Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) evoke inflammatory reactions, contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between serum AGE level and vascular inflammation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The study involved 275 outpatients at Kurume University, Japan (189 males and 86 females; mean age 61.2 ± 8.8 years) who underwent complete history and physical examinations and determinations of blood chemistry and anthropometric variables, including AGEs. Serum AGE level was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vascular [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, an index of vascular inflammation, was measured as blood-normalized standardized uptake value, known as the target-to-background ratio (TBR), by FDG–positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Furthermore, we examined whether the changes in serum AGE level after treatment with oral hypoglycemia agents (OHAs) were correlated with those of TBR in another 18 subjects whose AGE value was >14.2 units/mL (mean ± 2 SD).
Mean serum AGE level and carotid TBR values were 9.15 ± 2.53 and 1.43 ± 0.22 units/mL, respectively. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that TBR was independently correlated with AGEs (P < 0.001), carotid intima-media thickness (P < 0.01), and BMI (P < 0.02). When age- and sex-adjusted AGE values stratified by TBR tertiles were compared using ANCOVA, a significant trend was observed (P < 0.01). In addition, the changes in AGEs after OHA treatment were positively (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) correlated with those in TBR value.
The current study reveals that serum AGE level is independently associated with vascular inflammation evaluated by FDG-PET, suggesting that circulating AGE value may be a biomarker that could reflect vascular inflammation within an area of atherosclerosis.
A canine distemper virus (CDV) strain, CYN07-dV, associated with a lethal outbreak in monkeys, used human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule as a receptor only poorly but readily adapted to use it following a P541S substitution in the hemagglutinin protein. Since CYN07-dV had an intrinsic ability to use human nectin-4, the adapted virus became able to use both human immune and epithelial cell receptors, as well as monkey and canine ones, suggesting that CDV can potentially infect humans.
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy. Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), which are defined as lineage marker (Lin)−HLA−DR+CD56−CD123+CD11c− cells, are considered to be the normal counterpart of BPDCNs. However, BPDCN can be distinguished from pDCs by uniform expression of CD56. In this study, to identify a normal counterpart of BPDCN, we searched for a Lin−HLA−DR+CD56+ population and focused on a minor subpopulation of Lin−DR+CD56+CD123+CD11c− cells that we designated as pDC-like cells (pDLCs). pDLC constituted 0.03% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the pDLC/pDC ratio was higher in bone marrow cells than in PBMCs. pDLC clearly expressed BDCA2, BDCA4, and myeloid antigens, which are frequently expressed by BPDCN. pDLCs exhibited modest expression of Toll-like receptors and produced less interferon-α after CpG stimulation, but presented very low endocytic ability unlike mDCs. These functional differences were attributed to the expression profile of transcriptional factors. After in vitro culture with Flt3-ligand and GM-CSF, pDLCs expressed CD11c and BDCA1. These data suggested that pDLCs are a distinct subpopulation, with an immunophenotype similar to BPDCNs. Moreover, our results indicate that pDLCs might be immature DCs and might contribute to the immunophenotypical diversity of BPDCNs.
Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma.
skull base metastasis; follicular thyroid carcinoma; papillary thyroid carcinoma; iodine-131 brachytherapy; thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression
Mast cells (MC) play an important role in allergic and non-allergic immune responses. Activation of human MC is modulated by several cell surface inhibitory receptors, including recently identified Allergin-1 expressed on both human and mouse MC. Although Allergin-1 suppresses IgE-mediated, mast cell–dependent anaphylaxis in mice, the expression profile and function of Allergin-1 on human primary MC remains undetermined. Here, we established a seven-color flow cytometry method for assessing expression and function of a very small number of human primary MC. We show that Allergin-1S1, a splicing isoform of Allergin-1, is predominantly expressed on human primary MC in both bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and nasal scratching specimens. Moreover, Allergin-1S1 inhibits IgE-mediated activation from human primary MC in BAL fluid. These results indicate that Allergin-1 on human primary MC exhibits similar characteristics as mouse Allergin-1 in the expression profile and function.
