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1.  The Mohawk homeobox transcription factor regulates the differentiation of tendons and volar plates 
Background
Mohawk (Mkx) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is expressed in various mesoderm-derived tissues, particularly in developing tendons. In this study, we investigate the exact expression pattern and functions of Mkx in forelimbs.
Methods
We analyzed the forelimbs of Mkx knockout mice (from embryonic day [E] 18.5 to postnatal day [P] 28-week) by using knocked-in Venus signals, Masson trichrome staining, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.
Results
We detected Venus signals in forelimb tendons, pulleys, and volar plates (VPs) in P21 mice. In-depth histological analysis showed that compared to the wild-type mice, the Mkx knockout mice showed significant hypoplasia in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from E18.5. The VPs and pulleys appeared normal until P0, however, by P14, they became increasingly thicker in Mkx-null mice compared to wild-type mice. The fiber alignment was particularly disrupted in VPs of Mkx-null mice.
Conclusions
These results suggest that Mkx is an important regulator of the differentiation of VPs and pulleys, as well as of tendon differentiation.
doi:10.1007/s00776-013-0485-z
PMCID: PMC3943675  PMID: 24166359
2.  Acetabular labral tear complicating idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated by labral repair with hip arthroscopy: a case report 
Introduction
It has been well documented that labral tear is frequently associated with femoroacetabular impingement and dysplasia of the hip; however, there have been few reported cases of labral tear associated with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the hip. Here we report the case of a patient with labral tear associated with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head who was treated by hip arthroscopy, with a favorable short-term outcome.
Case presentation
Under the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, a 28-year-old Japanese woman was treated with the oral administration of steroid in 2007. A year after the treatment, she developed right hip joint pain and was diagnosed with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head at our institution. In November of 2011, she revisited our hospital when her right hip joint pain exacerbated and she became unable to walk. On the visit, the anterior impingement sign and Patrick test were positive. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging in 2011 demonstrated neither spreading of the osteonecrosis area nor collapse of the femoral head in the right joint; however, magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity area in the articular labrum in a T2-weighted image, leading to a diagnosis of labral tear. She underwent labral repair with hip arthroscopy in August of 2012. Now, 1 year after surgery, she does not feel any pain during walking and her modified Harris hip score has improved from 20 prior to surgery to 85.
Conclusion
The case indicated that it is important to be aware of the possibility of labral tear in patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head, when spreading of the osteonecrosis area or collapse of the femoral head has not been seen on magnetic resonance imaging.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-372
PMCID: PMC4304144  PMID: 25404056
Hip arthroscopy; Idiopathic osteonecrosis; Labral tear
3.  C1 posterior arch screw as an auxiliary anchor in posterior reconstruction for atlantoaxial dislocation associated with type II odontoid fracture: a case report and review of the literature 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:672.
Abtract
Introduction
Although pedicle or lateral mass screws are usually chosen to fix atlantoaxial (C1-C2) instability, there is an increased risk for vertebral artery (VA) injury when used in patients with bone or arterial anomalies or osteoporotic bone. Here we report the C1 posterior arch screw as a new technique for upper cervical fixation.
Case description
A 90-year-old man complained of upper cervical pain after falling in his house. The initial computed tomography (CT) scan showed C1-C2 posterior dislocation with a type II odontoid fracture. The patient underwent C2 fracture reduction and posterior C1-C2 fixation. On the right side of C1, because lateral mass screw placement could cause injury to the dominant VA considering a risk in oldest-old osteoporotic patients, a posterior arch screw was chosen instead as an auxiliary anchor. An intralaminar screw was placed on the right side of C2 because a high-riding VA was observed. A lateral mass screw and a pars interarticularis screw were placed on the left side of C1 and C2, respectively. Ten months later, the odontoid fracture had healed, with normal anatomical alignment. Although the patient experienced slight weakness when spreading his bilateral fingers, his overall condition was good.
Discussion and evaluation
We have presented a novel technique using C1 posterior arch screws for the fixation of a C1-C2 dislocation. Such a screw is an alternative to the C1 lateral mass screw in patients who are at risk for a VA injury because of anomalous bone and arterial structures or poor bone quality.
Conclusions
Although there have been few comparable studies, and the long-term outcome is unknown, fixation with a posterior arch screw could be a beneficial choice for surgeries involving the upper cervical region.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-672
PMCID: PMC4234742  PMID: 25485206
Posterior arch screw; Atlantoaxial dislocation; Odontoid fracture; Vertebral artery injury
4.  The Vitamin D Analogue ED71 but Not 1,25(OH)2D3 Targets HIF1α Protein in Osteoclasts 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e111845.
