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1.  Prehabilitation for men undergoing radical prostatectomy: a multi-centre, pilot randomized controlled trial 
BMC Surgery  2014;14(1):89.
An emerging field of research describes the role of preoperative health behaviours, known as prehabilitation. The preoperative period may be a more physically and emotionally salient time to introduce and foster chronic adherence to health behaviours, such as exercise, in patients compared to post-treatment during recovery. Moreover, physical and psychosocial improvements during the preoperative period may translate into an enhanced recovery trajectory with reduced operative complications and postoperative adverse effects. No studies have assessed prehabilitation for men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.
This is a multi-centre, pilot randomized control trial conducted at two Canadian urban teaching hospitals. 100 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer with no contraindications to exercise will be recruited and randomized to the prehabiliation program or usual care. Prehabilitation participants will engage in a preoperative, individualized exercise program including pelvic floor muscle strengthening instructions and a healthy lifestyle guide for men with prostate cancer. These participants will be asked to engage in 60 minutes of home-based, unsupervised, moderate-intensity exercise on 3–4 days per week. Usual care participants will receive the same pelvic floor muscle strengthening instructions and healthy lifestyle guide only. We will assess the feasibility of conducting an adequately powered trial of the same design via recruitment rate, programmatic adherence/contamination, attrition, and safety. Estimates of intervention efficacy will be captured through measurements at baseline (4–8 weeks preoperatively), within 1 week prior to surgery, and postoperatively at 4, 12, and 26 weeks. Efficacy outcomes include: fatigue, quality of life, urinary incontinence, physical fitness, body composition, aerobic fitness, pain, and physical activity volume.
The primary outcome of this study is to determine the feasibility of conducting a full-scale, randomized controlled trial of prehabilitation versus usual care and to estimate effect sizes that will inform sample size determinations for subsequent trials in this field. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine a structured presurgical exercise program for men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. This trial will advance our understanding of strategies to efficiently and effectively use the preoperative period to optimize postoperative recovery.
Trial registration Identifier: NCT02036684
PMCID: PMC4246547  PMID: 25394949
Prehabilitation; Prostate cancer; Exercise; Randomized controlled trial; Rehabilitation
2.  The impact of method of distal ureter management during radical nephroureterectomy on tumour recurrence 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2014;8(11-12):E845-E852.
Radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) must include some form of distal ureter management to avoid high rates of tumour recurrence. It is uncertain which distal ureter management technique has the best oncologic outcomes. To determine which distal ureter management technique resulted in the lowest tumour recurrence rate, we analyzed a multi-institutional Canadian radical nephroureterectomy database.
We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with distal ureter management for UTUC between January 1990 and June 2010 at 10 Canadian tertiary hospitals. Distal ureter management approaches were divided into 3 categories: (1) extravesical tenting for ureteric excision without cystotomy (EXTRAVESICAL); (2) open cystotomy with intravesical bladder cuff excision (INTRAVESICAL); and (3) extravesical excision with endoscopic management of ureteric orifice (ENDOSCOPIC). Data available for each patient included demographic details, distal ureter management approach, pathology and operative details, as well as the presence and location of local or distant recurrence. Clinical outcomes included overall recurrence-free survival and intravesical recurrence-free survival. Survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was also performed.
A total of 820 patients underwent radical nephroureterectomy with a specified distal ureter management approach at 10 Canadian academic institutions. The mean patient age was 69.6 years and the median follow-up was 24.6 months. Of the 820 patients, 406 (49.5%) underwent INTRAVESICAL, 316 (38.5%) underwent EXTRAVESICAL, and 98 (11.9%) underwent ENDOSOPIC distal ureter management. Groups differed significantly in their proportion of females, proportion of laparoscopic cases, presence of carcinoma in situ and pathological tumour stage (p < 0.05). Recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 46.3%, 35.6%, and 30.1% for INTRAVESICAL, EXTRAVESICAL and ENDOSCOPIC, respectively (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis confirmed that INTRAVESICAL resulted in a lower hazard of recurrence compared to EXTRAVESICAL and ENDOSCOPIC. When looking only at intravesical recurrence-free survival (iRFS), a similar trend held up with INTRAVESICAL having the highest iRFS, followed by ENDOSCOPIC and then EXTRAVESICAL management (p < 0.05). At last follow-up, 406 (49.5%) patients were alive and free of disease.
