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4.  Nebulized antibiotics for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):150.
Nebulized antibiotics are a promising new treatment option for ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, more evidence of the benefit of this therapy is required.
The Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, CENTRAL, Scielo and Lilacs databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials or matched observational studies that compared nebulized antibiotics with or without intravenous antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics alone for ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment. Two reviewers independently collected data and assessed outcomes and risk of bias. The primary outcome was clinical cure. Secondary outcomes were microbiological cure, ICU and hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and adverse events. A mixed-effect model meta-analysis was performed. Trial sequential analysis was used for the main outcome of interest.
Twelve studies were analyzed, including six randomized controlled trials. For the main outcome analysis, 812 patients were included. Nebulized antibiotics were associated with higher rates of clinical cure (risk ratio (RR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05 to 1.43; I2 = 34%; D2 = 45%). Nebulized antibiotics were not associated with microbiological cure (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.62; I2 = 62.5), mortality (RR = 0.90; CI 95%, 0.76 to 1.08; I2 = 0%), duration of mechanical ventilation (standardized mean difference = −0.10 days; 95% CI, −1.22 to 1.00; I2 = 96.5%), ICU length of stay (standardized mean difference = 0.14 days; 95% CI, −0.46 to 0.73; I2 = 89.2%) or renal toxicity (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.57; I2 = 15.6%). Regarding the primary outcome, the number of patients included was below the information size required for a definitive conclusion by trial sequential analysis; therefore, our results regarding this parameter are inconclusive.
Nebulized antibiotics seem to be associated with higher rates of clinical cure in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, the apparent benefit in the clinical cure rate observed by traditional meta-analysis does not persist after trial sequential analysis. Additional high-quality studies on this subject are highly warranted.
Trial registration number
CRD42014009116. Registered 29 March 2014
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0868-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4403838  PMID: 25887226
5.  Sepsis-related deaths in Brazil: an analysis of the national mortality registry from 2002 to 2010 
Critical Care  2014;18(6):608.
Limited population-based epidemiologic information about sepsis’ demography, including its mortality and temporal changes is available from developing countries. We investigated the epidemiology of sepsis deaths in Brazil using secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System.
Retrospective descriptive analysis of Brazilian multiple-cause-of-death data between 2002 and 2010, with sepsis-associated International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code indicated as the cause of death. Population-based sepsis associated mortality rates and trends were estimated. Annual population-based mortality rates were calculated using age-stratified population estimates from the 2010 census provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics as denominators.
The total number of annual deaths recorded in Brazil increased over the decade, from 982,294 deaths reported in 2002 to 1,133,761 deaths reported in 2010. The number of sepsis associated deaths also increased both in absolute numbers and proportions from 95,972 (9.77% of total deaths) in 2002 to 186,712 deaths (16.46%) in 2010. The age-adjusted rate of sepsis-associated mortality increased from 69.5 deaths per 100,000 to 97.8 deaths per 100,000 population from 2002 to 2010 (P <0.001). Sepsis-associated mortality was higher in individuals older than 60 years of age as compared to subjects aged 0 to 20 years (adjusted rate ratio 15.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.6 to 15.8)) and in male subjects (1.15 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.16)).
Between 2002 and 2010 the contribution of sepsis to all cause mortality as reported in multiple-cause-of-death forms increased significantly in Brazil. Age-adjusted mortality rates by sepsis also increased in the last decade. Our results confirm the importance of sepsis as a significant healthcare issue in Brazil.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0608-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4240892  PMID: 25370578
7.  Complete motor recovery after acute paraparesis caused by spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma: case report 
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a relatively rare but potentially disabling disease. Prompt timely surgical management may promote recovery even in severe cases.
Case presentation
We report a 34-year-old man with a 2-hour history of sudden severe back pain, followed by weakness and numbness over the bilateral lower limbs, progressing to intense paraparesis and anesthesia. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed and revealed an anterior epidural hematoma of the thoracic spine. He underwent an emergency decompression laminectomy of the thoracic spine and hematoma evacuation. Just after surgery, his lower extremity movements improved. After 1 week, there was no residual weakness and ambulation without assistance was resumed, with residual paresthesia on the plantar face of both feet. After 5 months, no residual symptoms persisted.
The diagnosis of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma must be kept in mind in cases of sudden back pain with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Early recognition, accurate diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment may result in significant improvement even in severe cases.
PMCID: PMC3160384  PMID: 21794133

Results 1-7 (7)