Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC).
We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms.
Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates.
CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.
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Enterobacteriaceae; Cefotaxime-non-susceptible; Bacteremia
Increased extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli in Japan resulted mainly from a clade containing this gene.
The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.
β-lactamases; E. coli; multilocus sequence typing; MLST; molecular epidemiology; clones; high-throughput DNA sequencing; bacteria; Escherichia coli; bla gene; CTX-M-27; antimicrobial resistance
The efficacy of cefmetazole and flomoxef (CF) for the treatment of patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) bacteremia (ESBL-CF group) was compared with that of carbapenem treatment for ESBL-EC patients (ESBL-carbapenem group) and with that of CF treatment in patients with non-ESBL-EC bacteremia (non-ESBL-CF group). Adult patients treated for E. coli bacteremia in four hospitals were retrospectively evaluated. The 30-day mortality rates in patients belonging to the ESBL-CF, ESBL-carbapenem, and non-ESBL-CF groups were compared as 2 (empirical and definitive therapy) cohorts. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for mortality were calculated using Cox regression models with weighting according to the inverse probability of propensity scores for receiving CF or carbapenem treatment. The empirical-therapy cohort included 104 patients (ESBL-CF, 26; ESBL-carbapenem, 45; non-ESBL-CF, 33), and the definitive-therapy cohort included 133 patients (ESBL-CF, 59; ESBL-carbapenem, 54; non-ESBL-CF, 20). The crude 30-day mortality rates for patients in the ESBL-CF, ESBL-carbapenem, and non-ESBL-CF groups were, respectively, 7.7%, 8.9%, and 3.0% in the empirical-therapy cohort and 5.1%, 9.3%, and 5.0% in the definitve-therapy cohort. In patients without hematological malignancy and neutropenia, CF treatment for ESBL-EC patients was not associated with mortality compared with carbapenem treatment (empirical-therapy cohort: aHR, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 6.52; definitive therapy cohort: aHR, 1.04; CI, 0.24 to 4.49). CF therapy may represent an effective alternative to carbapenem treatment for patients with ESBL-EC bacteremia for empirical and definitive therapy in adult patients who do not have hematological malignancy and neutropenia.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a major threat for liver transplant recipients. We prospectively studied SSIs after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2001 to March 2002 (1st period) and from January 2011 to June 2012 (2nd period). We investigated the epidemiology of SSIs after LDLT and determined the differences between the two periods. A total of 129 adult recipients (66 during the 1st period and 63 during the 2nd period) and 72 pediatric recipients (39 and 33) were included in this study. The SSI rates for each period were 30.3% (1st period) and 41.3% (2nd period) among the adult recipients and 25.6% and 30.3% among the pediatric recipients. The overall rates of 30-day mortality among adult transplant recipients with SSIs were 10.0% (1st period) and 3.9% (2nd period). No pediatric recipient died from SSIs after LDLT in either period. The incidence of Enterococcus faecium increased from 5.0% to 26.9% in the adults and from 10.0% to 40.0% in the pediatric patients. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were emerging important isolates during the 2nd period. For this period, a univariate analysis showed that ABO incompatibility (P = 0.02), total operation duration (P = 0.01), graft-to-recipient body weight ratio (GRWR [P = 0.04]), and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction (P<0.01) in the adults and age (P = 0.01) and NHSN risk index (P = 0.02) in the children were associated with SSI development. In a multivariate analysis, lower GRWR (P = 0.02) and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction (P<0.01) in the adults and older age (P = 0.01) in the children were independent risk factors for SSIs during the 2nd period. In conclusion, SSIs caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria may become a major concern. Lower GRWR and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction among adult LDLT recipients and older age among pediatric LDLT recipients increased the risk of developing SSIs after LDLT.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits intrinsic resistance to various antimicrobial agents. However, the risk factors for SM bacteraemia have not been sufficiently evaluated. From January 2005 to September 2012, we retrospectively compared the clinical backgrounds and outcomes of SM bacteraemic patients (SM group) with those of bacteraemic patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA group) or Acinetobacter species (AC group). DNA genotyping of the SM isolates using the Diversilab system was performed to investigate the genetic relationships among the isolates. The SM, PA, and AC groups included 54, 167, and 69 patients, respectively. Nine of 17 patients in the SM group receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis developed SM bacteraemia. Independent risk factors for SM bacteraemia were the use of carbapenems and antipseudomonal cephalosporins and SM isolation within 30 days prior to the onset of bacteraemia. Earlier SM isolation was observed in 32 of 48 patients (66.7%) with SM bacteraemia who underwent clinical microbiological examinations. Of these 32 patients, 15 patients (46.9%) had the same focus of bacteraemia as was found in the previous isolation site. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate among the SM group (33.3%) was higher than that of the PA group (21.5%, p = 0.080) and the AC group (17.3%, p = 0.041). The independent factor that was associated with 30-day mortality was the SOFA score. DNA genotyping of SM isolates and epidemiological data suggested that no outbreak had occurred. SM bacteraemia was associated with high mortality and should be considered in patients with recent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics or in patients with recent isolation of the organism.
