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1.  Expression of cancer-testis antigens MAGEA1, MAGEA3, ACRBP, PRAME, SSX2, and CTAG2 in myxoid and round cell liposarcoma 
Myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma is a frequently encountered liposarcoma subtype. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical excision with or without chemoradiation. However, treatment options are limited in the setting of metastatic disease. Cancer-testis antigens are immunogenic antigens with the expression largely restricted to testicular germ cells and various malignancies, making them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Gene expression studies have reported the expression of various cancer-testis antigens in liposarcoma, with mRNA expression of CTAG1B, CTAG2, MAGEA9, and PRAME described specifically in myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma. Herein, we further explore the expression of the cancer-testis antigens MAGEA1, ACRBP, PRAME, and SSX2 in myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma by immunohistochemistry in addition to determining mRNA levels of CTAG2 (LAGE-1), PRAME, and MAGEA3 by quantitative real-time PCR. Samples in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks (n=37) and frozen tissue (n=8) were obtained for immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Full sections were stained with antibodies to MAGEA1, ACRBP, PRAME, and SSX2 and staining was assessed for intensity (1–2+) and percent tumor positivity. The gene expression levels of CTAG2, PRAME, and MAGEA3 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In total, 37/37 (100%) of the samples showed predominantly strong, homogenous immunoreactivity for PRAME. There was a variable, focal expression of MAGEA1 (11%) and SSX2 (16%) and no expression of ACRBP. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated PRAME and CTAG2 transcripts in all eight samples: six tumors with high mRNA levels; two tumors with low mRNA levels. The gene expression of MAGEA3 was not detected in the majority of cases. In conclusion, myxoid and round-cell liposarcomas consistently express PRAME by immunohistochemistry as well as CTAG2 and PRAME by qualitative real-time PCR. This supports the use of cancer-testis antigen-targeted immunotherapy in the treatment of this malignancy.
doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.244
PMCID: PMC4287229  PMID: 24457462
cancer-testis antigens; immunotherapeutics; myxoid and round-cell liposarcoma
2.  Characterization of BRCA1 Ring Finger Variants of Uncertain Significance 
The majority of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 result in a truncated protein. Although most missense changes in BRCA1 are of unknown functional significance, a handful of deleterious missense mutations have been identified. The majority of these occur in splice sites or highly conserved protein domains. Previously, we developed a predictive model, VUS Predict, to classify BRCA variants of uncertain significance as neutral or deleterious. It uses evolutionary prediction algorithms together with clinical information from cancer pathology reports and BRCA genetic testing results. Because of the higher probability that missense changes occurring in conserved BRCA1 domains are of pathogenic significance, we identified all individuals in our cohort who had been tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations who had missense changes in the BRCA1 ring finger domain and sought to classify those changes. We applied VUS Predict to three previously uncharacterized variants and four missense changes known to be deleterious. Two variants, L22S and T37K, were predicted to be deleterious and one variant, K45Q, was predicted to be neutral by VUS Predict. The mutations C39R, C44Y, C44S and C61G were confirmed as deleterious.
doi:10.1007/s10549-009-0438-6
PMCID: PMC4283813  PMID: 19543972
BRCA1; variants of uncertain significance; ring finger domain; mutation characterization
3.  MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk 
Khan, Sofia | Greco, Dario | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Milne, Roger L. | Muranen, Taru A. | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Aaltonen, Kirsimari | Dennis, Joe | Bolla, Manjeet K. | Liu, Jianjun | Hall, Per | Irwanto, Astrid | Humphreys, Keith | Li, Jingmei | Czene, Kamila | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Hein, Rebecca | Rudolph, Anja | Seibold, Petra | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Fletcher, Olivia | Peto, Julian | dos Santos Silva, Isabel | Johnson, Nichola | Gibson, Lorna | Aitken, Zoe | Hopper, John L. | Tsimiklis, Helen | Bui, Minh | Makalic, Enes | Schmidt, Daniel F. | Southey, Melissa C. | Apicella, Carmel | Stone, Jennifer | Waisfisz, Quinten | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne | Adank, Muriel A. | van der Luijt, Rob B. | Meindl, Alfons | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Müller-Myhsok, Bertram | Lichtner, Peter | Turnbull, Clare | Rahman, Nazneen | Chanock, Stephen J. | Hunter, David J. | Cox, Angela | Cross, Simon S. | Reed, Malcolm W. R. | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Broeks, Annegien | Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't. | Hogervorst, Frans B. | Fasching, Peter A. | Schrauder, Michael G. | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Bojesen, Stig E. | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Nielsen, Sune F. | Flyger, Henrik | Benitez, Javier | Zamora, Pilar M. | Perez, Jose I. A. | Haiman, Christopher A. | Henderson, Brian E. | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Pharoah, Paul D. P. | Dunning, Alison M. | Shah, Mitul | Luben, Robert | Brown, Judith | Couch, Fergus J. | Wang, Xianshu | Vachon, Celine | Olson, Janet E. | Lambrechts, Diether | Moisse, Matthieu | Paridaens, Robert | Christiaens, Marie-Rose | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Thérèse | Laurent-Puig, Pierre | Mulot, Claire | Marme, Frederick | Burwinkel, Barbara | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Sohn, Christof | Sawyer, Elinor J. | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael J. | Miller, Nicola | Andrulis, Irene L. | Knight, Julia A. | Tchatchou, Sandrine | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Dörk, Thilo | Bogdanova, Natalia V. | Antonenkova, Natalia N. | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Darabi, Hatef | Eriksson, Mikael | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Figueroa, Jonine | Lissowska, Jolanta | Brinton, Louise | Devilee, Peter | Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M. | Seynaeve, Caroline | van Asperen, Christi J. | Kristensen, Vessela N. | Slager, Susan | Toland, Amanda E. | Ambrosone, Christine B. | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Barile, Monica | Mariani, Paolo | Hooning, Maartje J. | Martens, John W. M. | Collée, J. Margriet | Jager, Agnes | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Giles, Graham G. | McLean, Catriona | Brauch, Hiltrud | Brüning, Thomas | Ko, Yon-Dschun | Brenner, Hermann | Dieffenbach, Aida Karina | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nick | Jones, Michael | Simard, Jacques | Goldberg, Mark S. | Labrèche, France | Dumont, Martine | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M. | Mannermaa, Arto | Hamann, Ute | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Blomqvist, Carl | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Easton, Douglas F. | Nevanlinna, Heli
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e109973.
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109973
PMCID: PMC4229095  PMID: 25390939
4.  Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium 
Milne, Roger L. | Burwinkel, Barbara | Michailidou, Kyriaki | Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio | Zamora, M. Pilar | Menéndez-Rodríguez, Primitiva | Hardisson, David | Mendiola, Marta | González-Neira, Anna | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, M. Rosario | Dennis, Joe | Wang, Qin | Bolla, Manjeet K. | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nick | Schoemaker, Minouk | Ko, Yon-Dschun | Brauch, Hiltrud | Hamann, Ute | Andrulis, Irene L. | Knight, Julia A. | Glendon, Gord | Tchatchou, Sandrine | Matsuo, Keitaro | Ito, Hidemi | Iwata, Hiroji | Tajima, Kazuo | Li, Jingmei | Brand, Judith S. | Brenner, Hermann | Dieffenbach, Aida Karina | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Lambrechts, Diether | Peuteman, Gilian | Christiaens, Marie-Rose | Smeets, Ann | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna | Durda, Katazyna | Hartman, Mikael | Hui, Miao | Yen Lim, Wei | Wan Chan, Ching | Marme, Federick | Yang, Rongxi | Bugert, Peter | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | García-Closas, Montserrat | Chanock, Stephen J. | Lissowska, Jolanta | Figueroa, Jonine D. | Bojesen, Stig E. | Nordestgaard, Børge G. | Flyger, Henrik | Hooning, Maartje J. | Kriege, Mieke | van den Ouweland, Ans M.W. | Koppert, Linetta B. | Fletcher, Olivia | Johnson, Nichola | dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel | Peto, Julian | Zheng, Wei | Deming-Halverson, Sandra | Shrubsole, Martha J. | Long, Jirong | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Rudolph, Anja | Seibold, Petra | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Cox, Angela | Cross, Simon S. | Reed, Malcolm W.R. | Schmidt, Marjanka K. | Broeks, Annegien | Cornelissen, Sten | Braaf, Linde | Kang, Daehee | Choi, Ji-Yeob | Park, Sue K. | Noh, Dong-Young | Simard, Jacques | Dumont, Martine | Goldberg, Mark S. | Labrèche, France | Fasching, Peter A. | Hein, Alexander | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Azzollini, Jacopo | Barile, Monica | Sawyer, Elinor | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael | Miller, Nicola | Hopper, John L. | Schmidt, Daniel F. | Makalic, Enes | Southey, Melissa C. | Hwang Teo, Soo | Har Yip, Cheng | Sivanandan, Kavitta | Tay, Wan-Ting | Shen, Chen-Yang | Hsiung, Chia-Ni | Yu, Jyh-Cherng | Hou, Ming-Feng | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Therese | Sanchez, Marie | Mulot, Claire | Blot, William | Cai, Qiuyin | Nevanlinna, Heli | Muranen, Taru A. | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blomqvist, Carl | Wu, Anna H. | Tseng, Chiu-Chen | Van Den Berg, David | Stram, Daniel O. | Bogdanova, Natalia | Dörk, Thilo | Muir, Kenneth | Lophatananon, Artitaya | Stewart-Brown, Sarah | Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M. | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Lu, Wei | Gao, Yu-Tang | Zhang, Ben | Couch, Fergus J. | Toland, Amanda E. | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | McKay, James | Wang, Xianshu | Olson, Janet E. | Vachon, Celine | Purrington, Kristen | Severi, Gianluca | Baglietto, Laura | Haiman, Christopher A. | Henderson, Brian E. | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Devilee, Peter | Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M. | Seynaeve, Caroline | Czene, Kamila | Eriksson, Mikael | Humphreys, Keith | Darabi, Hatef | Ahmed, Shahana | Shah, Mitul | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Hall, Per | Giles, Graham G. | Benítez, Javier | Dunning, Alison M. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Easton, Douglas F. | Berchuck, Andrew | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Olama, Ali Amin Al | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Benlloch, Sara | Antoniou, Antonis | McGuffog, Lesley | Offit, Ken | Lee, Andrew | Dicks, Ed | Luccarini, Craig | Tessier, Daniel C. | Bacot, Francois | Vincent, Daniel | LaBoissière, Sylvie | Robidoux, Frederic | Nielsen, Sune F. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Windebank, Sharon A. | Hilker, Christopher A. | Meyer, Jeffrey | Angelakos, Maggie | Maskiell, Judi | van der Schoot, Ellen | Rutgers, Emiel | Verhoef, Senno | Hogervorst, Frans | Boonyawongviroj, Prat | Siriwanarungsan, Pornthep | Schrauder, Michael | Rübner, Matthias | Oeser, Sonja | Landrith, Silke | Williams, Eileen | Ryder-Mills, Elaine | Sargus, Kara | McInerney, Niall | Colleran, Gabrielle | Rowan, Andrew | Jones, Angela | Sohn, Christof | Schneeweiß, Andeas | Bugert, Peter | Álvarez, Núria | Lacey, James | Wang, Sophia | Ma, Huiyan | Lu, Yani | Deapen, Dennis | Pinder, Rich | Lee, Eunjung | Schumacher, Fred | Horn-Ross, Pam | Reynolds, Peggy | Nelson, David | Ziegler, Hartwig | Wolf, Sonja | Hermann, Volker | Lo, Wing-Yee | Justenhoven, Christina | Baisch, Christian | Fischer, Hans-Peter | Brüning, Thomas | Pesch, Beate | Rabstein, Sylvia | Lotz, Anne | Harth, Volker | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Erkkilä, Irja | Aaltonen, Kirsimari | von Smitten, Karl | Antonenkova, Natalia | Hillemanns, Peter | Christiansen, Hans | Myöhänen, Eija | Kemiläinen, Helena | Thorne, Heather | Niedermayr, Eveline | Bowtell, D | Chenevix-Trench, G | deFazio, A | Gertig, D | Green, A | Webb, P | Green, A. | Parsons, P. | Hayward, N. | Webb, P. | Whiteman, D. | Fung, Annie | Yashiki, June | Peuteman, Gilian | Smeets, Dominiek | Brussel, Thomas Van | Corthouts, Kathleen | Obi, Nadia | Heinz, Judith | Behrens, Sabine | Eilber, Ursula | Celik, Muhabbet | Olchers, Til | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Scuvera, Giulietta | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Bonanni, Bernardo | Feroce, Irene | Maniscalco, Angela | Rossi, Alessandra | Bernard, Loris | Tranchant, Martine | Valois, Marie-France | Turgeon, Annie | Heguy, Lea | Sze Yee, Phuah | Kang, Peter | Nee, Kang In | Mariapun, Shivaani | Sook-Yee, Yoon | Lee, Daphne | Ching, Teh Yew | Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd | Otsukka, Meeri | Mononen, Kari | Selander, Teresa | Weerasooriya, Nayana | staff, OFBCR | Krol-Warmerdam, E. | Molenaar, J. | Blom, J. | Brinton, Louise | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila | Peplonska, Beata | Zatonski, Witold | Chao, Pei | Stagner, Michael | Bos, Petra | Blom, Jannet | Crepin, Ellen | Nieuwlaat, Anja | Heemskerk, Annette | Higham, Sue | Cross, Simon | Cramp, Helen | Connley, Dan | Balasubramanian, Sabapathy | Brock, Ian | Luccarini, Craig | Conroy, Don | Baynes, Caroline | Chua, Kimberley
Human Molecular Genetics  2014;23(22):6096-6111.
Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10, P = 2.9 × 10−6], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.07, P = 1.7 × 10−6) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.12, P = 5.1 × 10−17). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05–1.10, P = 1.0 × 10−8); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04–1.07, P = 2.0 × 10−10). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu311
PMCID: PMC4204770  PMID: 24943594
5.  Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Genomic Counseling for Patients with Chronic Disease 
We describe the development and implementation of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of genomic counseling on a cohort of patients with heart failure (HF) or hypertension (HTN), managed at a large academic medical center, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC). Our study is built upon the existing Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC®). OSUWMC patient participants with chronic disease (CD) receive eight actionable complex disease and one pharmacogenomic test report through the CPMC® web portal. Participants are randomized to either the in-person post-test genomic counseling—active arm, versus web-based only return of results—control arm. Study-specific surveys measure: (1) change in risk perception; (2) knowledge retention; (3) perceived personal control; (4) health behavior change; and, for the active arm (5), overall satisfaction with genomic counseling. This ongoing partnership has spurred creation of both infrastructure and procedures necessary for the implementation of genomics and genomic counseling in clinical care and clinical research. This included creation of a comprehensive informed consent document and processes for prospective return of actionable results for multiple complex diseases and pharmacogenomics (PGx) through a web portal, and integration of genomic data files and clinical decision support into an EPIC-based electronic medical record. We present this partnership, the infrastructure, genomic counseling approach, and the challenges that arose in the design and conduct of this ongoing trial to inform subsequent collaborative efforts and best genomic counseling practices.
doi:10.3390/jpm4010001
PMCID: PMC4051230  PMID: 24926413
implementation; genomics; medicine; randomized; patients; counseling; actionable; risk perception; pharmacogenomics
6.  DNA Glycosylases Involved in Base Excision Repair May Be Associated with Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers 
Osorio, Ana | Milne, Roger L. | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline | Vaclová, Tereza | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, Rosario | Peterlongo, Paolo | Blanco, Ignacio | de la Hoya, Miguel | Duran, Mercedes | Díez, Orland | Ramón y Cajal, Teresa | Konstantopoulou, Irene | Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina | Andrés Conejero, Raquel | Soucy, Penny | McGuffog, Lesley | Barrowdale, Daniel | Lee, Andrew | SWE-BRCA,  | Arver, Brita | Rantala, Johanna | Loman, Niklas | Ehrencrona, Hans | Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. | Beattie, Mary S. | Domchek, Susan M. | Nathanson, Katherine | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Arun, Banu K. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Walsh, Christine | Lester, Jenny | John, Esther M. | Whittemore, Alice S. | Daly, Mary B. | Southey, Melissa | Hopper, John | Terry, Mary B. | Buys, Saundra S. | Janavicius, Ramunas | Dorfling, Cecilia M. | van Rensburg, Elizabeth J. | Steele, Linda | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Ding, Yuan Chun | Hansen, Thomas v. O. | Jønson, Lars | Ejlertsen, Bent | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Infante, Mar | Herráez, Belén | Moreno, Leticia Thais | Weitzel, Jeffrey N. | Herzog, Josef | Weeman, Kisa | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Scuvera, Giulietta | Bonanni, Bernardo | Mariette, Frederique | Volorio, Sara | Viel, Alessandra | Varesco, Liliana | Papi, Laura | Ottini, Laura | Tibiletti, Maria Grazia | Radice, Paolo | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Garber, Judy | Ellis, Steve | Frost, Debra | Platte, Radka | Fineberg, Elena | Evans, Gareth | Lalloo, Fiona | Izatt, Louise | Eeles, Ros | Adlard, Julian | Davidson, Rosemarie | Cole, Trevor | Eccles, Diana | Cook, Jackie | Hodgson, Shirley | Brewer, Carole | Tischkowitz, Marc | Douglas, Fiona | Porteous, Mary | Side, Lucy | Walker, Lisa | Morrison, Patrick | Donaldson, Alan | Kennedy, John | Foo, Claire | Godwin, Andrew K. | Schmutzler, Rita Katharina | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Rhiem, Kerstin | Engel, Christoph | Meindl, Alfons | Ditsch, Nina | Arnold, Norbert | Plendl, Hans Jörg | Niederacher, Dieter | Sutter, Christian | Wang-Gohrke, Shan | Steinemann, Doris | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Kast, Karin | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Gehrig, Andrea | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Damiola, Francesca | Poppe, Bruce | Claes, Kathleen | Piedmonte, Marion | Tucker, Kathy | Backes, Floor | Rodríguez, Gustavo | Brewster, Wendy | Wakeley, Katie | Rutherford, Thomas | Caldés, Trinidad | Nevanlinna, Heli | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Rookus, Matti A. | van Os, Theo A. M. | van der Kolk, Lizet | de Lange, J. L. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J. | van der Hout, A. H. | van Asperen, Christi J. | Gómez Garcia, Encarna B. | Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline | Collée, J. Margriet | van Deurzen, Carolien H. M. | van der Luijt, Rob B. | Devilee, Peter | HEBON,  | Olah, Edith | Lázaro, Conxi | Teulé, Alex | Menéndez, Mireia | Jakubowska, Anna | Cybulski, Cezary | Gronwald, Jacek | Lubinski, Jan | Durda, Katarzyna | Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna | Johannsson, Oskar Th. | Maugard, Christine | Montagna, Marco | Tognazzo, Silvia | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Healey, Sue | Investigators, kConFab | Olswold, Curtis | Guidugli, Lucia | Lindor, Noralane | Slager, Susan | Szabo, Csilla I. | Vijai, Joseph | Robson, Mark | Kauff, Noah | Zhang, Liying | Rau-Murthy, Rohini | Fink-Retter, Anneliese | Singer, Christian F. | Rappaport, Christine | Geschwantler Kaulich, Daphne | Pfeiler, Georg | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Berger, Andreas | Phelan, Catherine M. | Greene, Mark H. | Mai, Phuong L. | Lejbkowicz, Flavio | Andrulis, Irene | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Glendon, Gord | Toland, Amanda Ewart | Bojesen, Anders | Pedersen, Inge Sokilde | Sunde, Lone | Thomassen, Mads | Kruse, Torben A. | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Friedman, Eitan | Laitman, Yael | Shimon, Shani Paluch | Simard, Jacques | Easton, Douglas F. | Offit, Kenneth | Couch, Fergus J. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Antoniou, Antonis C. | Benitez, Javier
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(4):e1004256.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03–1.16), p = 2.7×10−3) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03–1.21, p = 4.8×10−3). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.
