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1.  Pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcification in The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;21(5):1056-1063.
We examined the relationship of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) with coronary artery calcification in MESA, a large cohort in which associations by race/ethnicity can be compared. The baseline cohort comprised 6,814 Caucasian (38%), African American (28%), Chinese American (12%) and Hispanic (22%) adults aged 45–84, without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT was used to measure PAT (cm3) and calcification (Agatston score). We examined cross-sectional associations of PAT with the presence (score>0) and severity (continuous score if >0) of calcification using prevalence ratio (PR) (n=6,672) and linear regression (n=3,362), respectively. Main models were adjusted for age, age2, gender, race/ethnicity, field site, smoking, physical activity, alcohol and education. PAT volume (adjusted for age, height, weight and site) was greatest in Chinese males, while Black males had less PAT than all but Black females. PAT was associated with presence [PR per standard deviation (SD): 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08)] and severity [difference in log Agatston score per SD: 0.15 (0.09, 0.21)] of calcification, but neither association varied by race/ethnicity. Adjustment for generalized adiposity attenuated but did not eliminate the associations. With further adjustment for traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers, only the association with severity remained statistically significant [PR: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04), difference: 0.10 (0.03, 0.17)]. Heterogeneity by sex was observed for presence of calcification (PR in men: 1.04; in women: 1.08; p for interaction<0.0001). Pericardial adipose tissue was associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery calcification in this cohort, but despite differences in PAT volumes and calcification across race/ethnic groups, neither association varied by race/ethnicity.
doi:10.1002/oby.20090
PMCID: PMC4042681  PMID: 23784910
Coronary artery calcification; pericardial fat; subclinical atherosclerosis risk factors; obesity; epidemiology
2.  Risk factors for lacune subtypes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study 
Neurology  2012;78(2):102-108.
Objective:
Lacunar infarctions are mainly due to 2 microvascular pathologies: lipohyalinosis and microatheroma. Little is known about risk factor differences for these subtypes. We hypothesized that diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) would be related preferentially to the lipohyalinotic subtype.
Methods:
We performed a cross-section analysis of the brain MRI data from 1,827 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We divided subcortical lesions ≤20 mm in diameter into those ≤7 mm (of probable lipohyalinotic etiology) and 8–20 mm (probably due to microatheroma) and used Poisson regression to investigate associations with the number of each type of lesion. Unlike previous studies, we also fitted a model involving lesions <3 mm.
Results:
Age (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.11 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.14), black ethnicity (vs white, PR 1.66; 95% CI 1.27–2.16), hypertension (PR 2.12; 95% CI 1.61–2.79), diabetes (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.08–1.87), and ever-smoking (PR 1.34; 95% CI 1.04–1.74) were significantly associated with lesions ≤7 mm. Findings were similar for lesions <3 mm. HbA1c, substituted for diabetes, was also associated with smaller lesions. Significantly associated with 8–20 mm lesions were age (PR 1.14; 95% CI 1.09–1.20), hypertension (PR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.83), ever-smoking (PR 2.66; 95% CI 1.63–4.34), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (PR 1.27 per SD; 95% CI 1.06–1.52). When we analyzed only participants with lesions, history of smoking (PR 1.99; 95% CI 1.23–3.20) and LDL (PR 1.33 per SD; 95% CI 1.08–1.65) were associated with lesions 8–20 mm.
Conclusions:
Smaller lacunes (even those <3 mm) were associated with diabetes and HbA1c, and larger lacunes associated with LDL cholesterol, differences which support long-held theories relating to their underlying pathology. The findings may contribute to broader understanding of cerebral microvascular disease.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823efc42
PMCID: PMC3466671  PMID: 22170882
3.  Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive decline 
Neurology  2009;73(11):862-868.
Background:
Because retinal and cerebral arterioles share similar pathologic processes, retinal microvascular changes are expected to be markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). To better understand the role of SVD in cognitive function, we investigated the relationship between retinal microvascular abnormalities and longitudinal changes in cognitive function in a community-based study.
