PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (53)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
1.  Trends and Disparities in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Virologic Suppression Among Newly Treatment-Eligible HIV-Infected Individuals in North America, 2001–2009 
Hanna, David B. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Hessol, Nancy A. | Horberg, Michael A. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Kirk, Gregory D. | Kitahata, Mari M. | Korthuis, P. Todd | Moore, Richard D. | Napravnik, Sonia | Patel, Pragna | Silverberg, Michael J. | Sterling, Timothy R. | Willig, James H. | Lau, Bryan | Althoff, Keri N. | Crane, Heidi M. | Collier, Ann C. | Samji, Hasina | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Gill, M. John | Klein, Marina B. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Rourke, Sean B. | Gange, Stephen J. | Benson, A. | Bosch, Ronald J. | Collier, Ann C. | Boswell, Stephen | Grasso, Chris | Mayer, Ken | Hogg, Robert S. | Harrigan, Richard | Montaner, Julio | Cescon, Angela | Brooks, John T. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Moore, Richard D. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Horberg, Michael A. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Goedert, James J. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Klein, Marina B. | Rourke, Sean B. | Burchell, Ann | Rachlis, Anita R. | Hunter-Mellado, Robert F. | Mayor, Angel M. | Gill, M. John | Deeks, Steven G. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Saag, Michael S. | Mugavero, Michael J. | Willig, James | Eron, Joseph J. | Napravnik, Sonia | Kitahata, Mari M. | Crane, Heidi M. | Justice, Amy C. | Dubrow, Robert | Fiellin, David | Sterling, Timothy R. | Haas, David | Bebawy, Sally | Turner, Megan | Gange, Stephen J. | Anastos, Kathryn | Moore, Richard D. | Saag, Michael S. | Gange, Stephen J. | Kitahata, Mari M. | McKaig, Rosemary G. | Justice, Amy C. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Moore, Richard D. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Lent, Carol | Platt, Aaron | Kitahata, Mari M. | Van Rompaey, Stephen E. | Crane, Heidi M. | Webster, Eric | Morton, Liz | Simon, Brenda | Gange, Stephen J. | Abraham, Alison G. | Lau, Bryan | Althoff, Keri N. | Zhang, Jinbing | Jing, Jerry | Golub, Elizabeth | Modur, Shari | Hanna, David B. | Rebeiro, Peter | Wong, Cherise | Mendes, Adell
In the last decade, timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy and resulting virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain.
Background. Since the mid-1990s, effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have improved in potency, tolerability, ease of use, and class diversity. We sought to examine trends in treatment initiation and resulting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virologic suppression in North America between 2001 and 2009, and demographic and geographic disparities in these outcomes.
Methods. We analyzed data on HIV-infected individuals newly clinically eligible for ART (ie, first reported CD4+ count <350 cells/µL or AIDS-defining illness, based on treatment guidelines during the study period) from 17 North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design cohorts. Outcomes included timely ART initiation (within 6 months of eligibility) and virologic suppression (≤500 copies/mL, within 1 year). We examined time trends and considered differences by geographic location, age, sex, transmission risk, race/ethnicity, CD4+ count, and viral load, and documented psychosocial barriers to ART initiation, including non–injection drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and mental illness.
Results. Among 10 692 HIV-infected individuals, the cumulative incidence of 6-month ART initiation increased from 51% in 2001 to 72% in 2009 (Ptrend < .001). The cumulative incidence of 1-year virologic suppression increased from 55% to 81%, and among ART initiators, from 84% to 93% (both Ptrend < .001). A greater number of psychosocial barriers were associated with decreased ART initiation, but not virologic suppression once ART was initiated. We found significant heterogeneity by state or province of residence (P < .001).
Conclusions. In the last decade, timely ART initiation and virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better-tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain, both at the individual level and systemwide.
doi:10.1093/cid/cit003
PMCID: PMC3657490  PMID: 23315317
antiretroviral therapy; healthcare disparities; HIV; time factors; viral load
2.  The Prevalence and Incidence of Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With Inactive Extramacular CMV Retinitis 
Purpose.
To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Methods.
A case–control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios.
Results.
The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5–17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2–27.9) (P < 0.01).
Conclusions.