Author Summary
Women harboring a germ-line mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer. However, not all carriers develop cancer and high variability exists regarding age of onset of the disease and type of tumor. One of the causes of this variability lies in other genetic factors that modulate the phenotype, the so-called modifier genes. Identification of these genes might have important implications for risk assessment and decision making regarding prevention of the disease. Given that BRCA1 and BRCA2 participate in the repair of DNA double strand breaks, here we have investigated whether variations, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes participating in other DNA repair pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA carriers. We have selected the Base Excision Repair pathway because BRCA defective cells are extremely sensitive to the inhibition of one of its components, PARP1. Thanks to a large international collaborative effort, we have been able to identify at least two SNPs that are associated with increased cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers respectively. These findings could have implications not only for risk assessment, but also for treatment of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with PARP inhibitors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004256
PMCID: PMC3974638  PMID: 24698998
7.  Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk 
Michailidou, Kyriaki | Hall, Per | Gonzalez-Neira, Anna | Ghoussaini, Maya | Dennis, Joe | Milne, Roger L | Schmidt, Marjanka K | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Bojesen, Stig E | Bolla, Manjeet K | Wang, Qin | Dicks, Ed | Lee, Andrew | Turnbull, Clare | Rahman, Nazneen | Fletcher, Olivia | Peto, Julian | Gibson, Lorna | Silva, Isabel dos Santos | Nevanlinna, Heli | Muranen, Taru A | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blomqvist, Carl | Czene, Kamila | Irwanto, Astrid | Liu, Jianjun | Waisfisz, Quinten | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne | Adank, Muriel | van der Luijt, Rob B | Hein, Rebecca | Dahmen, Norbert | Beckman, Lars | Meindl, Alfons | Schmutzler, Rita K | Müller-Myhsok, Bertram | Lichtner, Peter | Hopper, John L | Southey, Melissa C | Makalic, Enes | Schmidt, Daniel F | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Hofman, Albert | Hunter, David J | Chanock, Stephen J | Vincent, Daniel | Bacot, François | Tessier, Daniel C | Canisius, Sander | Wessels, Lodewyk F A | Haiman, Christopher A | Shah, Mitul | Luben, Robert | Brown, Judith | Luccarini, Craig | Schoof, Nils | Humphreys, Keith | Li, Jingmei | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Nielsen, Sune F | Flyger, Henrik | Couch, Fergus J | Wang, Xianshu | Vachon, Celine | Stevens, Kristen N | Lambrechts, Diether | Moisse, Matthieu | Paridaens, Robert | Christiaens, Marie-Rose | Rudolph, Anja | Nickels, Stefan | Flesch-Janys, Dieter | Johnson, Nichola | Aitken, Zoe | Aaltonen, Kirsimari | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Broeks, Annegien | Van’t Veer, Laura J | van der Schoot, C Ellen | Guénel, Pascal | Truong, Thérèse | Laurent-Puig, Pierre | Menegaux, Florence | Marme, Frederik | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Sohn, Christof | Burwinkel, Barbara | Zamora, M Pilar | Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias | Pita, Guillermo | Alonso, M Rosario | Cox, Angela | Brock, Ian W | Cross, Simon S | Reed, Malcolm W R | Sawyer, Elinor J | Tomlinson, Ian | Kerin, Michael J | Miller, Nicola | Henderson, Brian E | Schumacher, Fredrick | Le Marchand, Loic | Andrulis, Irene L | Knight, Julia A | Glendon, Gord | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Lindblom, Annika | Margolin, Sara | Hooning, Maartje J | Hollestelle, Antoinette | van den Ouweland, Ans M W | Jager, Agnes | Bui, Quang M | Stone, Jennifer | Dite, Gillian S | Apicella, Carmel | Tsimiklis, Helen | Giles, Graham G | Severi, Gianluca | Baglietto, Laura | Fasching, Peter A | Haeberle, Lothar | Ekici, Arif B | Beckmann, Matthias W | Brenner, Hermann | Müller, Heiko | Arndt, Volker | Stegmaier, Christa | Swerdlow, Anthony | Ashworth, Alan | Orr, Nick | Jones, Michael | Figueroa, Jonine | Lissowska, Jolanta | Brinton, Louise | Goldberg, Mark S | Labrèche, France | Dumont, Martine | Winqvist, Robert | Pylkäs, Katri | Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja | Grip, Mervi | Brauch, Hiltrud | Hamann, Ute | Brüning, Thomas | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Bonanni, Bernardo | Devilee, Peter | Tollenaar, Rob A E M | Seynaeve, Caroline | van Asperen, Christi J | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Mannermaa, Arto | Kataja, Vesa | Kosma, Veli-Matti | Hartikainen, Jaana M | Bogdanova, Natalia V | Antonenkova, Natalia N | Dörk, Thilo | Kristensen, Vessela N | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Slager, Susan | Toland, Amanda E | Edge, Stephen | Fostira, Florentia | Kang, Daehee | Yoo, Keun-Young | Noh, Dong-Young | Matsuo, Keitaro | Ito, Hidemi | Iwata, Hiroji | Sueta, Aiko | Wu, Anna H | Tseng, Chiu-Chen | Van Den Berg, David | Stram, Daniel O | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Lu, Wei | Gao, Yu-Tang | Cai, Hui | Teo, Soo Hwang | Yip, Cheng Har | Phuah, Sze Yee | Cornes, Belinda K | Hartman, Mikael | Miao, Hui | Lim, Wei Yen | Sng, Jen-Hwei | Muir, Kenneth | Lophatananon, Artitaya | Stewart-Brown, Sarah | Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep | Shen, Chen-Yang | Hsiung, Chia-Ni | Wu, Pei-Ei | Ding, Shian-Ling | Sangrajrang, Suleeporn | Gaborieau, Valerie | Brennan, Paul | McKay, James | Blot, William J | Signorello, Lisa B | Cai, Qiuyin | Zheng, Wei | Deming-Halverson, Sandra | Shrubsole, Martha | Long, Jirong | Simard, Jacques | Garcia-Closas, Montse | Pharoah, Paul D P | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Dunning, Alison M | Benitez, Javier | Easton, Douglas F
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):353-361e2.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ~9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10,052 breast cancer cases and 12,575 controls of European ancestry, from which we selected 29,807 SNPs for further genotyping. These SNPs were genotyped in 45,290 cases and 41,880 controls of European ancestry from 41 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were genotyped as part of a collaborative genotyping experiment involving four consortia (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, COGS) and used a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array, iCOGS, comprising more than 200,000 SNPs. We identified SNPs at 41 new breast cancer susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). Further analyses suggest that more than 1,000 additional loci are involved in breast cancer susceptibility.
doi:10.1038/ng.2563
PMCID: PMC3771688  PMID: 23535729
8.  mrSNP: Software to detect SNP effects on microRNA binding 
BMC Bioinformatics  2014;15:73.
Background
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-23 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that bind to sites in the 3’untranslated regions (3’UTR) of a targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). Binding leads to degradation of the transcript or blocked translation resulting in decreased expression of the targeted gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found in 3’UTRs that disrupt normal miRNA binding or introduce new binding sites and some of these have been associated with disease pathogenesis. This raises the importance of detecting miRNA targets and predicting the possible effects of SNPs on binding sites. In the last decade a number of studies have been conducted to predict the location of miRNA binding sites. However, there have been fewer algorithms published to analyze the effects of SNPs on miRNA binding. Moreover, the existing software has some shortcomings including the requirement for significant manual labor when working with huge lists of SNPs and that algorithms work only for SNPs present in databases such as dbSNP. These limitations become problematic as next-generation sequencing is leading to large numbers of novel variants in 3’UTRs.
Result
In order to overcome these issues, we developed a web-server named mrSNP which predicts the impact of a SNP in a 3’UTR on miRNA binding. The proposed tool reduces the manual labor requirements and allows users to input any SNP that has been identified by any SNP-calling program. In testing the performance of mrSNP on SNPs experimentally validated to affect miRNA binding, mrSNP correctly identified 69% (11/16) of the SNPs disrupting binding.
