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1.  Diabetes Prevention in the New York City Sikh Asian Indian Community: A Pilot Study 
India has one of the highest burdens of diabetes worldwide, and rates of diabetes are also high among Asian Indian immigrants that have migrated into the United States (U.S.). Sikhs represent a significant portion of Asian Indians in the U.S. Diabetes prevention programs have shown the benefits of using lifestyle intervention to reduce diabetes risk, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Sikh community. Using a quasi-experimental two-arm design, 126 Sikh Asian Indians living in New York City were enrolled in a six-workshop intervention led by community health workers. A total of 108 participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys between March 2012 and October 2013. Main outcome measures included clinical variables (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) and health behaviors (changes in physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge). Changes were significant for the treatment group in weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge, and between group differences were significant for glucose, diabetes knowledge, portion control, and physical activity social interaction. Retention rates were high. Findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program in the Sikh community is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110505462
PMCID: PMC4053907  PMID: 24852392
Asian American; Asian Indian; community health worker; diabetes; Diabetes Prevention Program; Sikh; South Asian American
2.  A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Management of Hypertension among Filipino Americans in New York and New Jersey: A Pilot Study 
Ethnicity & disease  2014;24(1):67-76.
Objective
The purpose of the pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a 4-month community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve hypertension management among Filipino immigrants in New York and New Jersey.
Design
Single-arm CHW pilot intervention using a pre-post design delivered by 5 CHWs.
Setting
New York City, NY and Jersey City, NJ.
Participants
Of 88 Filipino individuals recruited for the study, 39 received the full pilot intervention, 18 received a partial intervention, and 31 dropped out; 13 Filipino participants, 10 CHW Trainers, and 3 Filipino CHWs were interviewed for qualitative analysis.
Intervention
Individuals participated in 4 workshops related to hypertension management and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and received monthly in-person visits, and twice monthly phone calls individually from a CHW.
Main Outcome Measures
Primary outcomes included blood pressure (BP) reduction and control, appointment keeping, and medication adherence; secondary outcomes included weight, body mass index (BMI), self-efficacy related to diet, exercise, and medication taking, CVD knowledge, and nutrition (salt/sodium and cholesterol/fat).
Results
A mixed method analysis was used to assess the intervention, utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods. By the end of the intervention, significant changes were exhibited for systolic and diastolic BP, weight, and BMI (p<0.01). Significant changes were not seen for medication adherence and appointment keeping, however, CVD knowledge and self-efficacy related to diet and weight management all improved significantly (p<0.01). Qualitative findings provided additional information on the acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of the intervention.
Conclusions
This pilot CHW intervention showed evidence of feasibility, as well as efficacy, in improving hypertension management and reducing CVD factors in FAs.
PMCID: PMC3955003  PMID: 24620451
Hypertension; Blood Pressure; Filipino; Asian Americans; Immigrants; Community Health Workers
3.  Protocol for the DREAM Project (Diabetes Research, Education, and Action for Minorities): a randomized trial of a community health worker intervention to improve diabetic management and control among Bangladeshi adults in NYC 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:177.
Background
New York City (NYC) is currently home to the largest Bangladeshi population in the United States (US) at approximately 62,000 individuals. The high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Bangladeshis has been well documented in Bangladesh, as well as in Canada and the United Kingdom (UK). However, little is known about the diabetes prevalence and management practices of US Bangladeshis. This paper describes the protocol for a Community Health Worker (CHW) intervention to improve diabetic management and control among Bangladeshis with diabetes in NYC.
Methods/Design
For a two-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT), investigators will recruit a sample of 256 participants, all of whom are 1) of Bangladeshi descent, 2) residing in NYC, 3) diagnosed with T2DM and a recent Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥ 6.5, and 4) between the ages of 21–85. The treatment group receives a six-month CHW-led intervention consisting of five monthly group educational sessions, two one-on-one visits, and follow-up phone calls as needed from a CHW. The control group receives an introductory educational session only. Primary and secondary outcomes include clinical and behavioral measures, such as HbA1c and weight change, access to and utilization of care (i.e. appointment keeping and use of specialty care), and knowledge and practice of physical activity and healthful eating. Additionally, information regarding CHW characteristics, the processes and mechanisms for influencing healthful behavior change, and fidelity of the intervention are collected. Outcomes are measured at Baseline, 3-Months, 6-Months for both groups, and at 12-Months for the treatment group.