Open intravesical excision of the distal ureter (INTRAVESICAL) during radical nephroureterectomy was associated with improved overall and intravesical recurrence-free survival compared with extravesical and endoscopic approaches. These findings suggest that INTRAVESICAL should be considered the gold standard oncologic approach to distal ureter management during radical nephroureterectomy. Limitations of this study include its retrospective design, heterogeneous cohort, and limited follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4250251  PMID: 25485014
3.  Enhanced recovery pathway for radical prostatectomy: Implementation and evaluation in a universal healthcare system 
Enhanced recovery pathways are standardized, multidisciplinary, consensus-based tools that provide guidelines for evidence-based decision-making. This study evaluates the impact of the implementation of a clinical care pathway on patient outcomes following radical prostatectomy in a universal healthcare system.
Medical charts of 200 patients with prostate cancer who underwent open and minimally invasive radical prostatectomy at a single academic hospital from 2009 to 2012 were reviewed. A group of 100 consecutive patients’ pre-pathway implementation was compared with 99 consecutive patients’ post-pathway implementation. Duration of hospital stay, complications, post-discharge emergency department visits and readmissions were compared between the 2 groups.
Length of hospital stay decreased from a median of 3 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 4 to 3 days) days in the pre-pathway group to a median of 2 (IQR 3 to 2 days) days in the post-pathway group regardless of surgical approach (p < 0.0001). Complication rates, emergency department visits and hospital readmissions were not significantly different in the pre- and post-pathway groups (17% vs. 21%, p = 0.80; 12% vs. 12%, p = 0.95; and 3% vs. 7%, p = 0.18, respectively). These findings were consistent after stratification by surgical approach. Limitations of our study include lack of assessment of patient satisfaction, and the retrospective study design.
The implementation of a standardized, multidisciplinary clinical care pathway for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy improved efficiency without increasing complication rates or hospital readmissions.
PMCID: PMC4277521  PMID: 25553155
4.  Postoperative mortality and complications after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Quebec: A population-based analysis during the years 2000–2009 
Radical cystectomy (RC) is a very complex urologic procedure. Despite improvements in practice, technique and process of care, it is still associated with significant complications, including death, with reported postoperative mortality rates ranging from 0.8% to 8%. We examine the quality of surgical care indicators and document the mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days after RC across Quebec.
Within the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) administrative database (this database provides prospectively collected universal data on all medical services) and the Institut de la statistique du Québec (ISQ) database (this provides vital status data), we used procedure codes to identify patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer in Quebec over 10 years (between 2000 and 2009), as well as RC outcomes and dates of death. Data obtained were retrospectively analyzed in relation to multiple parameters, including patient characteristics and health-care providers’ volumes. The outcomes analyzed included postoperative complications and mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days.
A total of 2778 RC were performed in 48 hospitals by 122 urologists across Quebec. Among them, 851 (30.6%) patients had at least one postoperative complication and 350 (12.6%) patients had more than one complication. The overall mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days were 2.8%, 5.3% and 7.5%, respectively, with significantly elevated 90-day mortality rates in some centres. In the multivariate analysis, increased age was associated with increased risk of post-RC complications and mortality. For example, patients over 75 had more chance of having at least one postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31–2.11) and mortality at 90 days (OR 3.28, 95% CI: 2.05–5.26). Provider volume effect on outcomes was statistically significant, with large hospitals having decreased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12–0.70), 60-day mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26–0.82) and 90-day mortality (OR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29–0.93) when compared to smaller hospitals. Surgeon volume showed weak, but not statistically significant, evidence of reduced odds of mortality for the high-volume surgeon. Limitations to our study include reliance on administrative data, which lack some relevant clinical information (such as patient functional status and tumour pathological characteristics) to perform risk adjustment analysis.
Our study demonstrates that postoperative outcomes after RC in Quebec varies based on several parameters. In addition, 30-day postoperative mortality after RC in Quebec appears acceptable. However, 90-day postoperative mortality rates remain significantly elevated in some centres, particularly in the elderly. This requires further research.
PMCID: PMC4137011  PMID: 25210550
5.  Growth kinetics of small renal masses: A prospective analysis from the Renal Cell Carcinoma Consortium of Canada 
Most small renal masses (SRMs) are diagnosed incidentally and have a low malignant potential. As more elderly patients and infirm patients are diagnosed with SRMs, there is an increased interest in active surveillance (AS) with delayed intervention. Patient and tumour characteristics relating to aggressive disease have not been well-studied. The objective was to determine predictors of growth of SRMs treated with AS.
