth and morphology.•SL3 led to accelerated clearance of M.tb and lowered immune response in a pre-clinical mouse model.•Microarray analysis of the mutant strain demonstrated a wide-scale transcriptional disruption caused by SL3 in M.tb.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a huge global burden, with new and resistant strains emerging at an alarming rate, necessitating an urgent need for a new class of drug candidates. Here, we report that SL3, a novel 33-amino acid peptide, causes debilitating effects on mycobacterial morphology. Treatment with SL3 drastically inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro as well as in a pre-clinical mouse model for M.tb infection. Microarray analysis of SL3-expressing strain demonstrates wide-scale transcriptional disruption in M.tb. We therefore believe that SL3 and similar peptides may herald a new approach towards discovering new molecules for TB therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.fob.2014.08.001
PMCID: PMC4208091  PMID: 25349777
AMADID, agilent microarray design identifiers; CFU, colony forming units; MOI, multiplicity of infection; RD1, region of difference 1; Antimycobacterial peptides; ESAT6; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Protein–protein interaction
2.  Comparative modeling of retinol-binding protein-3 and retinal S-antigen in Eales’ disease and prediction of their binding sites using computational methods 
Retinal S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-3 play a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of Eales' disease. Protein 3D structures are functionally very important and play a significant role in progression of the disease, hence these 3D structures are better target for further drug designing and relative studies. We developed 3D model structure of retinol-binding protein-3 and retinal S-antigen protein of human involved in Eales' disease. Functional site prediction is a very important and related step; hence, in the current course of analysis, we predicted putative functional site residues in the target proteins. Molecular models of these proteins of Eales' disease as documented in this study may provide a valuable aid for designing an inhibitor or better ligand against Eales' disease and could play a significant role in drug design.
doi:10.1007/s12177-011-9060-z
PMCID: PMC3372607  PMID: 22833777
Eales' disease; Retinol-binding protein-3; Retinal S-antigen; Hemorrhages; Venoocclusive; Modeling; Functional sites
3.  Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal  2012;21(2):137-143.
Background:
Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world.
Objectives:
1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff).
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS.
Results:
42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence.
Conclusion:
Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants’ perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.
doi:10.4103/0972-6748.119624
PMCID: PMC3830163  PMID: 24250047
Domestic violence; India; perceptions; prevalence
4.  Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India 
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
doi:10.4103/0110-5558.76437
PMCID: PMC3255406  PMID: 22247878
Ethanobotanicals; HPLC; HPTLC; physiochemical; Shankhpushpi
5.  A SIMPLE AND RAPID METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID AND PIPERINE BY HPTLC IN A HERBOMINERAL FORMULATION 
Many of the traditional herbal formulations contain extracts of Piper longum and Glycyrrhiza glabra, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid respectively, being active constituents of these two herbs. An attempt has been made to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous estimation of these in a herbomineral formulation (Efiplus® Capsules). Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid 12.5:7.5:0.5, as mobile phase were used in chromatographic determinations. The plates were scanned and the compounds were quantified at their wavelengths of maximum absorption of 260 and 331 nm for glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine respectively. The respective RF, values of glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine were 0.51 and 0.55. Under these experimental conditions linearity was observed between 0.8-2.6 μg/ spot for glycyrrhetinic acid and between 10-50 ng/ spot for piperine and average recovery was 96.25% for glycyrrhetinic acid and 98.55% for piperine.
PMCID: PMC3255427  PMID: 22247845
HPTLC; glycyrrhetinic acid; piperine; herbomineral formulation
6.  Phylogenetic analysis of poly and non structural protein in Japanese Encephalitis virus with other related viral families 
Annals of Neurosciences  2010;17(2):74-79.
Background
Japanese encephalitis (JE) causes inflammation of brain. The mortality rate due to JE is 30% while 10 –15 % of patients make full recovery. The disease spreads through infected mosquito bites breeding in rice fields and feeds on pigs, birds, and ducks.
Purpose
As proteins show important structure to function relationship the study was designed to carry out the identification of poly and non–structural proteins in the infective virus group using different strains of Japanese encephalitis virus i.e. JAOARS982, Nakayama Strain SA (V), Strain SA–14.
Methods
With reference to non structural proteins we obtained protein sequences of the following Japanese encephalitis virus groups: Japanese encephalitis virus, Weatnile virus, Kunjin virus. Further comparative and phylogenetic analysis was performed to explore evolutionary relationship among these groups.
Results
Results of phylogeny of alignment score was found to be 375184 using multiple alignment, Jal view, ClustalW (1.83) and ClustalW2. However, the analysis among the non–structural proteins of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Westnile Virus, and Kunjin Virus revealed the phylogeny alignment score to be 875 through multiple sequence alignment and Tree view respectively.
Conclusion
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these four strains are interrelated as well as showing high similarity with the other viruses of this group due to conserved regions among their sequences.
doi:10.5214/ans.0972-7531.1017205
PMCID: PMC4117001  PMID: 25205875
Multiple Sequence Alignment; Phylogenetic Analysis; Japanese Encephalitis

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