Although both an active form of the vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3, and the vitamin D analogue, ED71 have been used to treat osteoporosis, anti-bone resorbing activity is reportedly seen only in ED71- but not in 1,25(OH)2D3 -treated patients. In addition, how ED71 inhibits osteoclast activity in patients has not been fully characterized. Recently, HIF1α expression in osteoclasts was demonstrated to be required for development of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Here we show that ED71 but not 1,25(OH)2D3, suppress HIF1α protein expression in osteoclasts in vitro. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 or ED71 function in osteoclasts requires the vitamin D receptor (VDR). ED71 was significantly less effective in inhibiting M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis than was 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro. Downregulation of c-Fos protein and induction of Ifnβ mRNA in osteoclasts, both of which reportedly block osteoclastogenesis induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro, were both significantly higher following treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 than with ED71. Thus, suppression of HIF1α protein activity in osteoclasts in vitro, which is more efficiently achieved by ED71 rather than by 1,25(OH)2D3, could be a reliable read-out in either developing or screening reagents targeting osteoporosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111845
PMCID: PMC4222951  PMID: 25375896
5.  Spinal coronal profiles and proximal femur bone mineral density in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 
European Spine Journal  2013;22(11):2433-2437.
Purpose
Although the occurrence and progression of AIS has been linked to low bone mineral density (BMD), the relationships between spinal curvature and bilateral differences in proximal femur BMD are controversial. Few correlation studies have stratified patients by curve type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between spinal coronal profile and bilateral differences in proximal femur BMD in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Methods
This study included 67 patients with AIS who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery between January 2009 and October 2011. The mean age at the time of surgery was 17.4 ± 4.1 years. Bilateral proximal femur BMD was measured before surgery by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We compared the proximal femur BMDs by determining the bilateral BMD ratio (left proximal femur BMD divided by that of the right). We evaluated correlations between coronal parameters, obtained from preoperative radiographs, and the BMD ratio using Pearson’s correlation analysis.
Results
Patients with Lenke type 1 curve (48; all with a right convex curve) had a mean bilateral proximal femur BMD ratio of 1.00 ± 0.04. Patients with Lenke type 5 curve (19; all with a left convex curve) had a mean bilateral proximal femur BMD ratio of 0.94 ± 0.04, indicating that the BMD in the proximal femur on the right side (concave) was greater than that in the left (convex). Coronal balance was significantly correlated with the BMD ratio in both the Lenke type 1 and type 5 groups, with a correlation coefficient of 0.46 and 0.50, respectively.
Conclusions
The bilateral proximal femur BMD ratio was significantly correlated with the coronal balance in AIS patients. When the C7 plumb line was shifted toward one side, the BMD was greater in the contralateral proximal femur.
doi:10.1007/s00586-013-2872-8
PMCID: PMC3886500  PMID: 23764767
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Bone mineral density; Proximal femur
6.  A Novel Mouse Model of Soft-Tissue Infection Using Bioluminescence Imaging Allows Noninvasive, Real-Time Monitoring of Bacterial Growth 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106367.
Musculoskeletal infections, including surgical-site and implant-associated infections, often cause progressive inflammation and destroy areas of the soft tissue. Treating infections, especially those caused by multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a challenge. Although there are a few animal models that enable the quantitative evaluation of infection in soft tissues, these models are not always reproducible or sustainable. Here, we successfully established a real-time, in vivo, quantitative mouse model of soft-tissue infection in the superficial gluteus muscle (SGM) using bioluminescence imaging. A bioluminescent strain of MRSA was inoculated into the SGM of BALB/c adult male mice, followed by sequential measurement of bacterial photon intensity and serological and histological analyses of the mice. The mean photon intensity in the mice peaked immediately after inoculation and remained stable until day 28. The serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 and C-reactive protein at 12 hours after inoculation were significantly higher than those prior to inoculation, and the C-reactive protein remained significantly elevated until day 21. Histological analyses showed marked neutrophil infiltration and abscesses containing necrotic and fibrous tissues in the SGM. With this SGM mouse model, we successfully visualized and quantified stable bacterial growth over an extended period of time with bioluminescence imaging, which allowed us to monitor the process of infection without euthanizing the experimental animals. This model is applicable to in vivo evaluations of the long-term efficacy of novel antibiotics or antibacterial implants.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106367
PMCID: PMC4153648  PMID: 25184249
7.  An Osteoprotegerin Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Hip Fracture in Japanese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results from the IORRA Observational Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104587.