A multicentre prospective phase 2 clinical trial was conducted on 207 SRMs in 169 patients in 8 institutions in Canada from 2004 to 2009; in these patients treatment was delayed until disease progression. Patient and tumour characteristics were evaluated to determine predictors of growth of SRMs by measuring rates of change in growth (on imaging) over time. All patients underwent AS for presumed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on diagnostic imaging. We used the following factors to develop a predictive model of tumour growth with binary recursive partitioning analysis: patient characteristics (age, symptoms at diagnosis) and tumour characteristics (consistency [solid vs. cystic] and maximum diameter at diagnosis.
With a median follow-up of 603 days, 169 patients (with 207 SRMs) were followed prospectively. Age, symptoms at diagnosis, tumour consistency and maximum diameter of the renal mass were not predictors of growth. This cohort was limited by lack of availability of patient and tumour characteristics, such as sex, degree of endophytic component and tumour location.
Slow growth rates and the low malignant potential of SRMs have led to AS as a treatment option in the elderly and infirm population. In a large prospective cohort, we have shown that age, symptoms, tumour consistency and maximum diameter of the mass at diagnosis are not predictors of growth of T1a lesions. More knowledge on predictors of growth of SRMs is needed.
PMCID: PMC3929474  PMID: 24578738
6.  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemistry study 
ALDH1 has been shown to be a cancer stem cell marker, and its expression correlates with prognosis in a number of malignancies. We aimed to evaluate the expression of ALDH1 in a cohort of primary and metastatic RCC specimens, and to correlate expression with pathological outcomes such as tumor stage and grade, and clinical outcomes such as progression free survival.
Three tissue microarrays were constructed from 244 RCC specimens, taken from 1985 to 2006. Samples were stained using an ALDH1 monoclonal antibody and expression was quantified by degree of staining. Membrane and cytoplasm staining were considered separately. A retrospective chart review enabled correlation with clinical outcomes.
ALDH1 expression did not vary significantly based on tumor stage (P = 0.6274) or grade (P = 0.1666). ALDH1 showed significantly more membranous expression in clear cell RCC versus other subtypes (P < 0.0001), as well as in the primary setting compared to metastases (P = 0.0216). In terms of progression free survival, no significant differences were seen based on ALDH1 expression levels. In a subanalysis of clear cell tumors, ALDH1 membranous expression was decreased in tumors of higher stage (P = 0.0233).
ALDH1 may be useful in characterizing RCC tumors as clear cell subtype. However, unlike in other malignancies, ALDH1 may not be useful in prognosticating renal cancers. The clinical significance of decreased ALDH1 expression in the high stage and metastatic setting remains to be determined in further investigations.
PMCID: PMC3842840  PMID: 24266898
ALDH1; Renal cell carcinoma; Prognosis; Immunohistochemistry
7.  Does transperitoneal minimally invasive radical prostatectomy increase the amount of small bowel receiving salvage radiation? 
Transperitoneal minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) has become first choice for several urologists and patients dealing with localized prostate cancer. We evaluate the effect of postoperative radiation on the small bowel in patients who underwent extraperitoneal open versus transperitoneal MIRP.
We reviewed all patients who received postoperative radiation from 2006 to 2010. Planning target volume (PTV) and surrounding organs, including the small bowel, were delineated. The presence of the small bowel in PTV and its volume in receiving each dose level were analyzed.
A total of 122 patients were included: 26 underwent MIRP and 96 underwent open prostatectomy. The median age of patients was 66 years, with median body mass index 27 kg/m2. The total PTV dose was 66 Gy, with the minimum and maximum doses received by the small bowel 0.4 and 66.4 Gy, respectively. The maximum volume of small bowel that received the safe limit of 40 Gy was 569 cm3. Of the 26 patients who underwent MIRP, 12 (46%) had small bowel identified inside the PTV compared to 57 (59%) among patients who underwent open prostatectomy (p = 0.228). The mean volume of the small bowel receiving 40 Gy was 26 and 67 cm3 in open and MIRP groups, respectively (p = 0.006); the incidence of acute complications was the same in both groups.
Higher volumes of the small bowel are subjected to significant radiation after MIRP procedures compared to open procedures; however, we could not demonstrate any impact on acute complications. Whether there is a difference in late complications remains to be evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3876447  PMID: 24381666
8.  Canadian guideline on genetic screening for hereditary renal cell cancers 
Hereditary renal cell cancer (RCC) is an ideal model for germline genetic testing. We propose a guideline of hereditary RCC specific criteria to suggest referral for genetic assessment.