MicroRNA-140 (miR-140) is Specifically expressed in developing cartilage tissues. We have previously reported that miR-140 plays an important role during palatal cartilage development by modulating platalet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (pdgfra) in zebrafish. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-140 in cartilage is still unknown. Using developing zebrafish, Sox9a mutant (Sox9a−/−) and Sox9b mutant (Sox9b−/−) zebrafish and Sox9 siRNA in human chondrocytes, T/C-28 Cells, we found that miR-140 is regulated by the cartilage master transcription regulator Sox9 in zebrafish and mammalian cells.
microRNA-140 (miR-140); Sox9; cartilage; zebrafish; T/C-28; SiRNA; in situ hybridization; RT-PCR
Here, we provide direct evidence that the receptor-binding site of measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin protein itself forms an effective conserved neutralizing epitope (CNE). Several receptor-interacting residues constitute the CNE. Thus, viral escape from neutralization has to be associated with loss of receptor-binding activity. Since interactions with both the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) and nectin4 are critical for MV pathogenesis, its escape, which results from loss of receptor-binding activity, should not occur in nature.
We recently reported that an RNA binding protein called Cugbp Elav-like family member 1 (Celf1) regulates somite symmetry and left-right patterning in zebrafish. In this report, we show additional roles of Celf1 in zebrafish organogenesis. When celf1 is knocked down by using an antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO), liver buds fail to form, and pancreas buds do not form a cluster, suggesting earlier defects in endoderm organogenesis. As expected, we found failures in endoderm cell growth and migration during gastrulation in embryos injected with celf1-MOs. RNA immunoprecipitation revealed that Celf1 binds to gata5 and cdc42 mRNAs which are known to be involved in cell growth and migration, respectively. Our results therefore suggest that Celf1 regulates proper organogenesis of endoderm-derived tissues by regulating the expression of such targets.
post-transcriptional regulation; endoderm; liver; pancreas; movement; proliferation
Over the past three decades, L-proline has become recognized as an important metabolite for trypanosomatids. It is involved in a number of key processes, including energy metabolism, resistance to oxidative and nutritional stress and osmoregulation. In addition, this amino acid supports critical parasite life cycle processes by acting as an energy source, thus enabling host-cell invasion by the parasite and subsequent parasite differentiation. In this paper, we demonstrate that L-proline is oxidized to Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) by the enzyme proline dehydrogenase (TcPRODH, E.C. 188.8.131.52) localized in Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondria. When expressed in its active form in Escherichia coli, TcPRODH exhibits a Km of 16.58±1.69 µM and a Vmax of 66±2 nmol/min mg. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TcPRODH is a FAD-dependent dimeric state protein. TcPRODH mRNA and protein expression are strongly upregulated in the intracellular epimastigote, a stage which requires an external supply of proline. In addition, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae null mutants for this gene (PUT1) were complemented with the TcPRODH gene, diminished free intracellular proline levels and an enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress in comparison to the null mutant were observed, supporting the hypothesis that free proline accumulation constitutes a defense against oxidative imbalance. Finally, we show that proline oxidation increases cytochrome c oxidase activity in mitochondrial vesicles. Overall, these results demonstrate that TcPRODH is involved in proline-dependant cytoprotection during periods of oxidative imbalance and also shed light on the participation of proline in energy metabolism, which drives critical processes of the T. cruzi life cycle.
Effective vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the number of measles-related deaths globally. Although all the available data suggest that measles eradication is biologically feasible, a structural and biochemical basis for the single serotype nature of measles virus (MV) remains to be provided. The hemagglutinin (H) protein, which binds to two discrete proteinaceous receptors, is the major neutralizing target. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing distinct epitopes on the H protein were characterized using recombinant MVs encoding the H gene from different MV genotypes. The effects of various mutations on neutralization by MAbs and virus fitness were also analyzed, identifying the location of five epitopes on the H protein structure. Our data in the present study demonstrated that the H protein of MV possesses at least two conserved effective neutralizing epitopes. One, which is a previously recognized epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS), and thus MAbs that recognize this epitope blocked the receptor binding of the H protein, whereas the other epitope is located at the position distant from the RBS. Thus, a MAb that recognizes this epitope did not inhibit the receptor binding of the H protein, rather interfered with the hemagglutinin-fusion (H-F) interaction. This epitope was suggested to play a key role for formation of a higher order of an H-F protein oligomeric structure. Our data also identified one nonconserved effective neutralizing epitope. The epitope has been masked by an N-linked sugar modification in some genotype MV strains. These data would contribute to our understanding of the antigenicity of MV and support the global elimination program of measles.