Conclusions
mrSNP is a highly adaptable and performing tool for predicting the effect a 3’UTR SNP will have on miRNA binding. This tool has advantages over existing algorithms because it can assess the effect of novel SNPs on miRNA binding without requiring significant hands on time.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-73
PMCID: PMC4067983  PMID: 24629096
miRNA; SNP; mRNA; microRNA binding
9.  Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Genomic Counseling for Patients with Chronic Disease  
We describe the development and implementation of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of genomic counseling on a cohort of patients with heart failure (HF) or hypertension (HTN), managed at a large academic medical center, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC). Our study is built upon the existing Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC®). OSUWMC patient participants with chronic disease (CD) receive eight actionable complex disease and one pharmacogenomic test report through the CPMC® web portal. Participants are randomized to either the in-person post-test genomic counseling—active arm, versus web-based only return of results—control arm. Study-specific surveys measure: (1) change in risk perception; (2) knowledge retention; (3) perceived personal control; (4) health behavior change; and, for the active arm (5), overall satisfaction with genomic counseling. This ongoing partnership has spurred creation of both infrastructure and procedures necessary for the implementation of genomics and genomic counseling in clinical care and clinical research. This included creation of a comprehensive informed consent document and processes for prospective return of actionable results for multiple complex diseases and pharmacogenomics (PGx) through a web portal, and integration of genomic data files and clinical decision support into an EPIC-based electronic medical record. We present this partnership, the infrastructure, genomic counseling approach, and the challenges that arose in the design and conduct of this ongoing trial to inform subsequent collaborative efforts and best genomic counseling practices.
doi:10.3390/jpm4010001
PMCID: PMC4051230  PMID: 24926413
implementation; genomics; medicine; randomized; patients; counseling; actionable; risk perception; pharmacogenomics
10.  Analysis of BRCA1 Variants in Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination and Single-Strand Annealing 
Human mutation  2012;34(3):439-445.
Missense substitutions of uncertain clinical significance in the BRCA1 gene are a vexing problem in genetic counseling for women who have a family history of breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the functions of 29 missense substitutions of BRCA1 in two DNA repair pathways. Repair of double-strand breaks by homology-directed recombination (HDR) had been previously analyzed for 16 of these BRCA1 variants, and 13 more variants were analyzed in this study. All 29 variants were also analyzed for function in double-strand break repair by the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. We found that among the pathogenic mutations in BRCA1, all were defective for DNA repair by either pathway. The HDR assay was accurate because all pathogenic mutants were defective for HDR, and all nonpathogenic variants were fully functional for HDR. Repair by SSA accurately identified pathogenic mutants, but several nonpathogenic variants were scored as defective or partially defective. These results indicated that specific amino acid residues of the BRCA1 protein have different effects in the two related DNA repair pathways, and these results validate the HDR assay as highly correlative with BRCA1-associated breast cancer.
doi:10.1002/humu.22251
PMCID: PMC3906639  PMID: 23161852
BRCA1; homologous recombination; single-strand annealing; centrosome; VUS
11.  Allele-specific imbalance mapping identifies HDAC9 as a candidate gene for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 
More than 3.5 million non-melanoma skin cancers were treated in 2006; of these 700,000 were cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC). Despite clear environmental causes for cSCC, studies also suggest genetic risk factors. A cSCC susceptibility locus, Skts5, was identified on mouse chromosome 12 by linkage analysis. The orthologous locus to Skts5 in humans maps to 7p21 and 7q31. These loci show copy number increases in approximately 10% of cSCC tumors. Here we show that an additional 15-22% of tumors exhibit copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Furthermore, our previous data identified microsatellite markers on 7p21 and 7q31 that demonstrate preferential allelic imbalance (PAI) in cSCC tumors. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the human orthologous locus to Skts5 would house a gene important in human cSCC development and that tumors would demonstrate allele-specific somatic alterations. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative genotyping of 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to candidate genes at human SKTS5 in paired normal and tumor DNAs. Nine SNPs in HDAC9 (rs801540, rs1178108, rs1178112, rs1726610, rs10243618, rs11764116, rs1178355, rs10269422, and rs12540872) showed PAI in tumors. These data suggest that HDAC9 variants may be selected for during cSCC tumorigenesis.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28339
PMCID: PMC3831612  PMID: 23784969
HDAC9; cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; allelic-specific imbalance; Skts5
12.  BRCA1 R1699Q variant displaying ambiguous functional abrogation confers intermediate breast and ovarian cancer risk 
Journal of medical genetics  2012;49(8):10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101037.
Background
Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p. Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional transactivation domain demonstrated equivocal results from a series of functional assays, and proposed that this variant may confer low to moderate risk of cancer.
Methods
Measures of genetic risk (report of family history, segregation) were assessed for 68 BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) families recruited through family cancer clinics, comparing results with 34 families carrying the previously classified pathogenic BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp (R1699W) mutation at the same residue, and to 243 breast cancer families with no BRCA1 pathogenic mutation (BRCA-X).
Results
Comparison of BRCA1 carrier prediction scores of probands using the BOADICEA risk prediction tool revealed that BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln variant carriers had family histories that were less ‘BRCA1-like’ than BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp mutation carriers (p<0.00001), but more ‘BRCA1-like’ than BRCA-X families (p=0.0004). Further, modified segregation analysis of the subset of 30 families with additional genotyping showed that BRCA1 c.5096G >A p. Arg1699Gln had reduced penetrance compared with the average truncating BRCA1 mutation penetrance (p=0.0002), with estimated cumulative risks to age 70 of breast or ovarian cancer of 24%.
Conclusions
Our results provide substantial evidence that the BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) variant, demonstrating ambiguous functional deficiency across multiple assays, is associated with intermediate risk of breast and ovarian cancer, highlighting challenges for risk modelling and clinical management of patients of this and other potential moderate-risk variants.
doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101037
PMCID: PMC3810416  PMID: 22889855
13.  Association Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations and Survival in Women with Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer 
Bolton, Kelly L. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Goh, Cindy | Sadetzki, Siegal | Ramus, Susan J. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Lambrechts, Diether | Despierre, Evelyn | Barrowdale, Daniel | McGuffog, Lesley | Healey, Sue | Easton, Douglas F. | Sinilnikova, Olga | Benitez, Javier | García, María J. | Neuhausen, Susan | Gail, Mitchell H. | Hartge, Patricia | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Evans, D. Gareth | Eeles, Ros | Godwin, Andrew K. | Daly, Mary B. | Kwong, Ava | Ma, Edmond SK | Lázaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Montagna, Marco | D’Andrea, Emma | Nicoletto, Ornella | Investigators, kConFab | Johnatty, Sharon E. | Kjær, Susanne Krüger | Jensen, Allan | Høgdall, Estrid | Goode, Ellen L. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Loud, Jennifer T. | Greene, Mark H. | Mai, Phuong L. | Chetrit, Angela | Lubin, Flora | Hirsh-Yechezkel, Galit | Glendon, Gord | Andrulis, Irene L. | Toland, Amanda E. | Senter, Leigha | Gore, Martin E. | Gourley, Charlie | Michie, Caroline O | Song, Honglin | Tyrer, Jonathan | Whittemore, Alice S. | McGuire, Valerie | Sieh, Weiva | Kristoffersson, Ulf | Olsson, Håkan | Borg, Åke | Levine, Douglas A. | Steele, Linda | Beattie, Mary S. | Chan, Salina | Nussbaum, Robert | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Gross, Jenny | Cass, Ilana | Walsh, Christine | Li, Andrew J. | Leuchter, Ronald | Gordon, Ora | Garcia-Closas, Montserrat | Gayther, Simon A. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Antoniou, Antonis C. | Pharoah, Paul D.P.
Context
Approximately 10 percent of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carry deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A recent report suggested that BRCA2 related EOC was associated with an improved prognosis, but the effect of BRCA1 remains unclear.
Objective
To characterize the survival of BRCA carriers with EOC compared to non-carriers and to determine whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers show similar survival patterns.
Design, Setting, and Participants
We pooled data from 26 studies on the survival of women with ovarian cancer. This included data on 1,213 EOC cases with pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 (909) or BRCA2 (304) and 2,666 non-carriers recruited and followed for variable times between 1987 and 2010; the median year of diagnosis was 1998.
Main Outcome Measures
Five year overall mortality.
Results
The five-year overall survival was 36 percent (95% CI: 34–38) for non-carriers, 44 percent (95% CI: 40–48) for BRCA1 carriers and 52 percent (95% CI: 46–58) for BRCA2 carriers. After adjusting for study and year of diagnosis, BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers showed a more favorable survival than non-carriers (BRCA1, HR=0.78; 95% CI=0.68–0.89, P=2×10−4; BRCA2, HR = 0.61; 95% CI=0.50–0.76, P=6×10−6). These survival differences remained after additional adjustment for stage, grade, histology and age at diagnosis (BRCA1, HR=0.73, 95% CI=0.64–0.84, P=2×10−5; BRCA2, HR = 0.49, 95% CI=0.39–0.61, P=3×10−10).
Conclusions
Among patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, having a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 was associated with improved 5-year overall survival.
doi:10.1001/jama.2012.20
PMCID: PMC3727895  PMID: 22274685
14.  Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools 
BMC Bioinformatics  2013;14:184.
Background
The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison.
Results
We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others.