Discussion
To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to document the efficacy of T2DM management strategies in the NYC Bangladeshi population. Thus, future qualitative and quantitative findings of the submitted protocol will fill an important gap in the health disparities literature.
Trial registration
NCT02041598
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-177
PMCID: PMC3933368  PMID: 24548534
Health disparities; South Asian Health; Diabetes; CHW; CBPR
4.  Evaluation of a Community Health Worker Pilot Intervention to Improve Diabetes Management in Bangladeshi Immigrants with Type 2 Diabetes in New York City 
The Diabetes educator  2013;39(4):478-493.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact and feasibility of a pilot Community Health Worker (CHW) intervention to improve diabetes management among Bangladeshi-American individuals with Type 2 diabetes living in New York City.
Methods
Participants were recruited at clinic- and community-based venues. The intervention consisted of six monthly, CHW facilitated group sessions on topics related to management of diabetes. Surveys were collected at baseline and follow-up time points. Study outcomes included clinical, behavioral, and satisfaction measures for participants, as well as qualitative measures from CHWs.
Results
Improvements were seen in diabetes knowledge, exercise and diet to control diabetes, frequency of checking feet, medication compliance, and self-efficacy of health and physical activity from baseline to 12 months. Additionally, there were decreases in A1C, weight, and BMI. Program evaluation revealed a high acceptability of the intervention, and qualitative findings indicated that CHWs helped overcome barriers and facilitated program outcomes through communal concordance, trust and leadership.
Conclusions
The intervention demonstrated high acceptability and suggested efficacy in improving diabetes management outcomes among Bangladeshi immigrants in an urban setting. The U.S. Bangladeshi population will continue to increase, and given the high rates of diabetes, as well as linguistic and economic barriers faced by this community, effective and culturally-tailored health interventions are needed to overcome barriers and provide support for diabetes management.
doi:10.1177/0145721713491438
PMCID: PMC3912744  PMID: 23749774
5.  Predictors of Hypertension Among Filipino Immigrants in the Northeast US 
Journal of community health  2013;38(5):847-855.
Hypertension remains disproportionately high among Filipinos compared to other racial and ethnic minority populations, and little research on cardiovascular disease risk factors has been conducted among Filipino immigrants in the Northeastern part of the United States. To determine hypertension prevalence and risk factors among Filipino Americans in the New York City area, blood pressure and other clinical measurements were taken from a sample of Filipino Americans during 119 community health screenings conducted between 2006 and 2010. Additional socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were also collected via a cross-sectional survey. A total of 1,028 Filipino immigrants completed the survey and had clinical readings collected. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed in order to predict and assess risk factors for hypertension among our sample. Fifty-three percent of individuals were hypertensive, and half of hypertensive individuals were uninsured. Logistic regression indicated that older age, male gender, living in the United States for over 5 years, a BMI greater than 23.0 kg/m2, an elevated glucose reading, a family history of hypertension, and fair or poor self-reported health status were predictors of hypertension. There is a great need to develop more effective community-based interventions in the Filipino community to address cardiovascular health disparities.
doi:10.1007/s10900-013-9689-6
PMCID: PMC3894061  PMID: 23553685
Hypertension; Blood pressure; Ethnicity; Filipino Americans; Health status
8.  Community Capacity Building and Sustainability: Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research 
Background
For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes.
Objectives
This paper describes a community–academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both.
Methods
“Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health” was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher–community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee.
Results
Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to “transfer of knowledge” from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved.