Studies of human immune diseases are generally limited to the analysis of peripheral
blood lymphocytes of heterogenous patient populations. Improved models are needed to allow analysis
of fundamental immunologic abnormalities predisposing to disease and in which to assess
immunotherapies. Immunodeficient mice receiving human fetal thymus grafts and fetal CD34+
cells i.v. produce robust human immune systems, allowing analysis of human T cell development and
function. However, to use humanized mice to study human immune-mediated disorders, immune sytsems
must be generated from adult hematopoietic cells. Here, we demonstrated robust immune reconstitution
in mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) aspirated from bone marrow of adults with Type 1
diabetes (T1D) and healthy control volunteers. In these humanized mice, cryopreservation of HLA
allele-matched fetal thymic tissue prevented allogeneic adult HSC rejection. Newly generated T
cells, which included regulatory T cells, were functional, self-tolerant, and had a diverse
repertoire. The immune recognition of these mice mimicked that of the adult CD34+ cell
donor, but the T cell phenotypes were more predominantly “naïve” than those
of the adult donors. HSCs from T1D and control donors generated similar numbers of natural Tregs
intrathymically; however, peripheral T cells from T1D subjects showed increased proportions of
activated or memory cells compared to controls, suggesting possible HSC-intrinsic differences in T
cell homeostasis that might underly immune pathology in T1D. This “Personalized
Immune” (PI) mouse provides a new model for individualized analysis of human immune
responses that may provide new insights into not only T1D, but other forms of immune function and
dysfunction as well.
The ATR kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. Yet, how ATR is activated towards different substrates is still poorly understood. Here, we show that ATR phosphorylates Chk1 and RPA32 through distinct mechanisms at replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). In contrast to the rapid phosphorylation of Chk1, RPA32 is progressively phosphorylated by ATR at Ser33 during DSB resection prior to the phosphorylation of Ser4/Ser8 by DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, despite its reliance on ATR and TopBP1, substantial RPA32 Ser33 phosphorylation occurs in a Rad17-independent but Nbs1-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, the role of Nbs1 in RPA32 phosphorylation can be separated from ATM activation and DSB resection, and is dependent upon its interaction with RPA. An Nbs1 mutant unable to bind RPA fails to support proper recovery of collapsed replication forks, suggesting that the Nbs1-mediated mode of ATR activation is important for the repair of replication-associated DSBs.
Although there are many reports regarding radiation-induced microbleeds, its frequency,
relation to dose and latency after radiation are not fully elucidated. The purpose of this
study was to evaluate the frequency, latency, patient factors and dose relation of
radiation-induced microbleeds after cranial irradiation using phase-sensitive magnetic
resonance imaging (PSI) at 3.0 T.
Retrospective evaluation of 34 patients (age range, 13–78 years; mean, 49 years;
follow-up period, 3–169 months; mean 29 months) who had undergone cranial irradiation
using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including PSI was performed. Twenty-three patients
received high-dose irradiation (44–60 Gy), and 11 patients received 24–30 Gy whole brain
irradiation. When microbleeds were detected on MR imaging in these high-dose irradiation
patients, dose distribution maps were reproduced by reviewing the clinical records.
Then the irradiated areas were divided into 6 radiation-dose classes: regions > 55 Gy,
45–55 Gy, 35–45 Gy, 25–35 Gy, 15–25 Gy and 5–15 Gy. The frequency of microbleeds in each
radiation-dose class was analyzed.
Microbleeds were detected in 7 (21%) of 34 patients on T2-weighted imaging, whereas
they were detected in 16 (47%) of the 34 patients on PSIs. The frequency of microbleeds was
higher than previously reported. The latency of radiation-induced microbleeds after
radiation was 3 months to 9 years (mean, 33 months). In high-dose irradiation patients, the
frequency of microbleeds significantly was associated with radiation dose. There were no
foci that were observed in regions that had received < 25 Gy.
Radiation-induced microbleeds occurred more frequently in the present study than has been
previously reported. PSI can be used to detect these vascular changes earlier than other
conventional MR imaging techniques.
cranial irradiation; magnetic resonance imaging; radiation injury; ;
The spectrum of the etiology of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA) has not been established. We have performed perimortem computed tomography (CT) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
To clarify the incidence of non-cardiac etiology (NCE), actual distribution of the causes of OHCPA via perimortem CT and its usefulness.
Settings and Design:
Population-based observational case series study.
