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1.  Analysis of Clinical Features and Outcome of 356 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients in China 
Breast Care  2012;7(1):13-17.
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological features and analyze the prognostic factors of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
Patients and Methods
The clinical data of 1,788 breast cancer patients was collected and analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors for survival was performed using the Cox regression model.
Results
Patients with TNBC exhibited characteristics significantly differing from those with non-TNBC. There was a higher proportion of patients with age < 35 years, stage III disease, tumor size > 5 cm, lymph node positivity, and histological grade 3. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of TNBC and non-TNBC patients were 75.7 and 79.6%, respectively (p < 0.05). 5-year overall survival (OS) was 86.6 and 93.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the independent prognostic factors for shorter DFS were age < 35 years (hazard ratio (HR) 2.105), positive lymph nodes (HR 7.039), histological grade 3 (HR 1.841), and for shorter OS positive lymph nodes (HR 4.626).
Conclusion
The proportion of TNBC in breast cancer in China is higher than in other areas. TNBC is correlated with younger age, larger tumor size, positive lymph nodes, higher clinical stage and histological grade, and lower DFS and OS, which is consistent with previous reports.
doi:10.1159/000336539
PMCID: PMC3335351  PMID: 22553467
Triple-negative breast cancer: clinical features, prognosis; Multivariate analysis
2.  MBL-Mediated Opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by Human Neutrophils Is Coupled with Intracellular Dectin-1-Triggered ROS Production 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50589.
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a lectin homologous to C1q, greatly facilitates C3/C4-mediated opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans (C. albicans) by human neutrophils, and has the capacity to bind to CR1 (CD35) expressed on circulating neutrophils. The intracellular pool of neutrophil Dectin-1 plays a critical role in stimulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through recognition of β-1,3-glucan component of phagocytized zymosan or yeasts. However, little is known about whether MBL can mediate the opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by neutrophils independent of complement activation, and whether MBL-mediated opsonophagocytosis influence the intracellular expression of Dectin-1 and ROS production. Here we showed that the inhibited phagocytic efficiency of neutrophils as a result of blockage of Dectin-1 was compensated by exogenous MBL alone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of Dectin-1 at mRNA and intracellular protein levels were significantly up-regulated in neutrophils stimulated by MBL-pre-incubated C. albicans, while the expression of surface Dectin-1 remained almost unchanged. Nevertheless, the stimulated ROS production in neutrophils was partly and irreversibly inhibited by blockage of Dectin-1 in the presence of exogenous MBL. Confocal microscopy examination showed that intracellular Dectin-1 was recruited and co-distributed with ROS on the surface of some phagocytized yeasts. The β-1,3-glucanase digestion test further suggested that the specific recognition and binding site of human Dectin-1 is just the β-1,3-glucan moiety on the cell wall of C. albicans. These data demonstrate that MBL has an ability to mediate the opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by human neutrophils independent of complement activation, which is coupled with intracellular Dectin-1-triggered ROS production.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050589
PMCID: PMC3519760  PMID: 23239982
3.  Clinicopathological Characteristics and Survival Analysis of 87 Male Breast Cancer Cases 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):446-451.
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy methods, and prognosis of male breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence or metastasis, and survival information of 87 male breast cancer patients. Statistical analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method to analyze survivals, log-rank to compare curves between groups, and Cox regression for multivariate prognostic analysis. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
5-year disease free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 66.3 and 77.0%, respectively. Monofactorial analysis showed tumor size, stage, lymph node involvement, and adjuvant chemotherapy to be prognostic factors with regard to 5-year DFS and 5-year OS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed tumor size, stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy to be independent prognostic factors with regard to 5-year DFS and 5-year OS.
Conclusion
Male breast cancer has a lower incidence rate and poor prognosis. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the main pathologic type. Operation-based combined therapy is the standard care for these patients. Tumor size, stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy are independent prognostic factors. More emphasis should be placed on early diagnosis and early therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival.
doi:10.1159/000335204
PMCID: PMC3290016  PMID: 22419898
Male breast cancer; Clinical characteristics; Therapy; Prognosis
4.  Quality of Life after Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation and High-Dose Chemotherapy in High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients 
Breast Care  2009;4(6):379-386.
Summary
Background
As long-term survivors of breast cancer after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are becoming more numerous, studies addressing the issue of long-term follow-up are necessary. In this study, we report on the quality of life (QOL) after ASCT and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT).
Patients and Methods
The QOL questionnaire version 3.0 by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0) was filled in by patients and healthy controls at 5 time points. After obtaining the results, we analyzed the correlation between QOL and the effect factors.
Results
Some functions got significantly worse, and some symptoms got more serious after ASCT and HDCT. However, most of them improved with time and were comparable to the healthy controls after 5 years. QOL was in part related to age, tumor characteristics, educational level, marriage status, and income.
