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1.  Chemokine-induced eosinophil recruitment. Evidence of a role for endogenous eotaxin in an in vivo allergy model in mouse skin. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(7):1657-1666.
Selective eosinophil recruitment into tissues is a characteristic feature of allergic diseases. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in various allergic conditions in man. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of eosinophil recruitment in which we have compared the in vivo chemoattractant activity of different C-C chemokines. Furthermore, we describe the use of antibodies to chemokines and receptor blockade to address the endogenous mechanisms involved in eosinophil recruitment in a late-phase allergic reaction in mouse skin. Intradermal injection of mEotaxin and mMIP-1alpha, but not mMCP-1, mRANTES, mMCP-5, or mMIP-1beta, induced significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment in mouse skin. Significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment was also observed in an active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Pretreatment of skin sites with antieotaxin antiserum, but not an antiMIP-1alpha antibody, suppressed 111In-eosinophil recruitment in this delayed-onset allergic reaction. Similarly, desensitization of the eosinophil eotaxin receptor CCR3 with mEotaxin, or blockade of the receptor with metRANTES, significantly inhibited 111In-eosinophil recruitment in the allergic reaction. These results demonstrate an important role for endogenous eotaxin in mediating the 111In-eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation, and suggest that blockade of the CCR3 receptor is a valid strategy to inhibit eosinophil migration in vivo.
PMCID: PMC508348  PMID: 9312163
2.  Use of inflammatory molecules to predict the occurrence of fever in onco-hematological patients with neutropenia 
Febrile neutropenia remains a frequent complication in onco-hematological patients, and changes in the circulating level of inflammatory molecules (IM) may precede the occurrence of fever. The present observational prospective study was carried out to evaluate the behavior of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), soluble TNF-α I and II receptors (sTNFRI and sTNFRII), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1 or chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α or CCL3), eotaxin (CCL11), interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) in 32 episodes of neutropenia in 26 onco-hematological patients. IM were tested on enrollment and 24-48 h before the onset of fever and within 24 h of the first occurrence of fever. Eight of 32 episodes of neutropenia did not present fever (control group) and the patients underwent IM tests on three different occasions. sTNFRI levels, measured a median of 11 h (1-15) before the onset of fever, were significantly higher in patients presenting fever during follow-up compared to controls (P = 0.02). Similar results were observed for sTNFRI and CCL2 levels (P = 0.04 for both) in non-transplanted patients. A cut-off of 1514 pg/mL for sTNFRI was able to discriminate between neutropenic patients with or without fever during follow-up, with 65% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 93% positive predictive value. Measurement of the levels of plasma sTNFRI can be used to predict the occurrence of fever in neutropenic patients.
doi:10.1590/1414-431X20122397
PMCID: PMC3854365  PMID: 23369970
Neutropenia; Cytokines; Oncological hematology
3.  Emergence of clonal complex 5 (CC5) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a Brazilian hospital 
In this study, genotyping techniques including staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and restriction-modification tests were used to compare the molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered at two times within a 10-year interval (1998 and 2008) from a tertiary Brazilian hospital. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed. All 48 MRSA isolates from 1998 and 85.7% from 2008 (48/56 isolates) displayed multidrug-resistance phenotypes and SCCmec III. All but one of the 13 representative SCCmec III isolates belonged to CC8 and had PFGE patterns similar to that of the BMB9393 strain (Brazilian epidemic clone of MRSA; BEC). In 2008, we found an increased susceptibility to rifampicin and chloramphenicol among the SCCmec III isolates. In addition, we detected the entrance of diverse international MRSA lineages susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), almost all belonging to CC5. These non-SCCmec III isolates were related to the USA300 (ST8-SCCmec IV; PFGE-type B), USA800 (ST5-SCCmec IV; subtype D1), USA100 (ST5-SCCmec II; subtype D2), and EMRSA-3/Cordobes (ST5-SCCmec I, type C) clones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the emergence of isolates genetically related to the EMRSA-3/Cordobes clone in southeast Brazil. In this regard, these isolates were the most common non-SCCmec III MRSA in our institution, accounting for 8.9% of all isolates recovered in 2008. Thus, despite the supremacy of BEC isolates in our country, significant changes may occur in local MRSA epidemiology, with possible consequences for the rationality of MRSA empiric therapy.
doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500065
PMCID: PMC3854277  PMID: 22527128
MRSA; Antimicrobial susceptibility; CC5; Cordobes clone; Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
4.  Leukotriene B4 Induces Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Murine Macrophages and Mediates Resistance to Infection  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(8):4247-4253.
The production of nitric oxide (NO) by gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated macrophages is a major effector mechanism during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In addition to IFN-γ, chemoattractant molecules, such as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and CC chemokines, may also activate macrophages to induce NO and mediate the killing of T. cruzi in an NO-dependent manner. Here we investigated the ability of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) to induce the production of NO by macrophages infected with T. cruzi in vitro and whether NO mediated LTB4-induced parasite killing. The activation of T. cruzi-infected but not naive murine peritoneal macrophages with LTB4 induced the time- and concentration-dependent production of NO. In addition, low concentrations of LTB4 acted in synergy with IFN-γ to induce NO production. The NO produced mediated LTB4-induced microbicidal activity in macrophages, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effects of an inducible NO synthase inhibitor. LTB4-induced NO production and parasite killing were LTB4 receptor dependent and were partially blocked by a PAF receptor antagonist. LTB4 also induced significant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production, and blockade of TNF-α suppressed LTB4-induced NO release and parasite killing. A blockade of LTB4 or PAF receptors partially inhibited IFN-γ-induced NO and TNF-α production but not parasite killing. Finally, daily treatment of infected mice with CP-105,696 was accompanied by a significantly higher level of blood parasitemia, but not lethality, than that seen in vehicle-treated animals. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for LTB4 during experimental T. cruzi infection. Chemoattractant molecules such as LTB4 not only may play a major role in leukocyte migration into sites of inflammation in vivo but also, in the event of an infection, may play a relevant role in the activation of recruited leukocytes to kill the invading microorganism in an NO-dependent manner.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.8.4247-4253.2002
PMCID: PMC128190  PMID: 12117933

Results 1-4 (4)