Conclusions
Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2012.0048
PMCID: PMC3557849  PMID: 22982848
Community-based participatory research; process issues; education; power sharing
9.  Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Initiative: The Development of a Core Competency–Based Training for Community–Academic Initiative Community Health Workers 
American journal of public health  2012;102(12):2372-2379.
Objectives
Despite the importance of community health workers (CHWs) in strategies to reduce health disparities and the call to enhance their roles in research, little information exists on how to prepare CHWs involved in community–academic initiatives (CAIs). Therefore, the New York University Prevention Research Center piloted a CAI–CHW training program.
Methods
We applied a core competency framework to an existing CHW curriculum and bolstered the curriculum to include research-specific sessions. We employed diverse training methods, guided by adult learning principles and popular education philosophy. Evaluation instruments assessed changes related to confidence, intention to use learned skills, usefulness of sessions, and satisfaction with the training.
Results
Results demonstrated that a core competency–based training can successfully affect CHWs’ perceived confidence and intentions to apply learned content, and can provide a larger social justice context of their role and work.
Conclusions
This program demonstrates that a core competency–based framework coupled with CAI-research–specific skill sessions (1) provides skills that CAI–CHWs intend to use, (2) builds confidence, and (3) provides participants with a more contextualized view of client needs and CHW roles.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300429
PMCID: PMC3519306  PMID: 22594730
10.  Role of Federal Policy in Building Research Infrastructure Among Emerging Minorities: The Asian American Experience 
Problem
Considerable progress in Asian American health research has occurred over the last two decades. However, greater and sustained federal support is needed for reducing health disparities in Asian American communities.
Purpose of the Article
This paper reviews federal policies that support infrastructure to conduct minority health research and highlights one model for strengthening research capacity and infrastructure in Asian American communities.
Key Points
Research center infrastructures can play a significant role in addressing pipeline/workforce challenges, fostering campus–community research collaborations, engaging communities in health, disseminating evidence-based strategies and health information, and policy development.
Conclusion
Research centers provide the capacity needed for academic institutions and communities to work together synergistically in achieving the goal to reduce health disparities in the Asian American community. Policies that support the development of concentrated and targeted research for Asian Americans must continue so that these centers will reach their full potential.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2012.0007
PMCID: PMC3367323  PMID: 22643792
Academies and institutes; Asian Americans; capacity building; community-based participatory research; community health planning; community networks; health promotion; minority health; organizational innovation; research institutes
11.  Developing the Community Empowered Research Training Program: Building Research Capacity for Community-Initiated and Community-Driven Research 
Health promotion practice research conducted by or in partnership with community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA and NHPI) can address health disparities. Few CBOs have the tools to integrate or initiate research into their programmatic agenda. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) and the Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF) created a partnership with the goal to support CBO research infrastructure development by creating the Community Empowered Research Training (CERT) program.
Methods
A survey was conducted and discussions held with CBO leaders representing AA and NHPI communities to inform the development of the CERT program.
Results
The majority of participants are engaged in service-related research and reported interest in building their research capacity. CBOs may require help reframing how data can be collected and used to better inform programmatic activities and to address health disparities facing AA and NHPI communities.
Conclusions
CBOs possess both an interest in and access to local knowledge that can inform health priorities. Findings have been applied to the CERT program to build capacity to support community-initiated/driven research to address health disparities affecting AAs and NHPIs.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2012.0010
PMCID: PMC3367388  PMID: 22643787
Community health partnerships; community-based participatory research; health disparities; Asian Americans; Native Hawaiians; Pacific Islanders; research capacity building
12.  The Asian American Hepatitis B Program: Building a Coalition to Address Hepatitis B Health Disparities 
Background
Community coalitions are increasingly recognized as important strategies for addressing health disparities. By providing the opportunity to pool resources, they provide a means to develop and sustain innovative approaches to affect community health.
Objectives
This article describes the challenges and lessons learned in building the Asian American Hepatitis B Program (AAHBP) coalition to conduct a community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative to address hepatitis B (HBV) among New York City Asian-American communities.