A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
Eyes with inactive extramacular CMV retinitis have increased prevalence and incidence of ERM compared to eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14479
PMCID: PMC4098061  PMID: 24925880
CMV retinitis; epiretinal membrane; prevalence; incidence; AIDS
3.  Hepatitis C Viremia and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals 
Lucas, Gregory M. | Jing, Yuezhou | Sulkowski, Mark | Abraham, Alison G. | Estrella, Michelle M. | Atta, Mohamed G. | Fine, Derek M. | Klein, Marina B. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Gill, M. John | Moore, Richard D. | Gebo, Kelly A. | Sterling, Timothy R. | Butt, Adeel A. | Kirk, Gregory D. | Benson, Constance A. | Bosch, Ronald J. | Collier, Ann C. | Boswell, Stephen | Grasso, Chris | Mayer, Ken | Hogg, Robert S. | Harrigan, Richard | Montaner, Julio | Cescon, Angela | Brooks, John T. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Moore, Richard D. | Carey, John T. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Horberg, Michael A. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Horberg, Michael A. | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Goedert, James J. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Klein, Marina B. | Rourke, Sean B. | Burchell, Ann | Rachlis, Anita R. | Rico, Puerto | Hunter-Mellado, Robert F. | Mayor, Angel M. | Gill, M. John | Deeks, Steven G. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Patel, Pragna | Brooks, John T. | Saag, Michael S. | Mugavero, Michael J. | Willig, James | Eron, Joseph J. | Napravnik, Sonia | Kitahata, Mari M. | Crane, Heidi M. | Justice, Amy C. | Dubrow, Robert | Fiellin, David | Sterling, Timothy R. | Haas, David | Bebawy, Sally | Turner, Megan | Gange, Stephen J. | Anastos, Kathryn | Moore, Richard D. | Saag, Michael S. | Gange, Stephen J. | Kitahata, Mari M. | McKaig, Rosemary G. | Justice, Amy C. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Moore, Richard D. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Lent, Carol | Kitahata, Mari M. | Van Rompaey, Stephen E. | Crane, Heidi M. | Webster, Eric | Morton, Liz | Simon, Brenda | Gange, Stephen J. | Althoff, Keri N. | Abraham, Alison G. | Lau, Bryan | Zhang, Jinbing | Jing, Jerry | Golub, Elizabeth | Modur, Shari | Hanna, David B. | Rebeiro, Peter | Wong, Cherise | Mendes, Adell
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(8):1240-1249.
Background. The role of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk has not been clarified.
Methods. We compared CKD incidence in a large cohort of HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, HCV viremic (detectable HCV RNA), or HCV aviremic (HCV seropositive, undetectable HCV RNA). Stages 3 and 5 CKD were defined according to standard criteria. Progressive CKD was defined as a sustained 25% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease from baseline to a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We used Cox models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results. A total of 52 602 HCV seronegative, 9508 HCV viremic, and 913 HCV aviremic subjects were included. Compared with HCV seronegative subjects, HCV viremic subjects were at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (adjusted HR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.26, 1.46]), stage 5 CKD (1.95 [1.64, 2.31]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.19, 1.44]), while HCV aviremic subjects were also at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (1.19 [0.98, 1.45]), stage 5 CKD (1.69 [1.07, 2.65]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.02, 1.68]).
Conclusions. Compared with HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, both HCV viremic and HCV aviremic individuals were at increased risk for moderate and advanced CKD.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit373
PMCID: PMC3778973  PMID: 23904290
HIV; hepatitis C virus; chronic kidney disease; hepatitis C RNA; cohort study; glomerular filtration rate; injection drug use
5.  Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS 
American journal of ophthalmology  2012;155(2):206-212.e5.
Purpose
To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Design
Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS
Methods
Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes.
Results
At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively).
Conclusions
Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2012.07.019
PMCID: PMC4164649  PMID: 23068916
6.  Viral Retinitis following Intraocular or Periocular Corticosteroid Administration: A Case Series and Comprehensive Review of the Literature 
Purpose
To describe viral retinitis following intravitreal and periocular corticosteroid administration.
Methods
Retrospective case series and comprehensive literature review.
Results
We analyzed 5 unreported and 25 previously published cases of viral retinitis following local corticosteroid administration. Causes of retinitis included 23 CMV (76.7%), 5 HSV (16.7%), and 1 each VZV and unspecified (3.3%). Two of 22 tested patients (9.1%) were HIV positive. Twenty-one of 30 (70.0%) cases followed one or more intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), 4 (13.3%) after one or more posterior sub-Tenon injections of TA, 3 (10.0%) after placement of a 0.59-mg fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert), and 1 (3.3%) each after an anterior subconjunctival injection of TA (together with IVTA), an anterior chamber injection, and an anterior sub-Tenon injection. Mean time from most recent corticosteroid administration to development of retinitis was 4.2 months (median 3.8; range 0.25–13.0). Twelve patients (40.0%) had type II diabetes mellitus. Treatments used included systemic antiviral agents (26/30, 86.7%), intravitreal antiviral injections (20/30, 66.7%), and ganciclovir intravitreal implants (4/30, 13.3%).