Conclusions
Evaluating QOL allows medical workers to fully understand a patient's state of health, and aid the estimation and selection of clinical treatment methods as well as improve recovery.
doi:10.1159/000266759
PMCID: PMC2942001  PMID: 20877673
Quality of life; Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; High-risk breast cancer
5.  Assignment of Reference 5’-end 16S rDNA Sequences and Species-Specific Sequence Polymorphisms Improves Species Identification of Nocardia 
16S rDNA sequence analysis is the most accurate method for definitive species identification of nocardiae. However, conflicting results can be found due to sequence errors in gene databases. This study tested the feasibility of species identification of Nocardia by partial (5’-end 606-bp) 16S rDNA sequencing, based on sequence comparison with “reference” sequences of well-annotated strains. This new approach was evaluated using 96 American Type Culture Collection (n=6), and clinical (n=90) Nocardia isolates. Nucleotide sequence-based polymorphisms within species were indicative of “sequence types” for that species. Sequences were compared with those in the GenBank, Bioinformatics Bacteria Identification and Ribosomal Database Project databases. Compared with the reference sequence set, all 96 isolates were correctly identified using the criterion of ≥99% sequence similarity. Seventy-eight (81.3%) were speciated by database comparison; alignment with reference sequences resolved the identity of 14 (15%) isolates whose sequences yielded 100% similarity to sequences in GenBank under >1 species designation. Of 90 clinical isolates, the commonest species was Nocardia nova (33.3%) followed by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (26.7%). Recently-described or uncommon species included Nocardia veterana (4.4%), Nocarida bejingensis (2.2%) and, Nocardia abscessus and Nocardia arthriditis (each n=1). Nocardia asteroides sensu stricto was rare (n=1). There were nine sequence types of N. nova, three of Nocardia brasiliensis with two each of N. cyriacigeorgica and Nocardia farcinica. Thirteen novel sequences were identified. Alignment of sequences with reference sequences facilitated species identification of Nocardia and allowed delineation of sequence types within species, suggesting that such a barcoding approach can be clinically useful for identification of bacteria.
doi:10.2174/1874285800903010097
PMCID: PMC2714554  PMID: 19639036
Nocardia spp.; species identification; 16S rDNA; reference sequences; sequence polymorphisms.
6.  Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Trichophyton Species, Based on Sequence Polymorphisms of the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions, by Rolling-Circle Amplification▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(4):1192-1199.
DNA sequencing analyses have demonstrated relatively limited polymorphisms within the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions among Trichophyton spp. We sequenced the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) for 42 dermatophytes belonging to seven species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, T. tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and developed a novel padlock probe and rolling-circle amplification (RCA)-based method for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be exploited to differentiate between Trichophyton spp. Sequencing results demonstrated intraspecies genetic variation for T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, and T. soudanense but not T. rubrum. Signature sets of SNPs between T. rubrum and T. soudanense (4-bp difference) and T. violaceum and T. soudanense (3-bp difference) were identified. The RCA assay correctly identified five Trichophyton species. Although the use of two “group-specific” probes targeting both the ITS1 and the ITS2 regions were required to identify T. soudanense, the other species were identified by single ITS1- or ITS2-targeted species-specific probes. There was good agreement between ITS sequencing and the RCA assay. Despite limited genetic variation between Trichophyton spp., the sensitive, specific RCA-based SNP detection assay showed potential as a simple, reproducible method for the rapid (2-h) identification of Trichophyton spp.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02235-07
PMCID: PMC2292936  PMID: 18234865
7.  Identification of Less-Common Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes by a Multiplex PCR-Based Reverse Line Blot Hybridization Assay▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(10):3411-3415.
We developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay to identify 50 uncommon pneumococcal serotypes. In combination with a previously described mPCR/RLB assay (3), all 90 pneumococcal serotypes can be identified individually (32 serotypes) or, because of predictable cross-reactions, to within small groups of two to five related serotypes (58 serotypes), which can be distinguished using serotype-specific antisera.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01076-07
PMCID: PMC2045372  PMID: 17687009
8.  Comparison of Single- and Multilocus Sequence Typing and Toxin Gene Profiling for Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(10):3302-3308.
We compared three novel methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotyping methods with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing to assess their utility for routine strain typing. The new methods were femA and nuc sequence typing and toxin gene profiling (TGP), using a multiplex-PCR-based reverse line blot assay to detect 13 pyrogenic superantigen and exfoliative toxin genes. Forty-two well-characterized MRSA strains, representing 15 MLSTs or 9 clonal clusters (CCs), were genotyped by all methods. Twenty-two spa, nine femA, and seven nuc sequence types were identified. The femA sequence types correlated exactly with CCs; nuc sequences types were less discriminatory but generally correlated well with femA types and CCs. Ten isolates contained none of 13 toxin genes; TGPs of the remainder comprised 1 to 5 toxin genes. The combination of spa typing and TGPs identified 26 genotypes among the 42 strains studied. A combination of two or three rapid, inexpensive genotyping methods could potentially provide rapid MRSA strain typing as well as useful information about clonal origin and virulence.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01082-07
PMCID: PMC2045362  PMID: 17715374
9.  In Vitro Activities of Miltefosine and Two Novel Antifungal Biscationic Salts against a Panel of 77 Dermatophytes▿  
The susceptibilities of 77 dermatophytes to miltefosine (MI), 1,12-bis(4-pentylpyridinium)dodecane (PYR), 1,12-bis(tributylammonium)dodecane (AM), itraconazole (ITC), terbinafine (TRB), and butenafine (BTF) were compared. Geometric mean MICs of TRB, BTF, ITC, MI, PYR, and AM were 0.039, 0.059, 1.718, 0.671, 6.006, and 4.771 μg/ml, respectively. MI was more active than ITC (P < 0.001).
doi:10.1128/AAC.01382-06
PMCID: PMC1891392  PMID: 17371821

Results 1-9 (9)