Introduction
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and hip fracture than healthy individuals. Multiple genetic loci for osteoporotic fracture were identified in recent genome-wide association studies. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with the occurrence of hip fracture in Japanese patients with RA.
Methods
DNA samples from 2,282 Japanese patients with RA were obtained from the DNA collection of the Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort (IORRA) study. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been reported to be associated with fractures in recent studies were selected and genotyped. Forty hip fractures were identified with a maximum follow-up of 10 years. The genetic risk for hip fracture was examined using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results
The risk analyses revealed that patients who are homozygous for the major allele of SNP rs6993813, in the OPG locus, have a higher risk for hip fracture (hazard ratio [95% CI]  = 2.53 [1.29–4.95], P  = 0.0067). No association was found for the other SNPs.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that an OPG allele is associated with increased risk for hip fracture in Japanese patients with RA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104587
PMCID: PMC4126739  PMID: 25105978
8.  Cellular Composition and Organization of the Subventricular Zone and Rostral Migratory Stream in the Adult and Neonatal Common Marmoset Brain 
The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle contains neural stem cells. In rodents, these cells generate neuroblasts that migrate as chains toward the olfactory bulb along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). The neural-stem-cell niche at the ventricular wall is conserved in various animal species, including primates. However, it is unclear how the SVZ and RMS organization in nonhuman primates relates to that of rodents and humans. Here we studied the SVZ and RMS of the adult and neonatal common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World primate used widely in neuroscience, by electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical detection of cell-type-specific markers. The marmoset SVZ contained cells similar to type B, C, and A cells of the rodent SVZ in their marker expression and morphology. The adult marmoset SVZ had a three-layer organization, as in the human brain, with ependymal, hypocellular, and astro-cyte-ribbon layers. However, the hypocellular layer was very thin or absent in the adult-anterior and neonatal SVZ. Anti-PSA-NCAM staining of the anterior SVZ in whole-mount ventricular wall preparations of adult marmosets revealed an extensive network of elongated cell aggregates similar to the neuroblast chains in rodents. Time-lapse recordings of marmoset SVZ explants cultured in Matrigel showed the neuroblasts migrating in chains, like rodent type A cells. These results suggest that some features of neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the SVZ are common to marmosets, humans, and rodents. This basic description of the adult and neonatal marmoset SVZ will be useful for future studies on adult neurogenesis in primates.
doi:10.1002/cne.22543
PMCID: PMC4096931  PMID: 21246550
common marmoset; subventricular zone; rostral migratory stream
9.  Computed tomography-guided resection of osteoid osteoma of the sacrum: a case report 
Introduction
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of young adults. Its symptoms can be diverse depending on the location of the tumor and especially difficult to diagnose when occurring in an atypical location. Osteoid osteoma arising in the sacrum is extremely rare, and here, we present a case that was treated successfully in a minimally invasive fashion under computed tomography guidance.
Case presentation
A 25-year-old Asian man was referred to our institution due to persistent pain in the buttock after 12 months of conservative treatment. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a ring-shaped radiolucency consistent with a nidus of osteoid osteoma in the sacrum. The lesion was subsequently resected under computed tomography guidance and the histological diagnosis was compatible with osteoid osteoma. His postoperative course was uneventful, and at two years after surgery our patient is symptom-free with no evidence of recurrence.
Conclusions
Computed tomography-guided resection of osteoid osteoma in the spinal column is feasible and accurate if there is adequate margin from vital organs. Although rare, it is important to always bear in mind the possibility of osteoid osteoma occurring in the sacrum when no other apparent lesion is detected.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-206
PMCID: PMC4088307  PMID: 24942997
Osteoid osteoma; Sacrum; CT-guided resection
10.  Investigation of chronic musculoskeletal pain (third report): with special reference to the importance of neuropathic pain and psychogenic pain 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2014;19(4):667-675.
Background
The previous epidemiological surveys conducted in Japan revealed that once the vicious cycle of chronic musculoskeletal pain begins, it is difficult to disrupt the cycle. This finding suggests the existence of problems with the conventional approaches to treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain focusing on neuropathic and psychogenic pain.
Methods
The questionnaire was sent again to the 660 subjects found to have persistent chronic pain in the epidemiological surveys conducted in 2011. Responses were collected from 588 subjects (response rate 90 %).