The Mycoses Forum in Japan has developed management bundles for candidaemia to incorporate into bedside practice. The aim of this study was to investigate nationwide compliance with the bundles and their impact on clinical outcomes.
Non-neutropenic patients treated with antifungals for candidaemia were surveyed. Bundles consist of nine items to complete. Data were sent to the central office between July 2011 and April 2012.
Six hundred and eight patients were analysed. The compliance rate for achieving all elements was 6.9%, and it increased to 21.4% when compliance was analysed by the bundle except for oral switch. There was a significant difference in clinical success between patients with and without compliance [92.9% versus 75.8% (P = 0.011)]. Compliance with the bundles, however, failed to be an independent factor associated with favourable outcomes. When step-down oral therapy was excluded from the elements of compliance, compliance with the bundles was revealed to be an independent predictor of clinical success (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.05–9.52) and mortality (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13–0.57). Independent individual elements contributing to clinical success were removal of central venous catheters within 24 h, assessment of clinical efficacy on the third to the fifth day and at least 2 weeks of therapy after clearance of candidaemia.
Compliance with the bundles for candidaemia had a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. Promotion of the bundles approach may have the potential to narrow the gap between clinical evidence and bedside practice.
candidiasis; guidelines; intravenous catheters; invasive disease; fungal infections
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and ST405 are important clonal groups, because they are associated with the global increase of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is emerging as a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate method for bacterial identification. We investigated the detection performance of MALDI-TOF for the ST131 and ST405 clonal groups using 41 ST131-O25b, 26 ST131-O16, and 41 ST405 ESBL-producing isolates and 41 ESBL-producing isolates frrom other STs. The main spectra representing each clonal group were used for classification with Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Bremen, Germany). The peak that had the highest area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve generated by ClinProTools (Bruker) was detected with FlexAnalysis (Bruker), and an optimal signal-to-noise ratio cutoff was determined. The optimal detection models were generated by ClinProTools. Classification by Biotyper could detect the ST131-whole (O25b and O16 together) group with a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 93.9%. With FlexAnalysis, a peak of 9,720 Da detected the ST131-whole group with a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 91.5% at a cutoff value of 8.0. The ClinProTools models exhibited good performance for the detection of the ST131-whole group (sensitivity and specificity, 94.0% and 92.7%, respectively), the ST131-O25b group (95.1% and 98.2%, respectively), and the ST405 group (90.2% and 96.3%, respectively). MALDI-TOF MS had high detection performance for the ST131-whole, ST131-O25b, and ST405 clonal groups. MALDI-TOF MS should be considered as an alternative method to monitor the epidemiology of the ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 and ST405 clonal groups.
The global increase of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is associated with the specific clonal group sequence type 131 (ST131). In order to understand the successful spread of ESBL-producing E. coli clonal groups, we characterized fluoroquinolone resistance determinants, virulence genotypes, and plasmid replicons of ST131 and another global clonal group, ST405. We investigated 41 ST131-O25b, 26 ST131-O16, 41 ST405, and 41 other ST (OST) ESBL-producing isolates, which were collected at seven acute care hospitals in Japan. The detection of ESBL types, fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations (including quinolone resistance-determining regions [QRDRs]), virulence genotypes, plasmid replicon types, and IncF replicon sequence types was performed using PCR and sequencing. blaCTX-M, specifically blaCTX-M-14, was the most common ESBL gene type among the four groups. Ciprofloxacin resistance was found in 90% of ST131-O25b, 19% of ST131-O16, 100% of ST405, and 54% of OST isolates. Multidrug resistance was more common in the ST405 group than in the ST131-O25 group (56% versus 32%; P = 0.045). All ST131-O25b isolates except one had four characteristic mutations in QRDRs, but most of the isolates from the other three groups had three mutations in common. The ST131-O25b and ST405 groups had larger numbers of virulence genes than the OST group. All of the ST131-O25b and ST405 isolates and most of the ST131-O16 and OST isolates carried IncF replicons. The most prevalent IncF replicon sequence types differed between the four clonal groups. Both the ST131-O25b and ST405 clonal groups had a fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in QRDRs, multidrug resistance, high virulence, and IncF plasmids, suggesting the potential for further global expansion and a need for measures against these clonal groups.