Conclusions
Viral retinitis may develop or reactivate following intraocular or periocular corticosteroid administration. Average time to development of retinitis was 4 months, and CMV was the most frequently observed agent. Diabetes was a frequent co-morbidity and several patients with uveitis who developed retinitis were also receiving systemic immunosuppressive therapy.
doi:10.3109/09273948.2013.866256
PMCID: PMC4154532  PMID: 24655372
Acute retinal necrosis; corticosteroid; cytomegalovirus; herpes virus; injection; retinitis
7.  Risk of choroidal neovascularization among the uveitides 
American journal of ophthalmology  2013;156(3):468-477.e2.
Purpose
To evaluate the risk, risk factors, and visual impact of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in uveitis cases.
Design
Retrospective cohort study
Methods
Standardized medical record review at five tertiary centers.
Results
Among 15,137 uveitic eyes (8,868 patients), CNV was rare in the cases of anterior or intermediate uveitis. Among the 4,041 eyes (2,307 patients) with posterior or panuveitis, 81 (2.0%) presented with CNV. Risk factors included posterior uveitis in general and specific uveitis syndromes affecting the outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid interface. Among the 2,364 eyes (1,357 patients) with posterior or panuveitis and free of CNV at the time of cohort entry, the cumulative two-year incidence of CNV was 2.7% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.8-3.5%). Risk factors for incident CNV included currently active inflammation (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.13, 95%CI: 1.26-3.60), preretinal neovascularization (aHR 3.19, 95%CI: 1.30-7.80), and prior diagnosis of CNV in the contralateral eye (aHR 5.79, 95%CI: 2.77-12.09). Among specific syndromes, the incidence was greater in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome (aHR 3.37, 95%CI: 1.52-7.46), and punctate inner choroiditis (aHR 8.67, 95%CI: 2.83-26.54). Incident CNV was associated with two lines’ loss of visual acuity (+0.19 logMAR units, 95%CI: 0.079–0.29) from the preceding visit.
Conclusions
CNV is an uncommon complication of uveitis associated with visual impairment, which more commonly occurs in forms affecting the outer retina/RPE/choroid interface, during periods of inflammatory activity, in association with preretinal neovascularization, and in second eyes of patients with unilateral CNV. Because CNV is treatable, a systematic approach to early detection in high-risk patients may be appropriate.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2013.04.040
PMCID: PMC3748230  PMID: 23795984
8.  Fluorescein angiography vs. optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of uveitic macular edema 
Ophthalmology  2013;120(9):1852-1859.
Objective
To evaluate agreement between fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular edema in patients with uveitis.
Design
Multicenter cross-sectional study
Participants
Four hundred seventy-nine eyes with uveitis of 255 patients
Methods
The macular status of dilated eyes with intermediate, posterior or panuveitis was assessed via Stratus-3 OCT and FA. Kappa statistics evaluated agreement between the diagnostic approaches.
Main Outcome Measures
Macular thickening (center point thickness ≥240 μm per reading center grading of OCT images-“MT”) and macular leakage (central subfield fluorescein leakage ≥0.44 disk areas per reading center grading of FA images-“ML”); agreement amongst these outcomes in diagnosing “macular edema.”
Results
OCT (90.4%) more frequently returned usable information regarding macular edema than FA (77%) and biomicroscopy (76%). Agreement in diagnosis of MT and ML (κ=0.44) was moderate. ML was present in 40% of cases free of MT, whereas MT was present in 34% of cases without ML. Biomicroscopic evaluation for macular edema failed to detect 40% and 45% of cases of MT and ML respectively and diagnosed 17% and 17% of cases with macular edema which did not have MT or ML respectively; these results may underestimate biomicroscopic errors (ophthalmologists were not explicitly masked to OCT and FA results). Among eyes free of ML, phakic eyes without cataract rarely (4%) had MT. No factors were found that effectively ruled out ML when MT was absent.
Conclusion
OCT and FA offered only moderate agreement regarding macular edema status in uveitis cases, probably because what they measure (MT and ML) are related but non-identical macular pathologies. Given its lower cost, greater safety, and greater likelihood of obtaining usable information, OCT may be the best initial test for evaluation of suspected macular edema. However, given that ML cannot be ruled out if MT is absent and vice versa, obtaining the second test after a negative result on the first seems justified when detection of ML or MT would alter management. Given that biomicroscopic evaluation for macular edema frequently erred, ancillary testing for macular edema seems indicated when knowledge of ML or MT status would affect management.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.01.069
PMCID: PMC3758459  PMID: 23706700
9.  Response of Pediatric Uveitis to Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors 
The Journal of rheumatology  2013;40(8):1394-1403.
Objectives
To evaluate the outcome of TNF-alpha inhibition (anti-TNFα) for pediatric uveitis.