Results
Of the 588 responders, 365 (62 %) complained of persistent chronic pain. Among them, 128 (35 %) were still receiving treatment and 193 (53 %) had discontinued treatment. The degree of satisfaction with the treatment was low, and 66 % of the patients had switched the medical facility that they visited to receive treatment. The cited reasons for the change in the medical facility visited and discontinuation of treatment were “treatment was ineffective,” “I did not have sufficient time,” “I thought I could take care of it myself,” and “Treatment seemed to be unnecessary”. Involvement of neuropathic pain was suggested in 20 % of all the patients with chronic pain. As the PainDETECT Score rose, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score became higher and the change of medical facility for treatment also increased. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale score was correlated positively with the VAS score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was significantly correlated with the VAS score and the duration of pain.
Discussion
The results of this survey indicated that the chronic course of musculoskeletal pain may be attributable to the following factors: (1) lack of appropriate treatment of neuropathic pain and psychogenic pain, and (2) insufficient awareness/knowledge among patients about chronic musculoskeletal pain.
doi:10.1007/s00776-014-0567-6
PMCID: PMC4111854  PMID: 24737064
11.  Surgeons' Exposure to Radiation in Single- and Multi-Level Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion; A Prospective Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95233.
Although minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has widely been developed in patients with lumbar diseases, surgeons risk exposure to fluoroscopic radiation. However, to date, there is no studies quantifying the effective dose during MIS-TLIF procedure, and the radiation dose distribution is still unclear. In this study, the surgeons' radiation doses at 5 places on the bodies were measured and the effective doses were assessed during 31 consecutive 1- to 3-level MIS-TLIF surgeries. The operating surgeon, assisting surgeon, and radiological technologist wore thermoluminescent dosimeter on the unshielded thyroid, chest, genitals, right middle finger, and on the chest beneath a lead apron. The doses at the lens and the effective doses were also calculated. Mean fluoroscopy times were 38.7, 53.1, and 58.5 seconds for 1, 2, or 3 fusion levels, respectively. The operating surgeon's mean exposures at the lens, thyroid, chest, genitals, finger, and the chest beneath the shield, respectively, were 0.07, 0.07, 0.09, 0.14, 0.32, and 0.05 mSv in 1-level MIS-TLIF; 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.18, 0.34, and 0.05 mSv in 2-level; 0.08, 0.09, 0.14, 0.15, 0.36, and 0.06 mSv in 3-level; and 0.07, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.33, and 0.05 mSv in all cases. Mean dose at the operating surgeon's right finger was significantly higher than other measurements parts (P<0.001). The operating surgeon's effective doses (0.06, 0.06, and 0.07 mSv for 1, 2, and 3 fusion levels) were low, and didn't differ significantly from those of the assisting surgeon or radiological technologist. Revision MIS-TLIF was not associated with higher surgeons' radiation doses compared to primary MIS-TLIF. There were significantly higher surgeons' radiation doses in over-weight than in normal-weight patients. The surgeons' radiation exposure during MIS-TLIF was within the safe level by the International Commission on Radiological Protection's guidelines. The accumulated radiation exposure, especially to surgeon's hands, should be carefully monitored.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095233
PMCID: PMC3988176  PMID: 24736321
12.  Tandem age-related lumbar and cervical intervertebral disc changes in asymptomatic subjects 
European Spine Journal  2012;22(4):708-713.
Purpose
To investigate the frequency of tandem lumbar and cervical intervertebral disc degeneration in asymptomatic subjects.
Methods
We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results from 94 volunteers (48 men and 46 women; mean age 48 years) for age-related intervertebral disc degeneration in the lumbar and cervical spine.
Results
MRI indicated degenerative changes in the lumbar spine in 79 subjects (84 %), with decreased disc signal intensity in 74.5 %, posterior disc protrusion in 78.7 %, anterior compression of the dura in 81.9 %, disc space narrowing in 21.3 %, and spinal canal stenosis in 12.8 %. These findings were more common in older subjects at caudal levels. MRI showed degenerative changes in both the lumbar and cervical spine in 78.7 % of the volunteers.
Conclusions
Degenerative findings in both the lumbar and cervical spine, suggesting tandem disc degeneration, was common in asymptomatic subjects. These results provide normative data for evaluating patients with degenerative lumbar and cervical disc diseases.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2500-z
PMCID: PMC3631032  PMID: 22990606
MRI; Disc degeneration; Lumbar spine; Cervical spine; Asymptomatic subjects
13.  A GC polymorphism associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is a risk factor for hip fracture in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: 10-year follow-up of the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort study 
Introduction
Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and hip fracture than healthy individuals. Genetic variants affecting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, an indicator of vitamin D status, were recently identified by genome-wide association studies of Caucasian populations. The purpose of this study was to validate the association and to test whether the serum 25(OH)D-linked genetic variants were associated with the occurrence of hip fracture in Japanese RA patients.