Conclusion
The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-14-184
PMCID: PMC3694458  PMID: 23758764
Short sequence mapping; Next-generation sequencing; Benchmark; Sequence analysis
15.  Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk 
Couch, Fergus J. | Wang, Xianshu | McGuffog, Lesley | Lee, Andrew | Olswold, Curtis | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B. | Soucy, Penny | Fredericksen, Zachary | Barrowdale, Daniel | Dennis, Joe | Gaudet, Mia M. | Dicks, Ed | Kosel, Matthew | Healey, Sue | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Lee, Adam | Bacot, François | Vincent, Daniel | Hogervorst, Frans B. L. | Peock, Susan | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Jakubowska, Anna | Investigators, kConFab | Radice, Paolo | Schmutzler, Rita Katharina | Domchek, Susan M. | Piedmonte, Marion | Singer, Christian F. | Friedman, Eitan | Thomassen, Mads | Hansen, Thomas V. O. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Szabo, Csilla I. | Blanco, Ignacio | Greene, Mark H. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Garber, Judy | Phelan, Catherine M. | Weitzel, Jeffrey N. | Montagna, Marco | Olah, Edith | Andrulis, Irene L. | Godwin, Andrew K. | Yannoukakos, Drakoulis | Goldgar, David E. | Caldes, Trinidad | Nevanlinna, Heli | Osorio, Ana | Terry, Mary Beth | Daly, Mary B. | van Rensburg, Elizabeth J. | Hamann, Ute | Ramus, Susan J. | Ewart Toland, Amanda | Caligo, Maria A. | Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. | Tung, Nadine | Claes, Kathleen | Beattie, Mary S. | Southey, Melissa C. | Imyanitov, Evgeny N. | Tischkowitz, Marc | Janavicius, Ramunas | John, Esther M. | Kwong, Ava | Diez, Orland | Balmaña, Judith | Barkardottir, Rosa B. | Arun, Banu K. | Rennert, Gad | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Ganz, Patricia A. | Campbell, Ian | van der Hout, Annemarie H. | van Deurzen, Carolien H. M. | Seynaeve, Caroline | Gómez Garcia, Encarna B. | van Leeuwen, Flora E. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J. | Gille, Johannes J. P. | Ausems, Margreet G. E. M. | Blok, Marinus J. | Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L. | Rookus, Matti A. | Devilee, Peter | Verhoef, Senno | van Os, Theo A. M. | Wijnen, Juul T. | Frost, Debra | Ellis, Steve | Fineberg, Elena | Platte, Radka | Evans, D. Gareth | Izatt, Louise | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Adlard, Julian | Eccles, Diana M. | Cook, Jackie | Brewer, Carole | Douglas, Fiona | Hodgson, Shirley | Morrison, Patrick J. | Side, Lucy E. | Donaldson, Alan | Houghton, Catherine | Rogers, Mark T. | Dorkins, Huw | Eason, Jacqueline | Gregory, Helen | McCann, Emma | Murray, Alex | Calender, Alain | Hardouin, Agnès | Berthet, Pascaline | Delnatte, Capucine | Nogues, Catherine | Lasset, Christine | Houdayer, Claude | Leroux, Dominique | Rouleau, Etienne | Prieur, Fabienne | Damiola, Francesca | Sobol, Hagay | Coupier, Isabelle | Venat-Bouvet, Laurence | Castera, Laurent | Gauthier-Villars, Marion | Léoné, Mélanie | Pujol, Pascal | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Bignon, Yves-Jean | Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta | Gronwald, Jacek | Lubinski, Jan | Durda, Katarzyna | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Huzarski, Tomasz | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Viel, Alessandra | Peissel, Bernard | Bonanni, Bernardo | Melloni, Giulia | Ottini, Laura | Papi, Laura | Varesco, Liliana | Tibiletti, Maria Grazia | Peterlongo, Paolo | Volorio, Sara | Manoukian, Siranoush | Pensotti, Valeria | Arnold, Norbert | Engel, Christoph | Deissler, Helmut | Gadzicki, Dorothea | Gehrig, Andrea | Kast, Karin | Rhiem, Kerstin | Meindl, Alfons | Niederacher, Dieter | Ditsch, Nina | Plendl, Hansjoerg | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Engert, Stefanie | Sutter, Christian | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Weber, Bernhard H. F. | Arver, Brita | Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie | Loman, Niklas | Rosenquist, Richard | Einbeigi, Zakaria | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Blank, Stephanie V. | Cohn, David E. | Rodriguez, Gustavo C. | Small, Laurie | Friedlander, Michael | Bae-Jump, Victoria L. | Fink-Retter, Anneliese | Rappaport, Christine | Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne | Pfeiler, Georg | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Lindor, Noralane M. | Kaufman, Bella | Shimon Paluch, Shani | Laitman, Yael | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Pedersen, Inge Sokilde | Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl | Kruse, Torben A. | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Vijai, Joseph | Sarrel, Kara | Robson, Mark | Kauff, Noah | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Glendon, Gord | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Ejlertsen, Bent | Nielsen, Finn C. | Jønson, Lars | Andersen, Mette K. | Ding, Yuan Chun | Steele, Linda | Foretova, Lenka | Teulé, Alex | Lazaro, Conxi | Brunet, Joan | Pujana, Miquel Angel | Mai, Phuong L. | Loud, Jennifer T. | Walsh, Christine | Lester, Jenny | Orsulic, Sandra | Narod, Steven A. | Herzog, Josef | Sand, Sharon R. | Tognazzo, Silvia | Agata, Simona | Vaszko, Tibor | Weaver, Joellen | Stavropoulou, Alexandra V. | Buys, Saundra S. | Romero, Atocha | de la Hoya, Miguel | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Muranen, Taru A. | Duran, Mercedes | Chung, Wendy K. | Lasa, Adriana | Dorfling, Cecilia M. | Miron, Alexander | Benitez, Javier | Senter, Leigha | Huo, Dezheng | Chan, Salina B. | Sokolenko, Anna P. | Chiquette, Jocelyne | Tihomirova, Laima | Friebel, Tara M. | Agnarsson, Bjarni A. | Lu, Karen H. | Lejbkowicz, Flavio | James, Paul A. | Hall, Per | Dunning, Alison M. | Tessier, Daniel | Cunningham, Julie | Slager, Susan L. | Wang, Chen | Hart, Steven | Stevens, Kristen | Simard, Jacques | Pastinen, Tomi | Pankratz, Vernon S. | Offit, Kenneth | Easton, Douglas F. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Antoniou, Antonis C.
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(3):e1003212.
BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10−8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10−8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10−8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10−4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.
Author Summary
BRCA1 mutation carriers have increased and variable risks of breast and ovarian cancer. To identify modifiers of breast and ovarian cancer risk in this population, a multi-stage GWAS of 14,351 BRCA1 mutation carriers was performed. Loci 1q32 and TCF7L2 at 10q25.3 were associated with breast cancer risk, and two loci at 4q32.2 and 17q21.31 were associated with ovarian cancer risk. The 4q32.3 ovarian cancer locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or in BRCA2 carriers and is the first indication of a BRCA1-specific risk locus for either breast or ovarian cancer. Furthermore, modeling the influence of these modifiers on cumulative risk of breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers for the first time showed that a wide range of individual absolute risks of each cancer can be estimated. These differences suggest that genetic risk modifiers may be incorporated into the clinical management of BRCA1 mutation carriers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003212
PMCID: PMC3609646  PMID: 23544013
16.  The Impact of 3′UTR Variants on Differential Expression of Candidate Cancer Susceptibility Genes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58609.