Methods
We retrospectively assessed children (≤18 years) with non-infectious uveitis receiving anti-TNFα at five uveitis centers and one pediatric-rheumatology center. Incident treatment success was defined as minimal or no uveitis activity at ≥2 consecutive ophthalmological exams ≥28 days apart while taking no oral and ≤2 eyedrops/day of corticosteroids. Eligible children had active uveitis and/or were taking higher corticosteroid doses.
Results
Among 56 eligible children followed over 33.73 person-years, 52% had juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 75% had anterior uveitis (AU). The Kaplan-Meier estimated proportion achieving treatment success within 12 months was 75% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 62–87%). Complete absence of inflammatory signs with discontinuation of all corticosteroids was observed in an estimated 64% by 12 months (95% CI: 51–76%). Diagnoses of JIA or AU were associated with greater likelihood of success, as was the oligoarticular subtype amongst JIA cases. In a multivariable model, compared to those with JIA-associated AU, those with neither or with JIA or AU alone had a 75–80% lower rate of achieving quiescence under anti-TNFα - independent of the number of immunomodulators previously or concomitantly prescribed. Uveitis re-activated within 12 months of achieving quiescence in 14% of those continuing anti-TNFα (95% CI: 6–31%). The incidence of discontinuation for adverse effects was 8%/year (95% CI: 1–43%).
Conclusion
Treatment with anti-TNFα was successful and sustained in a majority of children with non-infectious uveitis and treatment-limiting toxicity was infrequent. JIA-associated AU may be especially responsive to anti-TNFα.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.121180
PMCID: PMC3802519  PMID: 23818712
uveitis; tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist; juvenile idiopathic arthritis
10.  Risk of elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma in patients with uveitis; results of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial 
Ophthalmology  2013;120(8):1571-1579.
Objective
To report the two-year incidence of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve damage in patients with uveitis randomized to either fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implants or systemic therapy. Secondarily, to explore patient and eye characteristics associated with IOP elevation or nerve damage.
Design
A randomized, partially masked trial in which patients were randomized to either FA implants or systemic therapy.
Participants
Patients age 13 years or older with non-infectious intermediate, posterior or panuveitis active within the prior 60 days for which systemic corticosteroids were indicated were eligible.
Methods
Visual fields were obtained at baseline and every 12 months using the Humphrey 24-2 SITA-fast protocol. Stereoscopic optic nerve photos were taken at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 24-month follow-up visits. IOP was measured by masked examiners at every study visit.
Main Outcome Measures
Glaucoma was diagnosed based on an increase in optic nerve cup-to-disc ratio with visual field worsening or increased cup-to-disc ratio alone, when visual fields were not available for cases where visual field change was not evaluable, due to missing data or severe visual field loss at baseline.
Results
Most patients were treated as assigned, among those evaluated for glaucoma 97% and 10% of patients assigned to implant and systemic treatment, respectively, received implants. More patients (65%) assigned to implants experienced an IOP elevation of at least 10 mmHg versus 24% assigned to systemic treatment (P<0.001). Similarly, 69% of patients assigned to the implant required IOP lowering therapy versus 26% in the systemic group (P<0.001). Glaucomatous optic nerve damage developed in 23% versus 6% (P<0.001) of implant and systemic patients, respectively. In addition to treatment assignment, black race, use of IOP-lowering medications and uveitis activity at baseline were associated with incident glaucoma (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Implant-assigned eyes had about a four-fold risk of developing IOP elevation ≥ 10 mmHg and of incident glaucomatous optic neuropathy over the first two years compared to those assigned to systemic therapy. Central visual acuity was unaffected. Aggressive IOP monitoring with early treatment (often including early filtration surgery) are needed to avoid glaucoma when vision-threatening inflammation requires implant therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.01.025
PMCID: PMC3720698  PMID: 23601801
11.  Retention Among North American HIV–infected Persons in Clinical Care, 2000–2008 
Background
Retention in care is key to improving HIV outcomes. Our goal was to describe “churn” in patterns of entry, exit, and retention in HIV care in the US and Canada.
Methods
Adults contributing ≥1 CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA (HIV-lab) from 2000–2008 in North American Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) clinical cohorts were included. Incomplete retention was defined as lack of 2 HIV-labs (≥90 days apart) within 12 months, summarized by calendar year. We used beta-binomial regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of factors associated with incomplete retention.