Methods
DNA samples of 1,957 Japanese RA patients were obtained from the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA) cohort DNA collection. First, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were reported to be associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration by genome-wide association studies were genotyped. The SNPs that showed a significant association with serum 25(OH)D level in the cross-sectional study were used in the longitudinal analysis of hip fracture risk. The genetic risk for hip fracture was determined by a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model in 1,957 patients with a maximum follow-up of 10 years (median, 8 years).
Results
Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that rs2282679 in GC (the gene encoding group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)) locus was significantly associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (P = 8.1 × 10-5). A Cox proportional hazards model indicated that rs2282679 in GC was significantly associated with the occurrence of hip fracture in a recessive model (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) = 2.52 (1.05-6.05), P = 0.039).
Conclusions
A two-staged analysis demonstrated that rs2282679 in GC was associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration and could be a risk factor for hip fracture in Japanese RA patients.
doi:10.1186/ar4516
PMCID: PMC4060202  PMID: 24646907
14.  Computed tomography measurement of glenoid vault version as an alternative measuring method for glenoid version 
Background
The conventional measuring method for glenoid version is greatly influenced by the scapular body shape that varies widely between patients. We postulated that the glenoid vault version could be more useful than the conventional glenoid version in clinical cases.
Objectives
The purposes of this study were to compare the values of glenoid version measured with the conventional method to those with the vault method and to investigate the feasibility of the glenoid vault version.
Methods
Computed tomography scans of 150 normal shoulders and 150 arthritic shoulders were analyzed. Three-dimensionally corrected slices were reconstructed from the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, and glenoid version was measured with both the conventional and vault methods. After determining intra- and interrater reliabilities, differences in glenoid version values between the conventional and vault methods were assessed. In the normal shoulder group, side-to-side differences of glenoid version values were also evaluated in both methods.
Results
Both measuring methods demonstrated high intra- and interrater reliabilities. The normal glenoid had 1.1° ± 3.2° retroversion with the conventional method and 8.9° ± 2.7° retroversion with the vault method. The average glenoid retroversion of arthritic shoulders was 10.8° ± 9.3° measured with the conventional method and 18.2° ± 9.1° with the vault method. The vault method showed significantly larger glenoid retroversion than the conventional method in both normal and arthritic shoulder groups. Both conventional glenoid retroversion and glenoid vault retroversion were significantly larger on dominant sides than on nondominant sides in the normal shoulders.
Conclusions
The glenoid vault version could be used as an alternative measuring method for glenoid version with high reliability. In clinical use, the glenoid vault version appears to be more useful than the conventional glenoid version to assess the severity of arthritis and difficulty of glenoid replacement. The glenoid vault is not symmetric, but usually retroverted in both normal and arthritic shoulders.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-9-17
PMCID: PMC3995775  PMID: 24618285
Glenoid vault; Glenoid version; Glenoid retroversion; Shoulder arthroplasty; Glenoid component; Glenoid replacement; Glenoid morphology
15.  Rewiring of regenerated axons by combining treadmill training with semaphorin3A inhibition 
Molecular Brain  2014;7:14.
Background
Rats exhibit extremely limited motor function recovery after total transection of the spinal cord (SCT). We previously reported that SM-216289, a semaphorin3A inhibitor, enhanced axon regeneration and motor function recovery in SCT adult rats. However, these effects were limited because most regenerated axons likely do not connect to the right targets. Thus, rebuilding the appropriate connections for regenerated axons may enhance recovery. In this study, we combined semaphorin3A inhibitor treatment with extensive treadmill training to determine whether combined treatment would further enhance the “rewiring” of regenerated axons. In this study, which aimed for clinical applicability, we administered a newly developed, potent semaphorin3A inhibitor, SM-345431 (Vinaxanthone), using a novel drug delivery system that enables continuous drug delivery over the period of the experiment.
Results
Treatment with SM-345431 using this delivery system enhanced axon regeneration and produced significant, but limited, hindlimb motor function recovery. Although extensive treadmill training combined with SM-345431 administration did not further improve axon regeneration, hindlimb motor performance was restored, as evidenced by the significant improvement in the execution of plantar steps on a treadmill. In contrast, control SCT rats could not execute plantar steps at any point during the experimental period. Further analyses suggested that this strategy reinforced the wiring of central pattern generators in lumbar spinal circuits, which, in turn, led to enhanced motor function recovery (especially in extensor muscles).