Materials and Methods:
We reviewed the medical records of 1846 consecutive OHCPA cases and divided them into two groups: 370 showing an obvious cause of OHCPA with NCE (trauma, neck hanging, terminal stage of malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding) and others.
Of a total OHCPA, perimortem CT was performed in 57.5% and 62.5% were finally diagnosed as NCE: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) 8.07%, pulmonary thrombo-embolization (PTE) 1.46%, hypoxia due to pneumonia 5.25%, asthma and acute worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.06%, cerebrovascular disorder (CVD) 4.48%, airway obstruction 7.64%, and submersion 5.63%. The rates of patients who survived to hospital discharge were 6-14% in patients with NCE. Out of the 1476 cases excluding obvious NCE of OHCPA, 66.3% underwent perimortem CT, 14.6% of cases without obvious NCE and 22.1% of cases with perimortem CT were confirmed as having some NCE.
Of the total OHCPA the incidences of NCE was 62.5%; the leading etiologies were AAD, airway obstruction, submersion, hypoxia and CVD. The rates of cases converted from cardiac etiology to NCE using perimortem CT were 14.6% of cases without an obvious NCE.
Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with non-cardiac etiology; perimortem computed tomography; perimortem imaging
Nucleases play important roles in all DNA transactions, including replication, repair, and recombination. Many different nucleases from bacterial and eukaryotic organisms have been identified and functionally characterized. However, our knowledge about the nucleases from Archaea, the third domain of life, is still limited. We searched for 3′–5′ exonuclease activity in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, and identified a protein with the target activity. The purified protein, encoded by PF2046, is composed of 229 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25,596, and displayed single-strand specific 3′–5′ exonuclease activity. The protein, designated as PfuExo I, forms a stable trimeric complex in solution and excises the DNA at every two nucleotides from the 3′ to 5′ direction. The amino acid sequence of this protein is conserved only in Thermococci, one of the hyperthermophilic classes in the Euryarchaeota subdomain in Archaea. The newly discovered exonuclease lacks similarity to any other proteins with known function, including hitherto reported 3′–5′ exonucleases. This novel nuclease may be involved in a DNA repair pathway conserved in the living organisms as a specific member for some hyperthermophilic archaea.
We have previously proven that the interspecies incompatibility of CD47 is responsible for in vitro phagocytosis of xenogeneic cells by host macrophages. Utilizing an in vivo model in the present study, we investigated whether genetically engineered expression of mouse CD47 in rat insulinoma cells (INS-1E) could inhibit macrophage-mediated xenograft rejection. INS-1E cells transfected with the pRc/CMV-mouse CD47 vector (mCD47-INS-1E) induced SIRPα-tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse macrophages in vitro, whereas cells transfected with the control vector (cont-INS-1E) did not. When these cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rag2−/−γ chain −/− mice, which lack T, B, and NK cells, the expression of mouse CD47 on the INS-1E cells markedly reduced the susceptibility of these cells to phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, these mice became normoglycemic after receiving mCD47-INS-1E, whereas the mice that received cont-INS-1E failed to achieve normoglycemia. Furthermore, injection of an anti-mouse SIRPα blocking monoclonal antibody into the mouse recipients of mCD47-INS-1E cells prevented achievement of normoglycemia. These results demonstrate that interspecies incompatibility of CD47 significantly contributes to in vivo rejection of xenogeneic cells by macrophages. Thus, genetic induction of the expression of recipient CD47 on xenogeneic donor cells could provide inhibitory signals to recipient macrophages via SIPRα; this constitutes a novel approach for preventing macrophage-mediated xenograft rejection.
Calorie restriction (CR) is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative) metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ0) S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ0 cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.
After cecal ligation and puncture, mice lacking the phosphatidylserine receptor CD300a on mast cells show more neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneal cavity, improved bacterial clearance, and extended survival.
When a cell undergoes apoptosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. PS acts as an “eat-me” signal to direct phagocytes expressing PS receptors to engulf the apoptotic cell. We recently reported that the immunoreceptor CD300a, which is expressed on myeloid cells, is a PS receptor. We show that CD300a does not facilitate macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Instead, CD300a delivers an inhibitory signal in mast cells to suppress production of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. After cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), when a large number of cells undergo apoptosis in the peritoneal cavity, CD300a-deficient peritoneal mast cells produced more chemoattractant and recruited more neutrophils than did wild-type (WT) mast cells. As a result, CD300a-deficient mice showed increased neutrophil recruitment and improved bacterial clearance in the peritoneal cavity, and survived longer than WT mice. Antibody blockade of CD300a–PS interactions improved bacterial clearance and extended survival of WT mice subjected to CLP. These results indicated that CD300a is a nonphagocytic PS receptor that regulates mast cell inflammatory responses to microbial infections.