Variants in regulatory regions are predicted to play an important role in disease susceptibility of common diseases. Polymorphisms mapping to microRNA (miRNA) binding sites have been shown to disrupt the ability of miRNAs to target genes resulting in differential mRNA and protein expression. Skin tumor susceptibility 5 (Skts5) was identified as a locus conferring susceptibility to chemically-induced skin cancer in NIH/Ola by SPRET/Outbred F1 backcrosses. To determine if polymorphisms between the strains which mapped to putative miRNA binding sites in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of genes at Skts5 influenced expression, we conducted a systematic evaluation of 3′UTRs of candidate genes across this locus. Nine genes had polymorphisms in their 3′UTRs which fit the linkage data and eight of these contained polymorphisms suspected to interfere with or introduce miRNA binding. 3′UTRs of six genes, Bcap29, Dgkb, Hbp1, Pik3cg, Twistnb, and Tspan13 differentially affected luciferase expression, but did not appear to be differentially regulated by the evaluated miRNAs predicted to bind to only one of the two isoforms. 3′UTRs from four additional genes chosen from the locus that fit less stringent criteria were evaluated. Ifrd1 and Etv1 showed differences and contained polymorphisms predicted to disrupt or create miRNA binding sites but showed no difference in regulation by the miRNAs tested. In summary, multiple 3′UTRs with putative functional variants between susceptible and resistant strains of mice influenced differential expression independent of predicted miRNA binding.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058609
PMCID: PMC3589377  PMID: 23472213
17.  A non-synonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers 
Ding, Yuan C. | McGuffog, Lesley | Healey, Sue | Friedman, Eitan | Laitman, Yael | Shani-Shimon–Paluch,  | Kaufman, Bella | Liljegren, Annelie | Lindblom, Annika | Olsson, Håkan | Kristoffersson, Ulf | Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie | Melin, Beatrice | Domchek, Susan M. | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Gronwald, Jacek | Huzarski, Tomasz | Cybulski, Cezary | Byrski, Tomasz | Osorio, Ana | Cajal, Teresa Ramóny | Stavropoulou, Alexandra V | Benítez, Javier | Hamann, Ute | Rookus, Matti | Aalfs, Cora M. | de Lange, Judith L. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J. | Oosterwijk, Jan C. | van Asperen, Christi J. | García, Encarna B. Gómez | Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline | Jager, Agnes | van der Luijt, Rob B. | Easton, Douglas F. | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Ellis, Steve D. | Platte, Radka | Fineberg, Elena | Evans, D. Gareth | Lalloo, Fiona | Izatt, Louise | Eeles, Ros | Adlard, Julian | Davidson, Rosemarie | Eccles, Diana | Cole, Trevor | Cook, Jackie | Brewer, Carole | Tischkowitz, Marc | Godwin, Andrew K. | Pathak, Harsh | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Barjhoux, Laure | Léoné, Mélanie | Gauthier-Villars, Marion | Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie | de Pauw, Antoine | Hardouin, Agnès | Berthet, Pascaline | Dreyfus, Hélène | Ferrer, Sandra Fert | Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès | Sokolowska, Johanna | Buys, Saundra | Daly, Mary | Miron, Alex | Terry, Mary Beth | Chung, Wendy | John, Esther M | Southey, Melissa | Goldgar, David | Singer, Christian F | Maria, Muy-Kheng Tea | Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne | Fink-Retter, Anneliese | Hansen, Thomas v. O. | Ejlertsen, Bent | Johannsson, Oskar Th. | Offit, Kenneth | Sarrel, Kara | Gaudet, Mia M. | Vijai, Joseph | Robson, Mark | Piedmonte, Marion R | Andrews, Lesley | Cohn, David | DeMars, Leslie R. | DiSilvestro, Paul | Rodriguez, Gustavo | Toland, Amanda Ewart | Montagna, Marco | Agata, Simona | Imyanitov, Evgeny | Isaacs, Claudine | Janavicius, Ramunas | Lazaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Ramus, Susan J | Sucheston, Lara | Karlan, Beth Y. | Gross, Jenny | Ganz, Patricia A. | Beattie, Mary S. | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Meindl, Alfons | Arnold, Norbert | Niederacher, Dieter | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Gadzicki, Dorotehea | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Deissler, Helmut | Gehrig, Andrea | Sutter, Christian | Kast, Karin | Nevanlinna, Heli | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Simard, Jacques | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Beesley, Jonathan | Chen, Xiaoqing | Tomlinson, Gail E. | Weitzel, Jeffrey | Garber, Judy E. | Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. | Rubinstein, Wendy S. | Tung, Nadine | Blum, Joanne L. | Narod, Steven A. | Brummel, Sean | Gillen, Daniel L. | Lindor, Noralane | Fredericksen, Zachary | Pankratz, Vernon S. | Couch, Fergus J. | Radice, Paolo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Greene, Mark H. | Loud, Jennifer T. | Mai, Phuong L. | Andrulis, Irene L. | Glendon, Gord | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Thomassen, Mads | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Caligo, Maria A. | Lee, Andrew | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Antoniou, Antonis C | Neuhausen, Susan L.
Background
We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Methods
IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers.
Results
Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06–1.92; p = 0.019] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.39–3.52, p=0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class 2 mutations than class 1 (mutations (class 2 HR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70; class 1 HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.69–1.09; p-for difference=0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers (HR = 2.42; p = 0.03).
Conclusion
The IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers.
Impact
These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0229
PMCID: PMC3415567  PMID: 22729394
Breast cancer; Ovarian cancer; BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers; insulin receptor substrate 1; Insulin-like growth factor /insulin (IGF/INS) signaling
18.  Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers 
Cox, David G. | Simard, Jacques | Sinnett, Daniel | Hamdi, Yosr | Soucy, Penny | Ouimet, Manon | Barjhoux, Laure | Verny-Pierre, Carole | McGuffog, Lesley | Healey, Sue | Szabo, Csilla | Greene, Mark H. | Mai, Phuong L. | Andrulis, Irene L. | Thomassen, Mads | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Caligo, Maria A. | Friedman, Eitan | Laitman, Yael | Kaufman, Bella | Paluch, Shani S. | Borg, Åke | Karlsson, Per | Stenmark Askmalm, Marie | Barbany Bustinza, Gisela | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Domchek, Susan M. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Benítez, Javier | Hamann, Ute | Rookus, Matti A. | van den Ouweland, Ans M.W. | Ausems, Margreet G.E.M. | Aalfs, Cora M. | van Asperen, Christi J. | Devilee, Peter | Gille, Hans J.J.P. | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Evans, D. Gareth | Eeles, Ros | Izatt, Louise | Adlard, Julian | Paterson, Joan | Eason, Jacqueline | Godwin, Andrew K. | Remon, Marie-Alice | Moncoutier, Virginie | Gauthier-Villars, Marion | Lasset, Christine | Giraud, Sophie | Hardouin, Agnès | Berthet, Pascaline | Sobol, Hagay | Eisinger, François | Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte | Caron, Olivier | Delnatte, Capucine | Goldgar, David | Miron, Alex | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Buys, Saundra | Southey, Melissa C. | Terry, Mary Beth | Singer, Christian F. | Dressler, Anne-Catharina | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Hansen, Thomas V.O. | Johannsson, Oskar | Piedmonte, Marion | Rodriguez, Gustavo C. | Basil, Jack B. | Blank, Stephanie | Toland, Amanda E. | Montagna, Marco | Isaacs, Claudine | Blanco, Ignacio | Gayther, Simon A. | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Engel, Christoph | Meindl, Alfons | Ditsch, Nina | Arnold, Norbert | Niederacher, Dieter | Sutter, Christian | Gadzicki, Dorothea | Fiebig, Britta | Caldes, Trinidad | Laframboise, Rachel | Nevanlinna, Heli | Chen, Xiaoqing | Beesley, Jonathan | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Ding, Yuan C. | Couch, Fergus J. | Wang, Xianshu | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Bernard, Loris | Radice, Paolo | Easton, Douglas F. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Antoniou, Antonis C. | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Sinilnikova, Olga M.
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(23):4732-4747.
Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr388
PMCID: PMC3733139  PMID: 21890493
19.  Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers 
Im, Kate M. | Kirchhoff, Tomas | Wang, Xianshu | Green, Todd | Chow, Clement Y. | Vijai, Joseph | Korn, Joshua | Gaudet, Mia M. | Fredericksen, Zachary | Pankratz, V. Shane | Guiducci, Candace | Crenshaw, Andrew | McGuffog, Lesley | Kartsonaki, Christiana | Morrison, Jonathan | Healey, Sue | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Mai, Phuong L. | Greene, Mark H. | Piedmonte, Marion | Rubinstein, Wendy S. | Hogervorst, Frans B. | Rookus, Matti A. | Collée, J. Margriet | Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline | van Asperen, Christi J. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J. | Van Roozendaal, Cees E. | Caldes, Trinidad | Perez-Segura, Pedro | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Huzarski, Tomasz | Blecharz, Paweł | Nevanlinna, Heli | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Lazaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Barkardottir, Rosa B. | Montagna, Marco | D'Andrea, Emma | Devilee, Peter | Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Peissel, Bernard | Bonanni, Bernardo | Peterlongo, Paolo | Singer, Christian F. | Rennert, Gad | Lejbkowicz, Flavio | Andrulis, Irene L. | Glendon, Gord | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Toland, Amanda Ewart | Caligo, Maria Adelaide | Beattie, Mary S. | Chan, Salina | Domchek, Susan M. | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Phelan, Catherine | Narod, Steven | John, Esther M. | Hopper, John L. | Buys, Saundra S. | Daly, Mary B. | Southey, Melissa C. | Terry, Mary-Beth | Tung, Nadine | Hansen, Thomas v. O. | Osorio, Ana | Benitez, Javier | Durán, Mercedes | Weitzel, Jeffrey N. | Garber, Judy | Hamann, Ute | Peock, Susan | Cook, Margaret | Oliver, Clare T. | Frost, Debra | Platte, Radka | Evans, D. Gareth | Eeles, Ros | Izatt, Louise | Paterson, Joan | Brewer, Carole | Hodgson, Shirley | Morrison, Patrick J. | Porteous, Mary | Walker, Lisa | Rogers, Mark T. | Side, Lucy E. | Godwin, Andrew K. | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Laitman, Yael | Meindl, Alfons | Deissler, Helmut | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Kast, Karin | Venat-Bouvet, Laurence | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Easton, Douglas F. | Klein, Robert J. | Daly, Mark J. | Friedman, Eitan | Dean, Michael | Clark, Andrew G. | Altshuler, David M. | Antoniou, Antonis C. | Couch, Fergus J. | Offit, Kenneth | Gold, Bert
Human genetics  2011;130(5):685-699.