Conclusions
This study highlights the importance of combining treatments that promote axon regeneration with specific and appropriate rehabilitations that promote rewiring for the treatment of spinal cord injury.
doi:10.1186/1756-6606-7-14
PMCID: PMC4008261  PMID: 24618249
Axonal regeneration; Semaphorin3A; Inhibitor; Rehabilitation; Rewiring; Drug delivery system
16.  Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression 
Background
Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice.
Methods
Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests.
Results
Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated that classically activated microglia/macrophages had migrated to the compressed spinal cord and eliminated synaptic terminals.
Conclusions
We revealed the detailed pathophysiology of the inflammatory response in an animal model of chronic spinal cord compression. Our findings suggest that complement-mediated synapse elimination is a central mechanism underlying the neurodegeneration in CCM.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-11-40
PMCID: PMC3975877  PMID: 24589419
cervical compressive myelopathy; tip-toe walking Yoshimura mice; complement activation classical pathway; synapse elimination
17.  Prevalence and characteristics of chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan: A second survey of people with or without chronic pain 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2014;19(2):339-350.
Abstract
Background
An epidemiological survey conducted in Japan in fiscal year 2010 revealed a high prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain, low patient satisfaction with treatment, a high incidence of protracted treatment lasting a year or more, and reduced quality of life. To improve the current system for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain, it is important to identify risk factors, including patient characteristics, for developing chronic pain. Thus, we sought to determine the incidence of new chronic pain in the Japanese population, as well as the persistence rate, associated factors, and current state of treatment of chronic pain, by repeating a postal survey in a nationwide representative sample group first surveyed in 2010.
Methods
Among 11,507 participants in the 2010 epidemiological survey, 1,717 reported chronic pain and 6,283 reported no chronic pain. A repeat questionnaire, mailed to subjects in these 2 groups in fiscal year 2011, received replies from 85 % of those who reported pain and 76 % of those without pain in 2010.
Results
The incidence of new chronic pain was 11.1 %. Risk factors for developing chronic pain included working in a professional, managerial, or clerical/specialist occupation, being female, having a BMI ≥25; currently using alcohol or cigarettes; and having completed an education level of vocational school or higher. Persistent chronic pain was reported by 45.2 % of respondents. Those with severe (VAS score ≥7) and constant lower-back pain lasting more than 5 years had the highest risk of the pain persisting. More than 80 % respondents with persistent chronic pain had a history of treatment, and while about 30 % were still receiving treatment at the time of the survey, the other 50 % had discontinued treatment despite the persistence of pain because of a low degree of satisfaction with treatment.
Discussion
We identified risk factors related to the development of new chronic pain and the persistence of chronic pain. Countermeasures to prevent chronic pain could be especially important for the high-risk populations for understanding the pathology of chronic pain.
doi:10.1007/s00776-013-0525-8
PMCID: PMC3960485  PMID: 24504984
18.  Subluxation of the Palmar Radioulnar Ligament As a Cause of Blocked Forearm Supination: A Case of DRUJ Locking 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2013;2(1):83-86.
We report a case of locking of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) due to interposition of a flap of the palmar radioulnar ligament (RUL) torn from the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). We released the blockage by elevating the flap and partially resecting a portion of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) arthroscopically.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1333065
PMCID: PMC3656574  PMID: 24436794
locking; distal radioulnar joint; triangular fibrocartilage complex; pronation contracture; radioulnar ligament
19.  Radiographic Parameter Analysis on Modified Sauvé-Kapandji Procedure 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2013;2(1):19-26.
Purpose The Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure is now an established treatment option for symptomatic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dysfunction. However, for patients with poor bone quality (frequently as a result of advanced-stage rheumatoid arthritis [RA]), the conventional S-K procedure is difficult to perform without reducing the radioulnar diameter of the wrist, which may result in a loss of grip strength and pain over the proximal ulnar stump. The purpose of this study was to review the radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent a modified S-K procedure that involves rotating the resected ulnar segment 90 degrees and using it to bridge the gap between the sigmoid notch and the ulnar head.
Methods The modified S-K procedure was performed in 29 wrists of 23 patients. Twenty-one patients had severe RA, while two had malunited radius fractures. The mean follow-up period was 43 months (range, 23 to 95). The radiographic evaluation included a measurement of the radioulnar width, the pseudarthrosis gap between the proximal and distal ulnar stump, the radioulnar distance, and the ulnar translation of the carpus.