Methods
Using the stages of coalition development as a framework, a comprehensive assessment of the process of developing and implementing the AAHBP coalition is presented.
Lessons Learned
Findings highlight the importance of developing a sound infrastructure and set of processes to foster a greater sense of ownership, shared vision, and investment in the program.
Conclusion
Grassroots community organizing and campus–community partnerships can be successfully leveraged to address and prevent a significant health disparity in an underserved and diverse community.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2011.0039
PMCID: PMC3369315  PMID: 22080774
Asian Americans; community-based participatory research; community health services; healthcare disparities; hepatitis B
13.  A Comprehensive Screening And Treatment Model For Reducing Disparities In Hepatitis B 
Health Affairs (Project Hope)  2011;30(10):1974-1983.
Chronic hepatitis B affects Asian Americans at a much higher rate than the general US population. Appropriate care can limit morbidity and mortality from hepatitis B. However, access to care for many Asian Americans and other immigrant groups is limited by their lack of knowledge about the disease, as well as cultural, linguistic, and financial challenges. This article describes the results of BfreeNYC, a New York City pilot program that, from 2004 to 2008, provided hepatitis B community education and awareness, free screening and vaccinations, and free or low-cost treatment primarily to immigrants from Asia, but also to residents from other racial and ethnic minority groups. The program was the largest citywide screening program in the United States, reaching nearly 9,000 people, and the only one providing comprehensive care to those who were infected. During the program, new hepatitis B cases reported annually from predominantly Asian neighborhoods in the city increased 34 percent. More than two thousand people were vaccinated; 57 percent of the 1,162 patients who tested positive for hepatitis B and were evaluated by program clinical services were still in care at the end of the program. Our analysis found that the program was effective in reaching the target population and providing care. Although follow-up care data will be needed to demonstrate long-term costeffectiveness, the program may serve as a useful prototype for addressing hepatitis B disparities in communities across the United States.
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0700
PMCID: PMC3333793  PMID: 21976342
14.  Understanding Barriers to and Facilitators of Diabetes Control and Prevention in the New York City Bangladeshi Community: A Mixed-Methods Approach 
American Journal of Public Health  2012;102(3):486-490.
We have reported results from the formative stage of a community health worker intervention designed to improve diabetes management among Bangladeshi patients in New York City. Trained community health workers conducted focus groups (n=47) and surveys (n=169) with Bangladeshi individuals recruited from community locations. Results indicated that participants faced numerous barriers to care, had high rates of limited English proficiency, and had low levels of knowledge about diabetes. Most participants expressed interest in participating in a community health worker intervention.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300381
PMCID: PMC3327415  PMID: 22390512
15.  Mexican Immigrant Male Knowledge and Support Toward Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening 
Background
We conducted a focus group study to assess the influence of partner communication on breast and cervical cancer screening and the perceived existing and potential support from male partners in participating in cancer screening. Secondarily, Mexican male and female views on health care and cancer were explored.
Methods
Seven focus groups (two female-only, three male-only, and two couples) were conducted in Spanish.
Results
Findings suggest that knowledge about cervical cancer was significantly less than knowledge about breast cancer among both men and women. Barriers to cancer screening included language barriers, lack of health insurance, and lack of awareness of the need for screening. Male partners expressed willingness to support their female partners in cancer screening activities.
Conclusion
Cervical cancer education is desperately needed, including education on the availability of free and low cost screening services. Education efforts should include the male community members, especially as the males perceive themselves as responsible for the financial burden of care.
doi:10.1007/s10903-008-9161-3
PMCID: PMC3326388  PMID: 18551367
Cervical cancer; Breast cancer; Screening; Mexican-American; Male involvement; Access to care
16.  Cancer Screening and Haitian Immigrants: The Primary Care Provider Factor 
Background
Haitian immigrants, among the fastest growing immigrant communities in the United States, have low cancer screening rates. Several patient barriers have been identified and associated with low screening rates but little is known on provider barriers for cancer screening. To address this gap, we assessed the cancer screening practices, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care providers serving the Haitian community.