Results
Among 61,438 participants, 15,360 (25%) with incomplete retention significantly differed in univariate analyses (p<0.001) from 46,078 (75%) consistently retained by age, race/ethnicity, HIV risk, CD4, ART use, and country of care (US vs. Canada). From 2000–2004, females (OR=0.82, CI:0.70–0.95), older individuals (OR=0.78, CI:0.74–0.83 per 10 years), and ART users (OR= 0.61, CI:0.54–0.68 vs all others) were less likely to have incomplete retention, while black individuals (OR=1.31, CI:1.16–1.49, vs. white), those with injection drug use (IDU) HIV risk (OR=1.68, CI:1.49–1.89, vs. non-IDU) and those in care longer (OR=1.09, CI:1.07–1.11 per year) were more likely to have incomplete retention. Results from 2005–2008 were similar.
Discussion
From 2000 to 2008, 75% of the NA-ACCORD population was consistently retained in care with 25% experiencing some change in status, or churn. In addition to the programmatic and policy implications, our findings identify patient groups who may benefit from focused retention efforts.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31827f578a
PMCID: PMC3661708  PMID: 23242158
retention; churn; HIV clinical care; North America; HRSA HAB; National HIV/AIDS Strategy
12.  The Role of Gender in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Uveitis 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:461078.
Uveitis is a common complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affecting up to 30% of patients with JIA. Although the typical bilateral chronic anterior uveitis associated with the persistent and extended oligoarticular and polyarticular, rheumatoid factor negative variants of JIA occurs predominantly in girls, boys may be more commonly affected in the HLA-B27 positive, enthesitis variant of JIA. While female gender has been associated with the development of the chronic anterior uveitis in children with JIA, the clinical course of JIA-associated uveitis may be worse in boys than in girls. The purpose of this paper is to review the available published literature to determine the role of gender in the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with JIA-associated uveitis.
doi:10.1155/2014/461078
PMCID: PMC3950556  PMID: 24701346
13.  Risk Factors for Loss of Visual Acuity among Patients with Uveitis Associated With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: The SITE Study 
Ophthalmology  2012;120(1):186-192.
Purpose
To describe the incidence of and risk factors for visual acuity (VA) loss and ocular complications in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.
Design
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
Participants
327 patients (596 affected eyes) with JIA-associated uveitis managed at five tertiary uveitis clinics in the United States.
Methods
Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases (SITE) Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers.
Main Outcome Measures
Loss of VA to 20/50 or to 20/200 or worse thresholds and the development of ocular complications.
Results
At presentation, 240 (40.3%) eyes had a VA of 20/50 or worse; 144 (24.2%) had a VA of 20/200 or worse; 359 (60.2%) had at least one ocular complication. The incidences of VA loss to the 20/50 or worse and 20/200 or worse thresholds were 0.18 and 0.09 per eye-year (EY), respectively; the incidence of developing at least one new ocular complication over follow-up was 0.15/EY (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13/EY, 0.17/EY). However, among eyes with uveitis that had no complications at presentation, the rate of developing at least one ocular complication during follow up was lower (0.04/EY, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.06). Posterior synechiae, active uveitis, and prior intraocular surgery were statistically significantly associated with VA to the 20/50 or worse and 20/200 or worse thresholds, both at presentation and during follow-up. Increasing (time-updated) anterior chamber cell grade was associated with increased rates of visual loss in a dose-dependent fashion. Use of immunosuppressive drugs was associated with a reduced the risk of visual loss, particularly for the 20/50 or worse outcome (hazard ratio = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.75, P<0.01).
Conclusions
Ocular complications and vision loss were common in our cohort. Increasing uveitis activity was associated with increased risk of vision loss and use of immunosuppressive drugs was associated with reduced risk of vision loss suggesting that control of inflammation and use of immunosuppression may be critical aspects in improving the outcomes of patients with JIA-related uveitis.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.07.052
PMCID: PMC3536914  PMID: 23062650
14.  Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis 
Background
We describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in three patients with acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC). The SD-OCT images demonstrate the pathologic changes in ASPPC with a high level of anatomic detail and may provide information about the pathophysiology of the disease.
Findings
We report a series of three consecutive patients seen at the Wilmer Eye Institute in 2012 and 2013 who presented with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with a diagnosis of unilateral ASPPC. Two of the three patients had HIV co-infection with good immune recovery. SD-OCT images from their initial (pre-treatment) presentation demonstrated thickening and hyperreflective nodularity of the choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex, with focal disruption of the overlying photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment junction in the areas corresponding to the retinal lesions seen on clinical examination. These changes improved with intravenous antibiotic treatment over a 3-month period of follow-up.