Abstract Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage dis-equilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.
doi:10.1007/s00439-011-1003-z
PMCID: PMC3196382  PMID: 21597964
20.  Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers 
Couch, Fergus J. | Gaudet, Mia M. | Antoniou, Antonis C. | Ramus, Susan J. | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B. | Soucy, Penny | Beesley, Jonathan | Chen, Xiaoqing | Wang, Xianshu | Kirchhoff, Tomas | McGuffog, Lesley | Barrowdale, Daniel | Lee, Andrew | Healey, Sue | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Andrulis, Irene L. | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Thomassen, Mads | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Kruse, Torben A. | Caligo, Maria A. | von Wachenfeldt, Anna | Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela | Loman, Niklas | Soller, Maria | Ehrencrona, Hans | Karlsson, Per | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Domchek, Susan M. | Jakubowska, Ania | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Złowocka, Elżbieta | Huzarski, Tomasz | Byrski, Tomasz | Gronwald, Jacek | Cybulski, Cezary | Górski, Bohdan | Osorio, Ana | Durán, Mercedes | Tejada, María Isabel | Benitez, Javier | Hamann, Ute | Hogervorst, Frans B.L. | van Os, Theo A. | van Leeuwen, Flora E. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J. | Wijnen, Juul | Blok, Marinus J. | Kets, Marleen | Hooning, Maartje J. | Oldenburg, Rogier A. | Ausems, Margreet G.E.M. | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Ellis, Steve D. | Platte, Radka | Fineberg, Elena | Evans, D. Gareth | Jacobs, Chris | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Adlard, Julian | Davidson, Rosemarie | Eccles, Diana M. | Cole, Trevor | Cook, Jackie | Paterson, Joan | Brewer, Carole | Douglas, Fiona | Hodgson, Shirley V. | Morrison, Patrick J. | Walker, Lisa | Porteous, Mary E. | Kennedy, M. John | Side, Lucy E. | Bove, Betsy | Godwin, Andrew K. | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Fassy-Colcombet, Marion | Castera, Laurent | Cornelis, François | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Léoné, Mélanie | Boutry-Kryza, Nadia | Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte | Caron, Olivier | Pujol, Pascal | Coupier, Isabelle | Delnatte, Capucine | Akloul, Linda | Lynch, Henry T. | Snyder, Carrie L. | Buys, Saundra S. | Daly, Mary B. | Terry, MaryBeth | Chung, Wendy K. | John, Esther M. | Miron, Alexander | Southey, Melissa C. | Hopper, John L. | Goldgar, David E. | Singer, Christian F. | Rappaport, Christine | Tea, Muy-Kheng M. | Fink-Retter, Anneliese | Hansen, Thomas V. O. | Nielsen, Finn C. | Arason, Aðalgeir | Vijai, Joseph | Shah, Sohela | Sarrel, Kara | Robson, Mark E. | Piedmonte, Marion | Phillips, Kelly | Basil, Jack | Rubinstein, Wendy S. | Boggess, John | Wakeley, Katie | Ewart-Toland, Amanda | Montagna, Marco | Agata, Simona | Imyanitov, Evgeny N. | Isaacs, Claudine | Janavicius, Ramunas | Lazaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Feliubadalo, Lidia | Brunet, Joan | Gayther, Simon A | Pharoah, Paul PD | Odunsi, Kunle O. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Walsh, Christine S. | Olah, Edith | Teo, Soo Hwang | Ganz, Patricia A. | Beattie, Mary S. | van Rensburg, Elizabeth J. | Dorfling, Cecelia M. | Diez, Orland | Kwong, Ava | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Engel, Christoph | Meindl, Alfons | Ditsch, Nina | Arnold, Norbert | Heidemann, Simone | Niederacher, Dieter | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Gadzicki, Dorothea | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Deissler, Helmut | Gehrig, Andrea | Sutter, Christian | Kast, Karin | Fiebig, Britta | Heinritz, Wolfram | Caldes, Trinidad | de la Hoya, Miguel | Muranen, Taru A. | Nevanlinna, Heli | Tischkowitz, Marc D. | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Ding, Yuan Chun | Lindor, Noralane M. | Fredericksen, Zachary | Pankratz, V. Shane | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Barile, Monica | Bernard, Loris | Viel, Alessandra | Giannini, Giuseppe | Varesco, Liliana | Radice, Paolo | Greene, Mark H. | Mai, Phuong L. | Easton, Douglas F. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Offit, Kenneth | Simard, Jacques
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).
Methods
Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined.
Results
We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.07–1.27; p=7.42×10−4) and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR=0.84; 95%CI 0.73–0.97; p=0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR=1.11; 95%CI 0.94–1.31; p=0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR=1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.29; p=3.8×10−4) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=1.30; 95%CI 1.10–1.52; p=1.8×10−3).
Conclusions
19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Impact
These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0888
PMCID: PMC3319317  PMID: 22351618
BRCA1; BRCA2; breast cancer risk; ovarian cancer risk; 19p13.1; ZNF365
21.  Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers 
Ramus, Susan J. | Antoniou, Antonis C | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B. | Soucy, Penny | Beesley, Jonathan | Chen, Xiaoqing | McGuffog, Lesley | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Healey, Sue | Barrowdale, Daniel | Lee, Andrew | Thomassen, Mads | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Kruse, Torben A. | Jensen, Uffe Birk | Skytte, Anne-Bine | Caligo, Maria A. | Liljegren, Annelie | Lindblom, Annika | Olsson, Håkan | Kristoffersson, Ulf | Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie | Melin, Beatrice | Domchek, Susan M. | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Jakubowska, Anna | Lubinski, Jan | Jaworska, Katarzyna | Durda, Katarzyna | Złowocka, Elżbieta | Gronwald, Jacek | Huzarski, Tomasz | Byrski, Tomasz | Cybulski, Cezary | Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra | Osorio, Ana | Benitez, Javier | Duran, Mercedes | Tejada, Maria-Isabel | Hamann, Ute | Rookus, Matti | van Leeuwen, Flora E. | Aalfs, Cora M. | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J. | van Asperen, Christi J. | van Roozendaal, K.E.P. | Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline | Collée, J. Margriet | Kriege, Mieke | van der Luijt, Rob B. | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Ellis, Steve D. | Platte, Radka | Fineberg, Elena | Evans, D. Gareth | Lalloo, Fiona | Jacobs, Chris | Eeles, Ros | Adlard, Julian | Davidson, Rosemarie | Eccles, Diana | Cole, Trevor | Cook, Jackie | Paterson, Joan | Douglas, Fiona | Brewer, Carole | Hodgson, Shirley | Morrison, Patrick J. | Walker, Lisa | Porteous, Mary E. | Kennedy, M. John | Pathak, Harsh | Godwin, Andrew K. | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie | de Pauw, Antoine | Gauthier-Villars, Marion | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Léoné, Mélanie | Calender, Alain | Lasset, Christine | Bonadona, Valérie | Hardouin, Agnès | Berthet, Pascaline | Bignon, Yves-Jean | Uhrhammer, Nancy | Faivre, Laurence | Loustalot, Catherine | Buys, Saundra | Daly, Mary | Miron, Alex | Terry, Mary Beth | Chung, Wendy K. | John, Esther M | Southey, Melissa | Goldgar, David | Singer, Christian F | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Pfeiler, Georg | Fink-Retter, Anneliese | Hansen, Thomas v. O. | Ejlertsen, Bent | Johannsson, Oskar Th. | Offit, Kenneth | Kirchhoff, Tomas | Gaudet, Mia M. | Vijai, Joseph | Robson, Mark | Piedmonte, Marion | Phillips, Kelly-Anne | Van Le, Linda | Hoffman, James S | Toland, Amanda Ewart | Montagna, Marco | Tognazzo, Silvia | Imyanitov, Evgeny | Isaacs, Claudine | Janavicius, Ramunas | Lazaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Tornero, Eva | Navarro, Matilde | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Karlan, Beth Y. | Gross, Jenny | Olah, Edith | Vaszko, Tibor | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Ganz, Patricia A. | Beattie, Mary S. | Dorfling, Cecelia M | van Rensburg, Elizabeth J | Diez, Orland | Kwong, Ava | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Engel, Christoph | Meindl, Alfons | Ditsch, Nina | Arnold, Norbert | Heidemann, Simone | Niederacher, Dieter | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Gadzicki, Dorotehea | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Deissler, Helmut | Gehrig, Andrea | Sutter, Christian | Kast, Karin | Fiebig, Britta | Schäfer, Dieter | Caldes, Trinidad | de la Hoya, Miguel | Nevanlinna, Heli | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Plante, Marie | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Ding, Yuan Chun | Wang, Xianshu | Lindor, Noralane | Fredericksen, Zachary | Pankratz, V. Shane | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Bonanni, Bernardo | Bernard, Loris | Dolcetti, Riccardo | Papi, Laura | Ottini, Laura | Radice, Paolo | Greene, Mark H. | Mai, Phuong L. | Andrulis, Irene L. | Glendon, Gord | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Gayther, Simon A. | Simard, Jacques | Easton, Douglas F. | Couch, Fergus J. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia
Human mutation  2012;33(4):690-702.
Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1002/humu.22025
PMCID: PMC3458423  PMID: 22253144
ovarian cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2; association; SNP
22.  Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers 
Antoniou, Antonis C | Kartsonaki, Christiana | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Soucy, Penny | McGuffog, Lesley | Healey, Sue | Lee, Andrew | Peterlongo, Paolo | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Zaffaroni, Daniela | Cattaneo, Elisa | Barile, Monica | Pensotti, Valeria | Pasini, Barbara | Dolcetti, Riccardo | Giannini, Giuseppe | Laura Putignano, Anna | Varesco, Liliana | Radice, Paolo | Mai, Phuong L. | Greene, Mark H. | Andrulis, Irene L. | Glendon, Gord | Ozcelik, Hilmi | Thomassen, Mads | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Kruse, Torben A. | Birk Jensen, Uffe | Crüger, Dorthe G. | Caligo, Maria A. | Laitman, Yael | Milgrom, Roni | Kaufman, Bella | Paluch-Shimon, Shani | Friedman, Eitan | Loman, Niklas | Harbst, Katja | Lindblom, Annika | Arver, Brita | Ehrencrona, Hans | Melin, Beatrice | Nathanson, Katherine L. | Domchek, Susan M. | Rebbeck, Timothy | Jakubowska, Ania | Lubinski, Jan | Gronwald, Jacek | Huzarski, Tomasz | Byrski, Tomasz | Cybulski, Cezary | Gorski, Bohdan | Osorio, Ana | Ramón y Cajal, Teresa | Fostira, Florentia | Andrés, Raquel | Benitez, Javier | Hamann, Ute | Hogervorst, Frans B. | Rookus, Matti A. | Hooning, Maartje J. | Nelen, Marcel R. | van der Luijt, Rob B. | van Os, Theo A.M. | van Asperen, Christi J. | Devilee, Peter | Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J. | Gómez Garcia, Encarna B. | Peock, Susan | Cook, Margaret | Frost, Debra | Platte, Radka | Leyland, Jean | Gareth Evans, D. | Lalloo, Fiona | Eeles, Ros | Izatt, Louise | Adlard, Julian | Davidson, Rosemarie | Eccles, Diana | Ong, Kai-ren | Cook, Jackie | Douglas, Fiona | Paterson, Joan | John Kennedy, M. | Miedzybrodzka, Zosia | Godwin, Andrew | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Buecher, Bruno | Belotti, Muriel | Tirapo, Carole | Mazoyer, Sylvie | Barjhoux, Laure | Lasset, Christine | Leroux, Dominique | Faivre, Laurence | Bronner, Myriam | Prieur, Fabienne | Nogues, Catherine | Rouleau, Etienne | Pujol, Pascal | Coupier, Isabelle | Frénay, Marc | Hopper, John L. | Daly, Mary B. | Terry, Mary B. | John, Esther M. | Buys, Saundra S. | Yassin, Yosuf | Miron, Alexander | Goldgar, David | Singer, Christian F. | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Pfeiler, Georg | Catharina Dressler, Anne | Hansen, Thomas v.O. | Jønson, Lars | Ejlertsen, Bent | Bjork Barkardottir, Rosa | Kirchhoff, Tomas | Offit, Kenneth | Piedmonte, Marion | Rodriguez, Gustavo | Small, Laurie | Boggess, John | Blank, Stephanie | Basil, Jack | Azodi, Masoud | Ewart Toland, Amanda | Montagna, Marco | Tognazzo, Silvia | Agata, Simona | Imyanitov, Evgeny | Janavicius, Ramunas | Lazaro, Conxi | Blanco, Ignacio | Pharoah, Paul D.P. | Sucheston, Lara | Karlan, Beth Y. | Walsh, Christine S. | Olah, Edith | Bozsik, Aniko | Teo, Soo-Hwang | Seldon, Joyce L. | Beattie, Mary S. | van Rensburg, Elizabeth J. | Sluiter, Michelle D. | Diez, Orland | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Engel, Christoph | Meindl, Alfons | Ruehl, Ina | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Kast, Karin | Deissler, Helmut | Niederacher, Dieter | Arnold, Norbert | Gadzicki, Dorothea | Schönbuchner, Ines | Caldes, Trinidad | de la Hoya, Miguel | Nevanlinna, Heli | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Dumont, Martine | Chiquette, Jocelyne | Tischkowitz, Marc | Chen, Xiaoqing | Beesley, Jonathan | Spurdle, Amanda B. | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Chun Ding, Yuan | Fredericksen, Zachary | Wang, Xianshu | Pankratz, Vernon S. | Couch, Fergus | Simard, Jacques | Easton, Douglas F. | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(16):3304-3321.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r2 = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10−9 for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10−8 for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr226
PMCID: PMC3652640  PMID: 21593217
23.  Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) 
Mavaddat, Nasim | Barrowdale, Daniel | Andrulis, Irene L. | Domchek, Susan M. | Eccles, Diana | Nevanlinna, Heli | Ramus, Susan J. | Spurdle, Amanda | Robson, Mark | Sherman, Mark | Mulligan, Anna Marie | Couch, Fergus J. | Engel, Christoph | McGuffog, Lesley | Healey, Sue | Sinilnikova, Olga M. | Southey, Melissa C. | Terry, Mary Beth | Goldgar, David | O’Malley, Frances | John, Esther M. | Janavicius, Ramunas | Tihomirova, Laima | Hansen, Thomas v O | Nielsen, Finn C. | Osorio, Ana | Stavropoulou, Alexandra | Benítez, Javier | Manoukian, Siranoush | Peissel, Bernard | Barile, Monica | Volorio, Sara | Pasini, Barbara | Dolcetti, Riccardo | Putignano, Anna Laura | Ottini, Laura | Radice, Paolo | Hamann, Ute | Rashid, Muhammad U. | Hogervorst, Frans B. | Kriege, Mieke | van der Luijt, Rob B. | Peock, Susan | Frost, Debra | Evans, D. Gareth | Brewer, Carole | Walker, Lisa | Rogers, Mark T. | Side, Lucy E. | Houghton, Catherine | Weaver, JoEllen | Godwin, Andrew K. | Schmutzler, Rita K. | Wappenschmidt, Barbara | Meindl, Alfons | Kast, Karin | Arnold, Norbert | Niederacher, Dieter | Sutter, Christian | Deissler, Helmut | Gadzicki, Doroteha | Preisler-Adams, Sabine | Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda | Schönbuchner, Ines | Gevensleben, Heidrun | Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique | Belotti, Muriel | Barjhoux, Laure | Isaacs, Claudine | Peshkin, Beth N. | Caldes, Trinidad | de al Hoya, Miguel | Cañadas, Carmen | Heikkinen, Tuomas | Heikkilä, Päivi | Aittomäki, Kristiina | Blanco, Ignacio | Lazaro, Conxi | Brunet, Joan | Agnarsson, Bjarni A. | Arason, Adalgeir | Barkardottir, Rosa B. | Dumont, Martine | Simard, Jacques | Montagna, Marco | Agata, Simona | D’Andrea, Emma | Yan, Max | Fox, Stephen | Rebbeck, Timothy R. | Rubinstein, Wendy | Tung, Nadine | Garber, Judy E. | Wang, Xianshu | Fredericksen, Zachary | Pankratz, Vernon S. | Lindor, Noralane M. | Szabo, Csilla | Offit, Kenneth | Sakr, Rita | Gaudet, Mia M. | Singer, Christian F. | Tea, Muy-Kheng | Rappaport, Christine | Mai, Phuong L. | Greene, Mark H. | Sokolenko, Anna | Imyanitov, Evgeny | Toland, Amanda Ewart | Senter, Leigha | Sweet, Kevin | Thomassen, Mads | Gerdes, Anne-Marie | Kruse, Torben | Caligo, Maria | Aretini, Paolo | Rantala, Johanna | von Wachenfeld, Anna | Henriksson, Karin | Steele, Linda | Neuhausen, Susan L. | Nussbaum, Bob | Beattie, Mary | Odunsi, Kunle | Sucheston, Lara | Gayther, Simon A | Nathanson, Kate | Gross, Jenny | Walsh, Christine | Karlan, Beth | Chenevix-Trench, Georgia | Easton, Douglas F. | Antoniou, Antonis C.
Background
Previous small studies found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization.
Methods
We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian and contralateral breast cancers.
Results
There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (p-trend=1.2×10−5) but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2 carriers (p-trend=6.8×10−6). The proportion of triple negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histological grade than ER-positive tumors (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1, p=1.2×10−13 for BRCA1 and p=0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status (ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2=9.4, 95%CI:7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.3-2.3, under joint analysis). Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2=3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.4, p=4.4×10−14), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2=0.25, 95%CI:0.18-0.35, p=2.3×10−15). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (p=0.0004 for BRCA1; p=0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous:67%; mucinous:1%; endometriod:12%; clear-cell:2%).
Conclusions/Impact
Pathology characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0775
PMCID: PMC3272407  PMID: 22144499
pathology; breast; BRCA1; BRCA2; contralateral
24.  Evaluation of Allele-Specific Somatic Changes of Genome-Wide Association Study Susceptibility Alleles in Human Colorectal Cancers 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37672.
Background
Tumors frequently exhibit loss of tumor suppressor genes or allelic gains of activated oncogenes. A significant proportion of cancer susceptibility loci in the mouse show somatic losses or gains consistent with the presence of a tumor susceptibility or resistance allele. Thus, allele-specific somatic gains or losses at loci may demarcate the presence of resistance or susceptibility alleles. The goal of this study was to determine if previously mapped susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer show evidence of allele-specific somatic events in colon tumors.
Methods
We performed quantitative genotyping of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing statistically significant association with colorectal cancer in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We genotyped 194 paired normal and colorectal tumor DNA samples and 296 paired validation samples to investigate these SNPs for allele-specific somatic gains and losses. We combined analysis of our data with published data for seven of these SNPs.
Results
No statistically significant evidence for allele-specific somatic selection was observed for the tested polymorphisms in the discovery set. The rs6983267 variant, which has shown preferential loss of the non-risk T allele and relative gain of the risk G allele in previous studies, favored relative gain of the G allele in the combined discovery and validation samples (corrected p-value = 0.03). When we combined our data with published allele-specific imbalance data for this SNP, the G allele of rs6983267 showed statistically significant evidence of relative retention (p-value = 2.06×10−4).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the majority of variants identified as colon cancer susceptibility alleles through GWAS do not exhibit somatic allele-specific imbalance in colon tumors. Our data confirm previously published results showing allele-specific imbalance for rs6983267. These results indicate that allele-specific imbalance of cancer susceptibility alleles may not be a common phenomenon in colon cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037672
PMCID: PMC3357346  PMID: 22629442
25.  Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies 
The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups.
doi:10.4137/EHI.S9236
PMCID: PMC3327557  PMID: 22518087
informational odds ratio; collapsibility; pre- and post-exposure odds

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