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1.  Science of Safety Topic Coverage in Experiential Education in US and Taiwan Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan.
Methods. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument.
Results. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510202
PMCID: PMC3279028  PMID: 22345721
science of safety; experiential education; survey research; international
2.  Impact of urinary incontinence on health-related quality of life, daily activities, and healthcare resource utilization in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:74.
Background
Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) leads to impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), productivity, and greater healthcare resource burden. The humanistic and economic burden may be more apparent in NDO patients with urinary incontinence (UI). The objective of this study was to compare the HRQoL, productivity, and health resource use (HRU) between continent and incontinent NDO patients.
Methods
A retrospective database analysis was conducted using the Adelphi Overactive Bladder (OAB)/UI Disease Specific Programme, a multi-national, cross-sectional survey reported from both patients’ and physicians’ perspectives. The population for this analysis included NDO patients with or without UI. General and disease-specific HRQoL were assessed using the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL), and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Productivity and daily activity impairment were measured using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. HRU indicators included OAB-related surgery, OAB-related hospitalizations, incontinence pad usage, switching anticholinergics used for OAB due to inadequate response or adverse effects, and OAB-related physician visits. Bivariate analyses, multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses and published minimal clinically important differences (MCID) were used to assess relationships between incontinent status and the aforementioned outcome measures.
Results
A total of 324 NDO patients with or without urinary incontinence were included, averaging 54 years of age (SD 16), of whom 43.8 percent were male. Bivariate analyses detected no significant relationship between incontinent status and HRU variables. Regression analyses revealed that incontinent patients had clinically and statistically lower disease-specific HRQoL and greater impairment in daily activities as compared to continent patients. On average, incontinent patients scored 10 points lower on the I-QOL total score, 9 points lower on the OAB-q HRQoL score, 15 points higher on OAB-q symptom severity, and experienced 8.2 percent higher activity impairment due to their bladder condition (all p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Incontinent NDO patients experience significantly lower HRQoL and activity impairment as compared to continent NDO patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-14-74
PMCID: PMC3984584  PMID: 24708598
Neurogenic detrusor overactivity; Incontinence; Burden of illness; Quality of life; Productivity

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