Conclusions
SD-OCT imaging in ASPPC demonstrates reversible, focal thickening, and nodularity of the RPE with disruption of the overlying photoreceptor inner segment-outer segment junction. We believe that these SD-OCT images support the concept that ASPPC involves an inflammatory process at the level of the choroid-RPE with resultant structural and functional changes in the retinal photoreceptors. Further study with OCT imaging may be helpful in better understanding this disease.
doi:10.1186/1869-5760-4-2
PMCID: PMC3917537  PMID: 24468306
Syphilis; Chorioretinis; Optical coherence tomography; Retinal pigment epithelium; Photoreceptor
15.  Association between U.S. State AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Features and HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation, 2001–2009 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78952.
Background
U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes.
Methods
We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU).
Results
Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95).
Conclusions
We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078952
PMCID: PMC3832515  PMID: 24260137
16.  Post-operative outcomes following fluocinolone acetonide implant surgery in patients with Birdshot chorioretinitis and other types of posterior and panuveitis. 
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2013;33(8):10.1097/IAE.0b013e31828396cf.
Purpose
To evaluate outcomes following placement of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implants in eyes with Birdshot chorioretinitis (BSCR) and to compare these outcomes with eyes with posterior and panuveitis.
Methods
This is a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from patients with posterior and panuveitis treated with FA implants from 2006 through 2010. Outcome measures include visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), need for glaucoma surgery, postoperative complications, and control of inflammation.
Results
All eyes treated with FA implants achieved improved control of inflammation and decreased reliance on adjunctive therapy. BSCR eyes had a statistically significant increase in IOP in the first four months after FA implantation (p = 0.04) as compared to baseline IOP. A higher percentage of eyes with BSCR required glaucoma surgery and after a shorter time period following FA implantation than did eyes with other forms of posterior and panuveitis (0.42/EY versus 0.11/EY; median time to glaucoma surgery: 15.5 vs. 31.5 months respectively, hazard ratio = 3.4, 95% CI 1.0-10.8, p = 0.04).
Conclusions
Although the FA implant is effective in controlling inflammation and reducing the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy, eyes of patients with BSCR tended to have a more robust IOP response to the FA implant than eyes with other types of posterior and panuveitis.
doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e31828396cf
PMCID: PMC3828657  PMID: 23549097
Birdshot chorioretinitis; fluocinolone acetonide implant; posterior uveitis
17.  Risk of Hypotony in Non-infectious Uveitis 
Ophthalmology  2012;119(11):2377-2385.
Objective
To describe the risk and risk factors for hypotony in a non-infectious uveitis cohort.
Design
Retrospective cohort study.
Participants
Patients with non-infectious uveitis seen between 1979-2007 at four academic ocular inflammation specialty clinics.
Method
Data were collected by trained, certified, expert reviewers from medical records.
Main Outcome Measures
Hypotony (<5mmHg) and low intraocular pressure (<8mmHg), each sustained for ≥2 visits spanning at least 30 days.
Results
During follow-up, 126/6785 (1.86%) developed hypotony at the rate of 0.61%(95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.50, 0.75%)/eye-year. Cataract surgery was associated with a 7.5-fold risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 7.51, 95% CI 3.97,14.23) of incident hypotony. Phacoemulsification, the type of cataract surgery associated with the least hypotony risk still was associated with nearly five-fold higher hypotony incidence (aHR =4.87, 95% CI 2.25, 10.55). Increased risk was observed in children (aHR =2.92, 95% CI 1.20, 7.10) with respect to young adults, and duration of uveitis of >5 years (aHR =3.08, 95% CI 1.30, 7.31) with respect to uveitis of <6 month duration. ≥3+ vitreous cells, band keratopathy, exudative retinal detachment, posterior synechia and history of pars plana vitrectomy also were associated with greater hypotony incidence. With respect to anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis (aHR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.05,0.56) and posterior uveitis (aHR =0.11, 95% CI 0.03,0.45) were associated with lower hypotony risk, whereas panuveitis (aHR=1.25, 95% CI 0.67, 2.35) was similar. Approximately five-sixths (84.1%) of eyes presenting with hypotony had a visual acuity of 20/200 or worse (aOR for visual acuity 20/200 or worse=13.85, 95% CI 7.23, 26.53). Risk factors for prevalent hypotony were similar.
Conclusions
The risk of hypotony is low among eyes with non-infectious uveitis, but is more frequently observed in cases with anterior segment inflammation. Signs of present or past inflammation were associated with higher risk, suggesting excellent inflammatory control may reduce the risk of hypotony. Prior ocular surgery also was associated with higher risk; cataract surgery in particular was associated with much higher risk of hypotony. Lower risk of hypotony with phacoemulsification than alternative cataract surgery approaches suggests the phacoemulsification approach is preferable.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.05.032
PMCID: PMC3475753  PMID: 22796306
18.  Methotrexate for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases 
Ophthalmology  2009;116(11):2188-98.e1.
Purpose
To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation.
Design
Retrospective cohort study.
