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author:("tanita, T.")
1.  Type 2 lepra reaction in an immunocompromised patient precipitated by filariasis 
Though patients affected with both acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leprosy commonly present with type 1 lepra reaction, there are few isolated reports of type 2 lepra reaction in retropositive patients affected with leprosy. We are presenting a case report of 35-year-old male affected with AIDS, tubercular lymphadenitis, and lepromatous leprosy with recurrent episodes of type 2 lepra reaction manifesting as erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for filarial antigen was also positive. The patient was treated with 100 mg thalidomide daily, 300 mg diethylcarbamazine, and modified multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy. He responded well and has not had any further reaction in the last 6 months.
PMCID: PMC4066596  PMID: 24958985
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome; erythema nodosum leprosum; filariasis; type 2 lepra reaction
2.  Imager Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy at the Time of Imaging in a Telemedicine Program 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(3):482-484.
To evaluate the ability of certified retinal imagers to identify presence versus absence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (stDR) (moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse or diabetic macular edema) at the time of retinal imaging in a telemedicine program.
Diabetic patients in a primary care setting or specialty diabetes clinic received Joslin Vision Network protocol retinal imaging as part of their care. Trained nonphysician imagers graded the presence versus absence of stDR at the time of imaging. These gradings were compared with masked gradings of certified readers.
Of 158 patients (316 eyes) imaged, all cases of stDR (42 eyes [13%]) were identified by the imagers at the time of imaging. Six eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy were graded by the imagers to have stDR (sensitivity 1.00, 95% CI 0.90–1.00; specificity 0.97, 0.94–0.99).
Appropriately trained imagers can accurately identify stDR at the time of imaging.
PMCID: PMC3322720  PMID: 22238278
3.  A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions 
Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn’t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned.
PMCID: PMC3573448  PMID: 23439975
Extra-facial; granuloma faciale; keloidal
4.  Drcd-1 related: a positively selected spermatogenesis retrogene in Drosophila 
Genetica  2010;138(9-10):925-937.
Gene duplication is a major force driving genome evolution, and examples of this mode of evolution and of the functions of duplicated genes are needed to reveal general patterns. Here, our study focuses on a particular retrogene (i.e., CG9573) that originated about 5–13 million years ago that we have named Drcd-1 related. It originated in Drosophila through retroposition of the parental gene Required for cell differentiation 1 of Drosophila (Drcd-1; CG14213), which is a known transcription cofactor. Drcd-1r is only present in D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. Drcd-1r is an X to autosome retroposition event. Many retrogenes are X to autosome copies and it has been shown that positive selection underlies this bias. We sought to understand Drcd-1r mode of evolution and function to contribute to the understanding of the selective pressures acting on X to autosome retrogenes. Drcd-1r overlaps with another gene, it is within the 3′ UTR of the gene CG13102 and is encoded in the opposite orientation. We have studied the characteristics of the transcripts and quantified expression of CG13102 and Drcd-1r in wild-type flies. We found that Drcd-1r is transcribed specifically in testes. We also studied the molecular evolution of Drcd-1r and Drcd-1 and found that the parental gene has evolved under very strong purifying selection but the retrogene has evolved very rapidly (Ka/Ks ~ 1) under both positive and purifying selection, as revealed using divergence and polymorphism data. These results indicate that Drcd-1r has a novel function in the Drosophila testes. To further explore Drcd-1r function we used a strain containing a P element inserted in the region where CG13102 and Drcd-1r are located that shows recessive male sterility. Analysis of this strain reveals the difficulties that can be encountered in studying the functions of genes with overlapping transcripts. Avenues for studying of the function of this gene are proposed.
PMCID: PMC2998177  PMID: 20694743
Retrogene; Testis expression; Rcd-1; Drosophila; Positive selection
5.  Determination of the InvE Binding Site Required for Expression of IpaB of the Shigella sonnei Virulence Plasmid: Involvement of a ParB BoxA-Like Sequence 
Journal of Bacteriology  2003;185(17):5158-5165.
The InvE protein positively regulates the expression of virulence genes ipaBCD in Shigella sonnei. The InvE has significant homology with ParB of plasmid P1, which is known as a plasmid partitioning factor with DNA binding ability. Although the DNA binding activity of InvE has been predicted, it is not known whether the DNA binding activity is necessary for type III secretion system-associated gene expression. In this study, we determined the transcription start site of the icsB-ipaBCD operon (ipa operon) and constructed a series of deletions of the icsB promoter region in the Escherichia coli K-12 background. The deletion study revealed that an 86-bp region upstream of the icsB transcription start site was essential for expression of the ipa operon, where the ParB binding motif (ParB BoxA-like sequence) was observed. Purified glutathione S-transferase-InvE fusion protein bound directly to the −93 to −54 region (designating the icsB transcription start site as nucleotide +1) containing the ParB BoxA-like sequence. These results indicated that InvE bound directly to the promoter region.
PMCID: PMC181004  PMID: 12923088
6.  Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by low-dose EPA and DHA. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(3):348-353.
We investigated the effects of low-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the incidence and growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinoma in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. We also examined the effects of these treatments on the fatty acid composition of tumour and serum. Tumour incidence was significantly decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and DHA, whereas their inhibitory effects on tumour growth did not reach significance. Serum arachidonic acid (AA) level was decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and tended to be decreased by the administration of low-dose DHA, whereas tumour AA levels were not changed. The administration of low-dose EPA and DHA may be useful for inhibiting the incidence of breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2063366  PMID: 9020478
7.  The low-recombining pericentromeric region of barley restricts gene diversity and evolution but not gene expression 
The Plant Journal  2014;79(6):981-992.
The low-recombining pericentromeric region of the barley genome contains roughly a quarter of the genes of the species, embedded in low-recombining DNA that is rich in repeats and repressive chromatin signatures. We have investigated the effects of pericentromeric region residency upon the expression, diversity and evolution of these genes. We observe no significant difference in average transcript level or developmental RNA specificity between the barley pericentromeric region and the rest of the genome. In contrast, all of the evolutionary parameters studied here show evidence of compromised gene evolution in this region. First, genes within the pericentromeric region of wild barley show reduced diversity and significantly weakened purifying selection compared with the rest of the genome. Second, gene duplicates (ohnolog pairs) derived from the cereal whole-genome duplication event ca. 60MYa have been completely eliminated from the barley pericentromeric region. Third, local gene duplication in the pericentromeric region is reduced by 29% relative to the rest of the genome. Thus, the pericentromeric region of barley is a permissive environment for gene expression but has restricted gene evolution in a sizeable fraction of barley's genes.
PMCID: PMC4309411  PMID: 24947331
barley; Hordeum vulgare; heterochromatin; genome evolution; pericentromeric

Results 1-7 (7)