Aberrant methylation patterns in CpG island are known to be influential in gene silencing. Histamine plays important physiological roles in the upper gastrointestinal tract and acts via the H2 receptor. We report an investigation into the effect of HRH2 promoter polymorphism (rs2607474 G > A) on the methylation of DAPK and CDH1.
Non cancerous gastric mucosa samples were obtained from 115 subjects with gastric cancer (GC) and 412 non-cancer subjects (non-GC). Methylation status of genes was determined by MSP. The genotyping of rs2607474 was performed by PCR-SSCP.
Methylation of DAPK and CDH1 was observed in 296 and 246 subjects, respectively. The frequency of CDH1 methylation in the subjects with GC was significantly lower in cancer lesion than in non cancerous mucosa, whereas that of DAPK methylation was not different. The allelic distribution of rs2607474 was 401GG, 119GA and 7AA. The GG homozygote was associated with a significantly increased risk for methylation of both DAPK and CDH1 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0009, respectively). In the non-GC subjects or more than 60 years of age, GG homozygote was more closely associated with both DAPK and CDH1 methylation. However, this genotype did not show an increased risk for the development of methylation of both genes in patients with GC. In H. pylori negative subjects, GG homozygote showed an increased risk for the methylation of both DAPK and CDH1 (p = 0.0074 and p = 0.0016, respectively), whereas this genotype was associated with an increased risk for the development of DAPK methylation in H. pylori positive subjects (p = 0.0018). In addition, in subjects older than 60 years of age, atrophy and metaplasia scores were significantly higher in the GG homozygote (p = 0.011 and p = 0.039, respectively) and a significant correlation was observed between age and atrophy or metaplasia.
Our results suggest that rs2607474 GG homozygote confers a significantly increased risk for age- and inflammation-related DAPK and CDH1 methylation.
HRH2; Genetic polymorphism; Aberrant DNA methylation
We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor's performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm). The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor's response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research.
taste sensor; lipid/polymer membrane; portable sensor; in-field evaluation
Blood transfusion therapy (BTT), which represents transplantation of living cells, poses several risks. Although BTT is necessary for trauma victims with hemorrhagic shock, it may be futile for patients with blunt traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (BT-CPA).
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively examined the medical records of consecutive patients with T-CPA. The study period was divided into two periods: The first from 1995-1998, when we used packed red cells (PRC) regardless of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the second from 1999-2004, when we did not use PRC before ROSC. The rates of ROSC, admission to the ICU, and survival-to-discharge were compared between these two periods.
We studied the records of 464 patients with BT-CPA (175 in the first period and 289 in the second period). Although the rates of ROSC and admission to the ICU were statistically higher in the first period, there was no statistical difference in the rate of survival-to-discharge between these two periods. In the first period, the rate of ROSC was statistically higher in the non-BTT group than the BTT group. However, for cases in which ROSC was performed and was successful, there were no statistical differences in the rate of admission and survival-to-discharge between the first and second group, and between the BTT and non-BTT group.
Our retrospective consecutive study shows the possibility that BTT before ROSC for BT-CPA and a treatment strategy that includes this treatment improves the success rate of ROSC, but not the survival rate. BTT is thought to be futile as a treatment for BT-CPA before ROSC.
Blood transfusion therapy; return of spontaneous circulation; survival to discharge; traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest
Background: This study was undertaken to investigate the growth rate and clinical outcome of patients with a small renal mass (SRM) after delayed surgery versus immediate surgery.
Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 328 patients with SRM ≦ 4cm at diagnosis, who underwent delayed or immediate surgical intervention from January 2000 to December 2011. Radiographic evaluation using CT scan and MRI were performed at least every 6 months and the tumor size was determined at least twice in the delayed surgery group.
Results: A total of 292 RCC patients with pT1aN0M0 were identified; among them, 32 patients had been managed with delayed surgery intervention. No statistically significant difference was observed in overall survival rate (OSR) and cancer recurrence-free rate (CRFR). But cancer-specific survival rate (CSSR) was significantly lower in the delayed surgery group (p=0.0002).