Participants
Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive.
Methods
Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers.
Main Outcome Measures
Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy.
Results
Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for ≥28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone ≤10 mg/d) was achieved within 6 months among 46.1%, 41.3%, 20.7%, 37.3%, 36.5%, and 50.9%, respectively. Overall, success within 12 months was 66% and 58.4% for sustained control and corticosteroid sparing ≤10 mg), respectively. Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation. Remission was seen in 43 patients, with 7.7% remitting within 1 year of treatment.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that adding methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen not involving other noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs is moderately effective for management of inflammatory activity and for achieving corticosteroid-sparing objectives, although many months may be required for therapeutic success. Methotrexate was well tolerated by most patients, and seems to convey little risk of serious side effects during treatment.
Financial Disclosure(s)
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interests in any of the materials discussed in this article.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.04.020
PMCID: PMC3785935  PMID: 19748676
19.  Risk of corticosteroid-induced hyperglycemia requiring medical therapy among patients with inflammatory eye diseases 
Ophthalmology  2012;119(8):1569-1574.
Objective
To identify the incidence and risk factors for corticosteroid-induced hyperglycemia requiring medical therapy among patients with inflammatory eye diseases.
Design
Retrospective cohort study.
Participants
Patients with ocular inflammation followed at five United States tertiary centers who initially were neither diabetic nor taking hypoglycemic medications.
Methods
Eligible patients who used oral corticosteroids during follow-up were identified and followed longitudinally for initiation of hypoglycemic medication over one year after beginning corticosteroids. The remaining eligible patients were followed for one year after their initial visit. Survival analysis was used to calculate the risk of hyperglycemia requiring medical therapy, and to identify potential risk factors.
Main Outcome Measures
Initiation of hypoglycemic medications.
Results
Among 2,073 non-diabetic patients treated with oral corticosteroids, 25 (1.21%) initiated hypoglycemic therapy compared with 5 (0.19%) of 2,666 patients not treated with oral corticosteroids (relative risk (RR) = 4.39, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.68 – 11.5). Relative risk tended to be higher in association with higher initial doses (For initial doses <40 mg of prednisone/day, RR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.08–9.64; for initial prednisone dose ≥40 mg/day, RR=5.51, 95% CI: 2.01–15.1). Other risk factors for the initiation of hypoglycemic therapy included older age (RR (per each additional 10 years) = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15 – 1.85, p = 0.002) and African-American race (RR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.34 – 6.43, p = 0.007).
Conclusions
These results suggest that the absolute risk of corticosteroid-induced hyperglycemia that is detected and treated with hypoglycemic therapy in the tertiary ocular inflammation setting is low (an excess cumulative risk on the order of 1% within one year), although on a relative scale it is approximately 4.4-fold higher than in patients not treated with oral corticosteroids. Higher age and African-American race also were risk factors. Physicians who use systemic corticosteroids for ocular inflammatory diseases should be aware of this risk, and should consider surveillance for hyperglycemia among high-risk patients. However, given the low absolute risk, routine laboratory monitoring or referral for monitoring may not be necessary for low risk patients.
doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.01.043
PMCID: PMC3394895  PMID: 22484116
20.  Incidence of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy 
American Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;153(6):1016-1024.e5.
Purpose
To estimate the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to characterize the factors associated with increased risk of CMV retinitis.
Design
Prospective cohort study
Methods
1600 participants with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) but without CMV retinitis at enrollment who completed at least one follow-up visit in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) were seen every 6 months to obtain disease and treatment history, ophthalmic examination, and laboratory testing. Incidence of CMV retinitis and risk factors for incident CMV retinitis were assessed.
Results
The incidence rate of CMV retinitis in individuals with AIDS was 0.36/100 person years (PY) based upon 29 incident cases during 8,134 person-years of follow-up. The rate was higher for those with a CD4+ T cell count at the immediately prior visit below 50 cells/μL (3.89/100 PY, p < 0.01), whereas only one individual with a CD4+ T cell count of 50–99 cells/μL and two individuals with a CD4+ T cell count > 100 cells/μL developed CMV retinitis. Having a CD4+ T cell count below 50 cells/μL at the clinical visit prior to CMV retinitis evaluation was the single most important risk factor (HR: 136, 95% CI: 30 to 605, p < 0.0001) for developing retinitis.
Conclusions
Patients with AIDS, especially those with severely compromised immune systems, remain at risk for developing CMV retinitis in the HAART era, although the incidence rate is reduced from that observed in the pre-HAART era.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.11.014
PMCID: PMC3358595  PMID: 22310076
21.  High-Dose Intravenous Corticosteroids for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases 
Purpose
To evaluate the effectiveness and risk of complications of high-dose intravenous pulsed corticosteroids for non-infectious ocular inflammatory diseases.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study. One hundred four eyes of seventy patients who received high-dose intravenous corticosteroids for treatment of active ocular inflammation were identified from five centers. The main outcome measures were control of inflammation and occurrence of ocular or systemic complications within one month after treatment.