The incidence of fungaemia has been increasing worldwide. It is important to distinguish non-Candida fungaemia from candidaemia because of their different antifungal susceptibilities. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of non-Candida fungaemia and identify the clinical factors that differentiate it from candidaemia.
We investigated the clinical manifestations and mortality of non-Candida fungaemia in Kyoto University Hospital from 2004 to 2009.
There were 110 episodes of fungaemia during the study period. There were 11 renal replacement therapy episodes of fungaemia due to non-Candida yeasts (10.0%), including 6 episodes with Cryptococcus neoformans, 4 with Trichosporon asahii, and 1 with Kodamaea ohmeri, in addition to 99 episodes of candidaemia (90.0%). The presence of collagen disease [odds ratio (OR) 9.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-51.4; P = 0.01] or renal replacement therapy (OR 15.0; 95% CI 3.06-73.4; P < 0.01) was significantly more common in non-Candida fungaemia patients than in candidaemia patients. Prior colonisation by the species may be a predictor of non-Candida fungaemia. Non-Candida fungaemia had a higher mortality than candidaemia (54.5% versus 21.2%, P = 0.03).
Although Candida species frequently cause fungaemia, we should also be aware of non-Candida yeasts because of their high mortality, particularly among high-risk patients, such as those with collagen disease and those under renal replacement therapy. Prior colonisation by the causative organisms may be an important predictor of non-Candida fungaemia.
Fungaemia; Non-Candida yeast; Risk factor; Mortality; Colonisation
Guideline; Voriconazole; Therapeutic drug monitoring
pneumonia; lymphadenitis; arthritis; Mycobacterium celatum; rpoB; rifampin; mutation; bacteria
The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes.
Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined.
Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61%) had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21%) had solid malignancies, 12 (15%) had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7%) had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3) β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes.
In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.
Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b is a rare infection of the skin and soft tissues. The only previously reported case involved a healthy infant. We report herein the case of an 81-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus who developed necrotizing fasciitis caused by H. influenzae type b.
Although macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains possessing either the ermB or mefA gene are very common in Japan, clinical and microbial factors in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by different macrolide resistance genotypes have not been evaluated. A multicenter study of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae was performed in Japan from 2003 to 2005. A total of 156 isolates were tested for susceptibility to antibiotics correlated with ermB and mefA genotyping. Independent relationships between tested variables and possession of either the ermB or the mefA gene were identified. Of 156 isolates, 127 (81.4%) were resistant to erythromycin, with the following distribution of resistance genotypes: ermB alone (50.0%), mefA alone (23.7%), and both ermB and mefA (7.1%). All isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. By multivariate analysis, oxygen saturation of <90% on admission increased the risk for ermB-positive pneumococcal pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] = 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30 to 95.0; P = 0.03), but there were no associations with mefA or with ermB mefA positivity. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was associated with mefA-positive and with ermB- and mefA-positive isolates (OR = 14.2; 95% CI = 4.27 to 46.9; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but not with ermB-positive isolates. The overall patient mortality was 5.1%. Mortality, the duration of hospitalization, and the resolution of several clinical markers were not associated with the different erythromycin resistance genotypes. In Japan, S. pneumoniae with erythromycin resistance or possession of ermB, mefA, or both genes was highly prevalent in patients with CAP. The risk factors for ermB-positive, mefA-positive, and double ermB-mefA-positive pneumococcal pneumonia were different, but the clinical outcomes did not differ.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the transcription-reverse transcription concerted (TRC) method for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) 16S rRNA in clinical respiratory samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. TRC is a novel method that enables the rapid and the completely homogeneous real-time monitoring of isothermal sequence RNA amplification without any postamplification procedure. The detection limit of the TRC method for MTC was one organism per 100 μl of sputum. The specificity of the method was confirmed by the absence of positive signals for sputum containing 106 M. avium or M. kansasii organisms per 100 μl. A total of 201 respiratory samples from patients diagnosed with or suspected of having tuberculosis were tested. Of the 72 MTC culture-positive samples, the TRC method was positive for 52 (sensitivity, 72.2%), whereas the Roche COBAS AMPLICOR PCR was positive for 58 (sensitivity, 80.6%). Both the TRC method and the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR showed no positive identification for any of the 129 culture-negative samples. The percent agreement between the two methods was 95% (191 of 201 samples). The high sensitivity and specificity together with shorter detection time (within 1 h) of the TRC method allow it to be proposed as a useful method for the rapid detection of MTC in respiratory samples.
RNA transcript quantification by an isothermal sequence amplification reaction was evaluated for susceptibility testing of 15 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Agreement with the proportion method on Ogawa egg medium and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system was 100 and 87% for rifampin, 93 and 100% for isoniazid, 60 and 53% for ethambutol, and 80 and 80% for streptomycin, respectively.