Conclusions: The overall survival rate of delayed surgery was not inferior compared with that after immediate surgery. Delayed surgery intervention for SRMs is a treatment option in the current study.
renal cell carcinoma; small renal mass; delayed surgery; immediate surgery; natural history.
AIM: To clarify the association between a polymorphism -449 C>G (rs72696119) in 5’-UTR of NFKB1 with ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: The studied population comprised 639 subjects, including patients with UC (UC cases, n = 174) and subjects without UC (controls, n = 465). We employed polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism to detect the gene polymorphism.
RESULTS: The rs72696119 G allele frequencies in controls and UC cases were 33.4% and 38.5%, respectively (P = 0.10). Genotype frequency of the GG homozygote in UC cases was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.017), and the GG homozygote was significantly associated with susceptibility to UC [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95%CI, 1.13-3.14]. In male subjects, the GG homozygote was associated with an increased risk for UC (OR, 3.10; 95%CI, 1.47-6.54; P = 0.0053), whereas this association was not found in female subjects. In addition, the GG homozygote was significantly associated with the risk of non-continuous disease (OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.12-3.79; P = 0.029), not having total colitis (OR, 2.40; 95%CI, 1.09-3.80, P = 0.040), disease which developed before 20 years of age (OR, 2.80; 95%CI, 1.07-7.32, P = 0.041), no hospitalization (OR, 2.28; 95%CI, 1.29-4.05; P = 0.0090) and with a maximum of 8 or less on the UCDAI score (OR, 2.45; 95%CI, 1.23-4.93; P = 0.022).
CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that NFKB1 polymorphism rs72696119 was significantly associated with the development of UC. This polymorphism influences the susceptibility to and pathophysiological features of UC.
Genetic polymorphism; NFKB1; Ulcerative colitis
Numerous associations between brain-reactive antibodies and neurological or psychiatric symptoms have been proposed. Serum autoantibody against the muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) was increased in some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or psychiatric disease. We examined whether serum autoantibody against mAChR affected the central cholinergic system by measuring brain mAChR binding and acetylcholinesterase activity using positron emission tomography (PET) in CFS patients with positive [CFS(+)] and negative [CFS(−)] autoantibodies.
Five CFS(+) and six CFS(−) patients, as well as 11 normal control subjects underwent a series of PET measurements with N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate [11C](+)3-MPB for the mAChR binding and N-[11C]methyl-4-piperidyl acetate [11C]MP4A for acetylcholinesterase activity. Cognitive function of all subjects was assessed by neuropsychological tests. Although the brain [11C](+)3-MPB binding in CFS(−) patients did not differ from normal controls, CFS(+) patients showed significantly lower [11C](+)3-MPB binding than CFS(−) patients and normal controls. In contrast, the [11C]MP4A index showed no significant differences among these three groups. Neuropsychological measures were similar among groups.
The present results demonstrate that serum autoantibody against the mAChR can affect the brain mAChR without altering acetylcholinesterase activity and cognitive functions in CFS patients.
To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of trebananib (AMG 386)—a first-in-class angiopoietin-1/2 antagonist peptide-Fc fusion protein—in Japanese patients, we conducted a phase 1, dose escalation study.
Eligible patients were men or women, aged between 20 and 74 years, who had histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced solid tumors refractory to standard treatment. Trebananib (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) was administered intravenously over 60 min in weekly cycles.
From June 2009 to April 2010, a total of 18 patients (6 for each dose cohort) were enrolled into the study. Trebananib was tolerated at all dose levels. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The most common adverse events were peripheral edema, constipation, fatigue, and pyrexia. Exposure to trebananib appeared to increase according to the dose administered. Serum clearance appeared to be similar across the dose range with the mean terminal-phase half-life ranging from 93.9 to 95.9 h. No neutralizing antibodies were detected. Tumor response was assessed in 18 patients. Of these, one patient with colon cancer in the 3-mg/kg cohort and one with bladder cancer in the 30-mg/kg cohort had partial responses as their best responses. These 2 patients were on treatment at the time of data cutoff (January 17, 2012).
Trebananib was tolerated and showed acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. The pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to those in the previous studies in the United States. Trebananib also showed evidence of durable antitumor activity in some patients.
Trebananib; AMG 386; Angiopoietin 1/2-neutralizing peptibody; Clinical trial, phase 1; Pharmacokinetics; Safety