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1.  Attenuation of EphrinB2 Reverse Signaling Decreases Vascularized Area and Preretinal Vascular Tuft Formation in the Murine Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy 
Purpose.
EphB4 and ephrinB2 are known key regulators of retinal vascular development, but due to their capacity for bidirectional signaling, delineation of their individual roles in this process remains unclear. To better dissect out individual contributions, a model of proliferative retinopathy in mice with attenuated ephrinB2 reverse signaling was studied. It was hypothesized that endothelial ephrinB2 reverse signaling regulates hypoxia-induced capillary sprouting, as well as the pathologic formation of neovascular tufts in postnatal retinal microvascular networks.
Methods.
Genetically manipulated mice with attenuated ephrinB2 reverse signaling (ephrinB2lacZ/+), along with wild-type (WT) controls, were exposed to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a postnatal model of proliferative retinopathy. At peak disease (postnatal day 18), microvascular networks were analyzed to examine intraretinal revascularization, capillary sprouting, and pathologic neovascularization responses. EphB4 and phosphorylated ephrinB protein expression patterns along retinal microvessels were also assessed.
Results.
EphrinB2lacZ/+ mice exhibited reduced hypoxia-induced revascularization (P ≤ 0.04) and reduced formation of neovascular tufts (P < 0.001), as compared with WT controls. Corresponding to the observed inhibition of retinal angiogenesis, ephrinB2lacZ/+ retinas displayed an increased number of blind-ended capillary sprout tips (P < 0.02) and endothelial filopodial processes (P = 0.001). In WT and ephrinB2lacZ/+ OIR-exposed retinas, ephrinB was confined to endothelial cells, with expression detected along angiogenic vascular processes including neovascular tufts and blind-ended capillary sprouts.
Conclusions.
EphrinB2 reverse signaling is a regulator of key processes during retinal vascularization and controls pathologic retinal angiogenesis through direct effects on capillary sprouting and endothelial filopodia formation.
We have uncovered a novel role for ephrinB2 reverse signaling in modulating pathologic (hyperoxia induced) retinal angiogenesis using genetically manipulated mice with attenuated ephrinB2 reverse signaling.
doi:10.1167/iovs.11-8599
PMCID: PMC3948501  PMID: 22789927
2.  Chronic Whole-body Hypoxia Induces Intussusceptive Angiogenesis and Microvascular Remodeling in the Mouse Retina 
Microvascular research  2010;79(2):93-101.
Currently, little is known about the response of the adult retinal microvasculature to hypoxia. To test the hypothesis that chronic systemic hypoxia induces angiogenesis and microvascular remodeling in the adult mouse retina, adult 10-wk old female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 10% O2 for 2 or 3 weeks. After hypoxia exposure, retinas were harvested, whole-mounted, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Retinas were stained with lectin, anti-smooth muscle α-actin antibody, and anti-NG2 antibody to visualize microvascular networks and their cellular components. Confocal microscopy was used to obtain images of superficial retinal networks. Images were analyzed to assess vessel diameter, vascular length density, branch point density, and the presence of vascular loops, a hallmark of intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both 2 and 3 weeks of hypoxia exposure resulted in a significant increase in the diameters of arterioles and post-arteriole capillaries (p < 0.003). After 3 weeks of hypoxia, vascular length density and branch point density were significantly increased in retinas exposed to hypoxia as compared to normoxic controls (p < 0.001). The number of vascular loops in the superficial retinal networks was significantly greater in hypoxia-exposed retinas (p ≤ 0.001). Our results demonstrate, for the first time, intussusceptive angiogenesis as a tissue-level mechanism of vascular adaptation to chronic systemic hypoxia in the adult mouse retina and contribute to our understanding of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and microvascular remodeling in the adult animal.
doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2010.01.006
PMCID: PMC2828864  PMID: 20080108
angiogenesis; hypoxia; intussusceptive microvascular growth; microvascular remodeling; mouse; retina
3.  IFATS Series: The Role of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells in Inflammatory Microvascular Remodeling and Evidence of a Perivascular Phenotype 
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2008;26(10):2682-2690.
A growing body of literature suggests that human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) possess developmental plasticity both in vitro and in vivo, and might represent a viable cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis and tissue engineering. We investigate their phenotypic similarity to perivascular cell types, ability to contribute to in vivo microvascular remodeling, and ability to modulate vascular stability. We evaluated hASC surface expression of vascular and stem/progenitor cell markers in vitro, as well as any effects of PDGF-BB and VEGF165 on in vitro hASC migration. To ascertain in vivo behavior of hASCs in an angiogenic environment, hASCs were isolated, expanded in culture, labeled with a fluorescent marker, and injected into adult nude rat mesenteries that were stimulated to undergo microvascular remodeling. 10, 30, and 60 days after injection, tissues from anesthetized animals were harvested and processed with immunohistochemical techniques to determine hASC quantity, positional fate in relation to microvessels, and expression of endothelial and perivascular cell markers. After 60 days, 29% of hASCs exhibited perivascular morphologies compared to 11% of injected human lung fibroblasts. hASCs exhibiting perivascular morphologies also expressed markers characteristic of vascular pericytes: smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) (10%) and NG2 (8%). In tissues treated with hASCs, vascular density was significantly increased over age-matched controls lacking hASCs. This study demonstrates that hASCs express pericyte lineage markers in vivo and in vitro, exhibit increased migration in response to PDGF-BB in vitro, exhibit perivascular morphology when injected in vivo, and contribute to increases in microvascular density during angiogenesis by migrating toward vessels.
doi:10.1634/stemcells.2008-0030
PMCID: PMC2672107  PMID: 18436860
adipose-derived stromal cells; microcirculation; pericyte; angiogenesis

Results 1-3 (3)