Methods
We surveyed a random sample of physicians serving first generation Haitian immigrants in New York City, identified through their zip codes of practice. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess their beliefs, attitudes and practices surrounding cancer screening, and their perceptions of patient barriers to screening.
Results
50 of 87 physicians (58%) consented to participate in the study. Cancer site-specific and overall cancer screening scores were created for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. 75% of providers followed breast cancer screening guidelines, 16% for cervical cancer, and 30% for colorectal cancer. None of the providers in the sample were following guidelines for all three cancer sites. Additionally, 97% reported recommending digital rectal exam and PSA annually to patients 50 years or older with no family history, and 100% to patients over 50 years old with family history.
Conclusions
The reported practices of providers serving the Haitian immigrant community in New York City are not fully consistent with practice guidelines. Efforts should be made to reinforce screening guideline knowledge in physicians serving the Haitian immigrant community, to increase the utilization of systems that increase cancer screening, and to implement strategies to overcome patient barriers.
doi:10.1007/s10903-007-9076-4
PMCID: PMC3315358  PMID: 17647104
Haitian immigrants; Physicians practices; Cancer screening
17.  Cancer Screening Practices among Physicians Serving Chinese Immigrants 
Chinese immigrants in the United States are broadly affected by cancer health disparities. We examined the cancer screening attitudes and practices of physicians serving Chinese immigrants in the New York City (NYC) area by mailing a cancer screening survey, based on current guidelines, to a random sample of physicians serving this population. Fifty three physicians (44%) completed the survey. Seventy-two percent reported following the guidelines for breast cancer, 35% for cervical cancer screening, and 45% for all colorectal cancer screening tests. Sixty-eight percent of physicians were satisfied with their current rates of cancer screening with their Chinese immigrant patient population. Physicians serving the Chinese community in NYC follow cancer screening guidelines inadequately. Cancer screening rates in this population could likely be increased by interventions that target physicians and improve awareness of guidelines and recommended best practices.
doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0117
PMCID: PMC3314376  PMID: 19202247
Chinese; immigrants; cancer screening; physician practices; primary care
18.  Methodological Issues in the Collection, Analysis, and Reporting of Granular Data in Asian American Populations: Historical Challenges and Potential Solutions 
There are close to 15 million Asian Americans living in the United States, and they represent the fastest growing populations in the country. By the year 2050, there will be an estimated 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the country. However, their health needs remain poorly understood and there is a critical lack of data disaggregated by Asian American ethnic subgroups, primary language, and geography. This paper examines methodological issues, challenges, and potential solutions to addressing the collection, analysis, and reporting of disaggregated (or, granular) data on Asian Americans. The article explores emerging efforts to increase granular data through the use of innovative study design and analysis techniques. Concerted efforts to implement these techniques will be critical to the future development of sound research, health programs, and policy efforts targeting this and other minority populations.
doi:10.1353/hpu.2010.0939
PMCID: PMC3086449  PMID: 21099084
Asian American; methodology; health disparities; minority health
19.  Using Community-Based Participatory Research as a Guiding Framework for Health Disparities Research Centers 
There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) is 1 of 76 Project EXPORT sites. This paper describes how CSAAH developed partnerships with varied Asian American community stakeholders as a first step in establishing itself as a Project EXPORT center that uses community-based participatory research (CBPR) as its orienting framework. Three guiding principles were followed to develop community–academic partnerships: (1) creating and sustaining multiple partnerships; (2) promoting equity in partnerships; and (3) commitment to action and research. We discuss strategies and action steps taken to put each principle into practice, as well as the successes and challenges we faced in doing so. Developing community–academic partnerships has been essential in our ability to conduct health disparities research in Asian American communities. Approaches and lessons learned from our experience can be applied to other communities conducing health disparities research.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2007.0007
PMCID: PMC2600476  PMID: 19081761
Community-Based Participatory Research; Health disparities; Asian Americans; immigrants; minorities

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