Methods:
A total of 803 participants underwent 4 cognitive assessments between 1990–1992 and 2004–2006, using the Word Fluency (WF) test, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Delayed Word Recall as well as retinal photography in 1993–1995. Covariate adjusted random effects linear models for repeated measures were used to determine the associations of cognitive change with specific retinal vascular abnormalities.
Results:
Individuals with retinopathy showed declines in executive function and psychomotor speed, with 1) an average decline in WF of −1.64 words per decade (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.3, −0.02) compared to no decline in those without retinopathy +0.06 (95% CI −0.6, 0.8) and 2) a higher frequency of rapid decliners on the DSS test.
Conclusion:
Signs of retinal vascular changes, as markers of the cerebral microvasculature, are associated with declines in executive function and psychomotor speed, adding to the growing evidence for the role of microvascular disease in cognitive decline in the elderly.
GLOSSARY
= Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities;
= arteriovenous;
= blood pressure;
= Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale;
= confidence interval;
= central retinal artery equivalent;
= central retinal vein equivalent;
= digit symbol substitution;
= delayed word recall;
= mean arterial blood pressure;
= small vessel disease;
= word fluency.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b78436
PMCID: PMC2744282  PMID: 19752453
4.  Serologic Evidence of Infections and Type 2 Diabetes: The MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Aims
Prospective studies have identified chronic inflammation as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, it is not known whether infection by specific pathogens or having a greater “pathogen burden” is associated with diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relation of seropositivity to five pathogens (C. pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, H. pylori, hepatitis A virus, herpes simplex virus) and prevalent diabetes.
Methods
Baseline data from a random sample of MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants (n=1,000; age: 45-84) were used. Diabetes was defined by ADA 2003 criteria, and “pathogen burden” by the number of pathogens (0–5) for which an individual was seropositive. Logistic regression was used to test differences in diabetes prevalence by seropositivity. Linear regression was used to explore associations between pathogen seropositivity and the inflammation markers CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen.
Results
Diabetes prevalence was 12.7%, while seropositivity for C. pnuemoniae was 76%, cytomegalovirus 77%, H. pylori 45%, hepatitis A 58%, and herpes simplex virus 85%. 72% were seropositive for ≥3 pathogens. In crude analyses, the prevalence of diabetes was higher among those with a pathogen burden ≥3, and with seropositivity to cytomegalovirus, H. pylori, hepatitis A, and herpes simplex virus. After adjustment for demographic covariates (particularly race) all associations became nonsignificant. Pathogen seropositivity was also not related to inflammation marker levels.
Conclusions
Following demographic adjustments, no associations were observed between infection by several pathogens and diabetes status, suggesting no etiologic role for them in the occurrence of diabetes.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02632.x
PMCID: PMC2679689  PMID: 19236617
diabetes; infection; pathogen; seropositivity
5.  Neighbourhood differences in diet: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study 
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether neighbourhood characteristics are related to dietary patterns independently of individual level variables. DESIGN: A cross sectional analysis of the relation between neighbourhood median household income and food and nutrient intakes, before and after adjustment for individual level variables. SETTING: Four United States communities (Washington Co, MD; Suburban Minneapolis, MN; Forsyth Co, NC, and Jackson, MS). PARTICIPANTS: 13,095 adults aged 45 to 64 years participating in the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective study of atherosclerosis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Information on diet and individual level income was obtained from the baseline examination of the ARIC Study. Diet was assessed using a semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on neighbourhood (census defined block groups) median household income was obtained from the 1990 US Census. Multilevel models were used to account for the multilevel structure of the data. Living in lower income neighbourhoods was generally associated with decreased energy adjusted intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, and increased intake of meat. Patterns generally persisted after adjustment for individual level income, but were often not statistically significant. Inconsistent associations were recorded for the intake of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and cholesterol. Overall, individual level income was a more consistent predictor of diet than neighbourhood income. CONCLUSION: Despite limitations in the definition and characterisation of neighbourhoods, this study found consistent (albeit small) differences across neighbourhoods in food intake, suggesting that more in depth research into potential neighbourhood level determinants of diet is warranted.
 
PMCID: PMC1756776  PMID: 10326055

Results 1-5 (5)