Results The radioulnar width of the wrist, pseudarthrosis gap, and radioulnar distance were well maintained throughout the period. A postoperative loss in the radioulnar width of the wrists appeared to correlate with a postoperative additional ulnar translocation of the carpus.
Conclusion Narrowing of the radioulnar width of the wrist is a potential cause of progressive ulnar translocation of the carpus. The modified technique for the S-K procedure maintains the distal ulna in the proper position and provides sufficient ulnar support for the carpus. It is a useful reconstruction procedure in patients with severe RA with poor bone quality.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1333061
PMCID: PMC3656575  PMID: 24436785
modified Sauvé-Kapandji; radiographic evaluation; distal radioulnar joint
20.  Morphometric analysis of the lumbar intervertebral foramen in patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis by multidetector-row computed tomography 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(12):2594-2602.
Purpose
How the lumbar neural foramina are affected by segmental deformities in patients in whom degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) is unknown. Here, we used multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to measure the morphology of the foramina in three dimensions, which allowed us to elucidate the relationships between foraminal morphology and segmental deformities in DLS.
Methods
In 77 DLS patients (mean age, 69.4) and 19 controls (mean age, 69), the foraminal height (FH), foraminal width (FW), posterior disc height (PDH), interval between the pedicle and superior articular process (P-SAP), and cross-sectional foraminal area (FA) were measured on reconstructed MDCT data, using image-editing software, at the entrance, minimum-area point, and exit of each foramen. The parameters of segmental deformity included the intervertebral wedging angle and anteroposterior and lateral translation rate, measured on radiographs, and the vertebral rotation angle, measured using reconstructed MDCT images.
Results
The FH, PDH, P-SAP, and FA were smaller at lower lumbar levels and on the concave side of intervertebral wedging (p < 0.05). In the DLS patients, the FH, P-SAP, and FA were significantly smaller than for the control group at all three foraminal locations and every lumbar level (p < 0.05). Intervertebral wedging strongly decreased the FA of the concave side (p < 0.05). Anteroposterior translation caused the greatest reduction in P-SAP (p < 0.05). Vertebral rotation decreased the P-SAP and FA at the minimum-area point on the same side as the rotation (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The new analysis method proposed here is useful for understanding the pathomechanisms of foraminal stenosis in DLS patients.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2408-7
PMCID: PMC3508233  PMID: 22743646
Degenerative lumbar scoliosis; Segmental deformity; Intervertebral foramina; Multidetector-row computed tomography
21.  FOXC2 Mutations in Familial and Sporadic Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80548.
Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEDAC) is a cyst in the spinal canal that protrudes into the epidural space from a defect in the dura mater. Most cases are sporadic; however, three familial SEDAC cases have been reported, suggesting genetic etiological factors. All familial cases are associated with lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), whose causal gene is FOXC2. However, FOXC2 mutation analysis has been performed in only 1 family, and no mutation analysis has been performed on sporadic (non-familial) SEDACs. We recruited 17 SEDAC subjects consisting of 2 familial and 7 sporadic cases and examined FOXC2 mutations by Sanger sequencing and structural abnormalities by TaqMan copy number assay. We identified 2 novel FOXC2 mutations in 2 familial cases. Incomplete LDS penetrance was noted in both families. Four subjects presented with SEDACs only. Thus, SEDAC caused by the heterozygous FOXC2 loss-of-function mutation should be considered a feature of LDS, although it often manifests as the sole symptom. Seven sporadic SEDAC subjects had no FOXC2 mutations, no symptoms of LDS, and showed differing clinical characteristics from those who had FOXC2 mutations, suggesting that other gene(s) besides FOXC2 are likely to be involved in SEDAC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080548
PMCID: PMC3838418  PMID: 24278289
22.  Comparative study of spinopelvic sagittal alignment between patients with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(11):2181-2187.
Introduction
To date, few studies have focused on spinopelvic sagittal alignment as a predisposing factor for the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The objectives of this study were to compare differences in spinopelvic sagittal alignment between patients with or without DS and to elucidate factors related to spinopelvic sagittal alignment.
Materials and methods
A total of 100 patients with or without DS who underwent surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis were assessed in this study. Fifty patients with DS (DS group) and 50 age- and gender-matched patients without DS (non-DS group) were enrolled. Spinopelvic parameters including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), L4 slope, L5 slope, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL) and sagittal balance were compared between the two groups. In the DS group, the percentage of vertebral slip (% slip) was also measured.