A review of the literature and stakeholder resources for existing guidelines or consensus statements was performed. Referral criteria were developed by expert consensus.
The criteria included characteristics for patients with RCC (age ≤45 years, bilateral or multifocal tumours, associated medical conditions and non-clear cell histologies with unusual features) and for patients with or without RCC, but a family history of specific clinical or genetic diagnoses.
This guideline represents a practical RCC-specific reference to allow healthcare providers to identify patients who may have a hereditary RCC syndrome, without extensive knowledge of each syndrome. RCC survivors and their families can also use the document to guide their discussions with healthcare providers about their need for referral. The criteria refer to the most common hereditary renal tumour syndromes and do not represent a comprehensive or exclusive list. Prospective validation of the criteria is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3854468  PMID: 24319509
9.  Patients with microscopic and gross hematuria: practice and referral patterns among primary care physicians in a universal health care system 
Hematuria is one of the most common findings on urinalysis in patients encountered by primary care physicians. In many instances it can also be the first presentation of a serious urological problem. As such, we sought to evaluate current practices adopted by primary care physicians in the workup and screening of hematuria.
Questionnaires were mailed to all registered primary care physicians across Quebec. Questions covered each physician’s personal approach to men and postmenopausal women with painless gross hematuria or with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, as well as screening techniques, general knowledge with regards to urine collection and sampling, and referral patterns.
Of the surveys mailed, 599 were returned. Annual routine screening urinalysis on all adult male and female patients was performed by 47% of respondents, regardless of age or risk factors. Of all the respondents, 95% stated microscopic hematuria was associated with bladder cancer. However, in an older male with painless gross hematuria, only 64% of respondents recommended further evaluation by urology. On the other hand, in a postmenopausal woman with 2 consecutive events of significant microscopic hematuria, only 48.6% recommended referral to urology. Findings were not associated with the gender of the respondent, experience or geographic location of practice (urban vs. rural).
There seems to be reluctance amongst primary care physicians to refer patients with gross or significant microscopic hematuria to urology for further investigation. A higher level of suspicion and further education should be implemented to detect serious conditions and to offer earlier intervention when possible.
PMCID: PMC3104421  PMID: 21470533
10.  Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor 
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT). There remains some debate as to the clinical benefit and associated morbidity. Our objective was to report our experience with PC-RPLND in NSGCT.
We have reviewed the clinical, pathologic and surgical parameters associated with PC-RPLND in a single institution. Between 1994 and 2008, three surgeons operated 73 patients with residual masses after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for a metastatic testicular cancer. Patients needed to have normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers, no prior surgical attempts to resect retroperitoneal masses and resectable retroperitoneal tumor mass at surgery to be included in this analysis
Mean age was 30.4 years old. Fifty-three percent had mixed germ cell tumors. The mean size of retroperitoneal metastasis was 6.3 and 4.0 cm, before and post-chemotherapy, respectively. In 56% of patients, the surgeon was able to perform a nerve sparing procedure. The overall complication rate was 27.4% and no patient died due to surgical complications. The pathologic review showed presence of fibrosis/necrosis, teratoma and viable tumor (non-teratoma) in 27 (37.0%), 30 (41.1%) and 16 (21.9%) patients, respectively. The subgroups presenting fibrosis and large tumors were more likely to have a surgical complication and had less nerve sparing procedures.
PC-RPLND is a relatively safe procedure. The presence of fibrosis and large residual masses are associated with surgical complications and non-nerve-sparing procedure.
PMCID: PMC2991320  PMID: 21062470
12.  Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2009;3(3 Suppl 2):S92-S100.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a major health concern for aging men. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in recent years. There has been a renewed interest in medical therapies and less invasive surgical techniques. As a consequence, the treatment needs of men with mild to moderate LUTS without evidence of prostate cancer can now be accomplished in a primary care setting. There are differences in the way urologists and primary care physicians approach the evaluation and management of LUTS due to BPH, which is not reflected in Canadian Urological Association (CUA) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines. A “shared care” approach involving urologists and primary care physicians represents a reasonable and viable model for the care of men suffering from LUTS. The essence of the model centres around educating and communicating effectively with the patient on BPH. This article provides primary care physicians with an overview of the diagnostic and management strategies outlined in recent CUA and AUA guidelines so that they may be better positioned to effectively deal with this patient population. It is now apparent that we must move away from the urologist as the first-line physician, and allow primary care physicians to accept a new role in the diagnosis and management of BPH.