Results
Within ≤1 month of starting treatment, 57% of eyes achieved complete control of inflammation (95% confidence interval (CI): 33-83%), improving to 82% when near-complete control was included (95% CI: 61-96%). Most eyes (85%; 95% CI: 70-95%) gained clinically significant improvement in anterior chamber inflammation. One patient developed a colon perforation during treatment. No other major complications were recorded.
Conclusions
Treatment of ocular inflammation with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids resulted in substantial clinical improvement for most cases within one month. Complications of therapy were infrequent.
doi:10.3109/09273948.2011.646382
PMCID: PMC3306126  PMID: 22409561
Corticosteroids; Inflammation; Intravenous; Non-infectious; Uveitis
22.  RETINAL VESSEL CALIBER AMONG PEOPLE WITH AIDS: RELATIONSHIPS WITH DISEASE-ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND MORTALITY 
American Journal of Ophthalmology  2011;153(3):434-444.e1.
Purpose
To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber, AIDS-related factors, and mortality.
Design
Longitudinal, observational, cohort study.
Methods
We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998–2008). Semi-automated evaluation of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole:venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, identified independent relationships between indices and various host- and disease-related variables.
Results
Included were 1250 participants. Mean follow-up for determination of mortality was 6.1 years. Smaller CRAE was related to increased age (p<0.001) and hypertension (p<0.001); larger CRAE was related to lower hematocrit (p=0.002). Larger CRAE and CRVE were associated with black race (p<0.001). Larger CRVE was related to smoking (p=0.004); smaller CRVE was related to age (p<0.001) and higher mean corpuscular volume (p=0.001). We observed the following relationships with AIDS-associated factors: smaller CRAE and larger CRVE with history of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; p<0.001); and larger CRAE with lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (p=0.04). We did not identify independent relationships with HIV RNA blood levels. There was a 12% (95% CI, 2–21%) increase in mortality risk per quartile of decreasing AVR (p=0.02).
Conclusions
Variations in retinal vascular caliber are associated with AIDS-specific factors, and are markers for increased mortality risk. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasculature is altered by known atherogenic effects of chronic HAART or the prolonged inflammatory state associated with AIDS.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.08.028
PMCID: PMC3289046  PMID: 22019225
23.  U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected Persons, 2000 to 2008 
Annals of internal medicine  2012;157(5):325-335.
Background
The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US).
Objective
To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes.
Design
Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states.
Setting
U.S. HIV outpatient clinics.
Patients
HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008.
Measurements
Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death.
Results
45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (≤2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001).
Limitation
The usual limitations of observational data apply.
Conclusion
The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada.
doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00005
PMCID: PMC3534765  PMID: 22944874
24.  Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure 
Background
We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C.
Findings
This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification.
Conclusions
Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.
doi:10.1186/1869-5760-3-39
PMCID: PMC3605078  PMID: 23514228
Necrotizing scleritis; I-BRITE; Cosmetic eye whitening; Mitomycin C
25.  Identifying a Clinically Meaningful Threshold for Change in Uveitic Macular Edema Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography 
American journal of ophthalmology  2011;152(6):1044-1052.e5.
Purpose
To identify a clinically meaningful threshold for change in retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) for patients with uveitic macular edema, using correlation with change in visual acuity.
Design
Cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
Methods
128 eyes (101 individuals) with macular edema enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial. At enrollment and after six months of follow-up, retinal thickness was measured at the central subfield with time domain OCT and visual acuity was measured with logarithmic (ETDRS) visual acuity charts. Participants were classified as having macular edema if the retinal thickness was ≥260μm.
Results
A threshold for change in retinal center subfield thickness of 20% balanced the percentage of false positives and negatives for predicting greater than 10-letter change in visual acuity with sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 75%. The results were similar for greater than 5 or 15 or greater letter changes. Those with a 20% or greater reduction in retinal thickness had a mean 11.0 letter improvement (95% CI: 7.7 to 14.3) as compared to a -0.4 letter change (95% CI: -4.1 to 3.3) in visual acuity for those without a 20% reduction (p < 0.01).
Conclusions
In addition to being above the level of measurement uncertainty, a 20% change in retinal thickness in patients with macular edema appears to be optimal for clinically important changes in visual acuity and may be considered as an outcome for clinical trials of treatments for uveitic macular edema.
doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.028
PMCID: PMC3223264  PMID: 21861971

Results 1-25 (53)