Results
Several spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS, L4 slope, L5 slope, TK and LL, in the DS group were significantly greater than those in the non-DS group, and PI had positive correlation with % slip (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Degrees of correlations among spinopelvic parameters differed between the two groups. In the DS group, PI was more strongly correlated with SS (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) than with PT (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). In the non-DS group, PI was more strongly correlated with PT (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) than with SS (r = 0.38, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Greater PI may lead to the development and the progression of vertebral slip. Different compensatory mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of spinopelvic sagittal alignment in DS and non-DS patients.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2374-0
PMCID: PMC3481103  PMID: 22639298
Spinopelvic sagittal alignment; Pelvic incidence; Lumbar spinal canal stenosis; Degenerative spondylolisthesis; Percentage of vertebral slip
23.  Updates on surgical treatments for pediatric scoliosis 
Scoliosis in children poses serious problems including respiratory problems, trunk imbalance, and depression, as well as detracting from the child’s appearance. Scoliosis can also contribute to back pain later in life. Advanced surgical techniques allow for good correction and maintenance of progressive curves, and growth-sparing treatments are now available for patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Posterior corrective surgeries using pedicle screw (PS) constructs, which allow curves to be corrected in three dimensions, has become the most popular surgical treatment for scoliosis. Several navigation systems and probes have been developed to aid in accurate PS placement. For thoracolumbar and lumbar curves, anterior surgery remains the method of choice. Growth-sparing techniques for treating EOS include growing rods, the Shilla method, anterior stapling, and vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib, which was originally designed to treat thoracic insufficiency syndrome. However, these advanced surgical techniques do not always offer a perfect solution for pediatric scoliosis, and they are associated with complications such as infections and problems with instrumentation. Surgeons have developed several techniques in efforts to address these complications. We here review historic and recent advances in the surgical treatment of scoliosis in children, the problems associated with various techniques, and the challenges that remain to be overcome.
doi:10.1007/s00776-013-0474-2
PMCID: PMC3929026  PMID: 24132791
24.  IL-32-PAR2 axis is an innate immunity sensor providing alternative signaling for LPS-TRIF axis 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2960.
Interleukin (IL)-32 is known to exert adujvant effects on innate immune response, however, receptors and downstream signaling pathways remain to be clarified. Here we found that IL-32γ upregulated serine protease activity of proteinase-3 (PR3), in turn triggering protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling. Interestingly, silencing of PR3 or PAR2 using siRNA markedly diminished IL-32γ-induced TNFα and IFN-β mRNA expression. IL-32γ-PAR2 axis utilized TRIF and Ras-Raf-1 pathways. On stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), differential activation of protein kinase C isoforms modulated the balance between LPS-TLR4-TRIF and IL-32-PAR2-TRIF axes, because LPS was a strong inducer of IL-32γ. IL-32-PAR2-TRIF axis might serve not only as an extracellular sensor of bacterial and autologous proteases, but also as a modulator of innate and adaptive immunity during infection.
doi:10.1038/srep02960
PMCID: PMC3797434  PMID: 24129891
25.  Lumbar disc degeneration is linked to a carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 variant 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(11):4909-4917.
Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is associated with both genetic and environmental factors and affects many people worldwide. A hallmark of LDD is loss of proteoglycan and water content in the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. While some genetic determinants have been reported, the etiology of LDD is largely unknown. Here we report the findings from linkage and association studies on a total of 32,642 subjects consisting of 4,043 LDD cases and 28,599 control subjects. We identified carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3), an enzyme that catalyzes proteoglycan sulfation, as a susceptibility gene for LDD. The strongest genome-wide linkage peak encompassed CHST3 from a Southern Chinese family–based data set, while a genome-wide association was observed at rs4148941 in the gene in a meta-analysis using multiethnic population cohorts. rs4148941 lies within a potential microRNA-513a-5p (miR-513a-5p) binding site. Interaction between miR-513a-5p and mRNA transcribed from the susceptibility allele (A allele) of rs4148941 was enhanced in vitro compared with transcripts from other alleles. Additionally, expression of CHST3 mRNA was significantly reduced in the intervertebral disc cells of human subjects carrying the A allele of rs4148941. Together, our data provide new insights into the etiology of LDD, implicating an interplay between genetic risk factors and miRNA.
doi:10.1172/JCI69277
PMCID: PMC3809787  PMID: 24216480

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