PMCID: PMC2698785  PMID: 19543429
14.  Primary renal carcinoid tumour with inferior vena caval tumour thrombus 
Carcinoid tumours, most frequently reported in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, are exceedingly rare primary renal cancers. Few cases have been published to date. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a primary carcinoid tumour of the kidneys involving the inferior vena cava. We treated a 58-year-old woman with an open radical nephrectomy and cavotomy with thrombectomy. We describe the presentation, investigations and pathology results. We discuss the current experience with carcinoid tumours as a literature review relating to the diagnosis of the disease and the prognosis of patients with this neoplasm. Localized carcinoid tumours of the kidneys, including those involving the vena cava, can be successfully treated with surgical excision.
PMCID: PMC2692164  PMID: 19543456
15.  Impact of treatment delay in patients with bladder cancer managed with partial cystectomy in Quebec: a population-based study 
Treatment delays have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy (RC). We sought to evaluate the impact of treatment delay on disease recurrence and survival in patients with bladder cancer treated with partial cystectomy (PC) in Quebec.
We reviewed and obtained billing records for all patients who underwent PC and/or RC for bladder cancer in Quebec between 1983 and 2005. Analysis included age, sex, year of surgery, surgeon’s age, hospital type, preoperative and postoperative visits with accompanying diagnoses and dates of death.
A total of 714 patients underwent PC. The median patient age was 70 years. Two-hundred nineteen (30.7%) patients experienced recurrence; of these, 52 (23.7%) required salvage RC. Five-year overall and recurrence-free survival for patients who underwent PC were 49.8% and 40.3%, respectively. Patients delayed more than 12 weeks from transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURBT) to PC were at significantly increased risk of requiring salvage RC compared with those delayed 12 weeks or less (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p < 0.001). Patients who underwent salvage RC had worse survival than patients who had upfront RC (HR 1.5, p = 0.006). Variables including age, sex, presence of hematuria, intravesical therapy, surgeon age, hospital PC volume, surgeon PC volume, type of hospital (academic v. nonacademic) or year of surgery were not significantly associated with PC treatment delay.
Treatment delay in patients with bladder cancer managed with PC was associated with increased risk of salvage RC. Patients with bladder cancer who underwent salvage RC had worse outcomes than those who had upfront cystectomy.
PMCID: PMC2666899  PMID: 19424467
17.  Dietary habits and prostate cancer detection: a case–control study 
Many studies have suggested that nutritional factors may affect prostate cancer development. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary habits and prostate cancer detection.
We studied 917 patients who planned to have transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostatic biopsy based on an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, a rising serum PSA level or an abnormal digital rectal examination. Before receiving the results of their biopsy, all patients answered a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. In combination with pathology data we performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses for the predictors of cancer and its aggressiveness.
Prostate cancer was found in 42% (386/917) of patients. The mean patient age was 64.5 (standard deviation [SD] 8.3) years and the mean serum PSA level for prostate cancer and benign cases, respectively, was 13.4 (SD 28.2) μg/L and 7.3 (SD 4.9) μg/L. Multivariable analysis revealed that a meat diet (e.g., red meat, ham, sausages) was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55–4.87, p = 0.027) and a fish diet was associated with less prostate cancer (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.89, p = 0.017). Aggressive tumours were defined by Gleason score (≥ 7), serum PSA level (≥ 10 μg/L) and the number of positive cancer cores (≥ 3). None of the tested dietary components were found to be associated with prostate cancer aggressivity.
Fish diets appear to be associated with less risk of prostate cancer detection, and meat diets appear to be associated with a 3-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. These observations add to the growing body of evidence suggesting a relationship between diet and prostate cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC2572247  PMID: 18953447
18.  An analysis of preoperative delays prior to radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Quebec 
The province of Quebec has the highest incidence of urothelial tumours in Canada. Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for invasive bladder cancer. We have previously observed that prolonged delays between transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) and radical cystectomy lead to worse survival in Quebec.
The aim of our study was to characterize the various periods of delay sustained by bladder cancer patients before radical cystectomy across Quebec and to determine their relation to survival.
We obtained the billing records for all patients treated with radical cystectomies for bladder cancer across Quebec from 1990 to 2002. Collected information included patient age and sex; dates of family physician (FP) and specialist visits with accompanying diagnoses; dates of cystoscopy, TURBT and CT scanning; surgeon age; surgical volume and dates of death.
We analyzed a total of 25 862 visits for 1633 patients. Median diagnostic delays from FP to specialist, then to cystoscopy, then to TURBT and finally from TURBT to CT were 20, 11, 4 and 14 days, respectively, over the entire study period. Median overall delay from FP visit to radical cystectomy was 93 days. In addition, median FP to radical cystectomy delay progressively increased from 1990 to 2000 from 58 to 120 days (p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses showed that patients with an overall delay of either < 25 or > 84 days had a 2.1 and 1.4 times increased risk of dying, respectively (p ≤ 0.01).
Preoperative delays have been progressively increasing over time. Overall, delays from FP to radical cystectomy of < 25 and > 84 days may translate into worse outcomes. Poor survival in cases with < 25 days delay may be attributed to case selection, with more advanced cases being managed much quicker. Poor survival in cases with delays of > 84 days may be attributed to disease progression while awaiting completion of management.
PMCID: PMC2422906  PMID: 18542741
The Journal of urology  2005;173(6):1930-1934.
We developed and validated a nomogram which predicts presence of prostate cancer (PCa) on needle biopsy.
Materials and Methods
We used 3 cohorts of men who were evaluated with sextant biopsy of the prostate and whose presenting prostate specific antigen (PSA) was not greater than 50 ng/ml. Data from 4,193 men from Montreal, Canada were used to develop a nomogram based on age, digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum PSA. External validation was performed on 1,762 men from Hamburg, Germany. Data from these men were subsequently used to develop a second nomogram in which percent free PSA (%fPSA) was added as a predictor. External validation was performed using 514 men from Montreal. Both nomograms were based on multivariate logistic regression models. Predictive accuracy was evaluated with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and graphically with loess smoothing plots.
PCa was detected in 1,477 (35.2%) men from Montreal, 739 (41.9%) men from Hamburg and 189 (36.8%) men from Montreal. In all models all predictors were significant at 0.05. Using age, DRE and PSA external validation AUC was 0.69. Using age, DRE, PSA and %fPSA external validation AUC was 0.77.
A nomogram based on age, DRE, PSA and %fPSA can highly accurately predict the outcome of prostate biopsy in men at risk for PCa.
PMCID: PMC1855288  PMID: 15879784
prostatic neoplasms; biopsy; nomograms; validation studies
20.  Subsequent prostate cancer detection in patients with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation 
To evaluate the predictors of prostate cancer in follow-up of patients diagnosed on initial biopsy with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP).
We studied 201 patients with HGPIN and 22 patients with ASAP on initial prostatic biopsy who had subsequent prostatic biopsies. The mean time of follow-up was 17.3 months (range 1–62). The mean number of biopsy sessions was 2.5 (range 2–6), and the median number of biopsy cores was 10 (range 6–14).
On subsequent biopsies, the rate of prostate cancer was 21.9% (44/201) in HGPIN patients. Of these, 32/201 patients (15.9%), 9/66 patients (13.6%) and 3/18 patients (16.6%) were found to have cancer on the first, second and third follow-up biopsy sessions, respectively. In ASAP patients, the cancer detection rate was 13/22 (59.1%), all of whom were found on the first follow-up biopsy. There was a statistically significant difference between the cancer detection rate in ASAP and HGPIN patients (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors of cancer were the number of cores in the initial biopsy, the number of cores (> 10) in the follow-up biopsy and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) density of ≥ 0.15 (odds ratio 0.77, 3.46 and 2.7,8 respectively; p < 0.04). Conversely, in ASAP patients none of these variables were found to be associated with cancer diagnosis.
ASAP is a strong predictive factor associated with cancer when compared with HGPIN. The factors predictive of cancer on follow-up biopsy of HGPIN are number of cores on initial biopsy, more than 10 cores in rebiopsy and elevated PSA density. As the cancer detection rate on repeated biopsy of HGPIN patients is the same as that of patients without HGPIN, perhaps the standard of repeat biopsy in all patients with HGPIN should be revisited.
PMCID: PMC2422970  PMID: 18542796
21.  Locally advanced renal cell carcinoma 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2007;1(2 Suppl):S55-S61.
Despite the observed stage migration and earlier detection of renal masses, patients still present with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. These patients represent a difficult oncologic challenge. Despite our ability to do surgical resection to cure the disease, survival often remains limited. In this paper, we describe the role and indication for surgical resection for patients with enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, invasion of adjacent organs, invasion into the vena cava or locally recurrent disease. The development of new strategies, including effective drugs to be used in association with surgical resection, will clearly be an essential step to further improve the outcome of these patients.
PMCID: PMC2422948  PMID: 18542785

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