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1.  Visual Stimuli Evoked Action Potentials Trigger Rapidly Propagating Dendritic Calcium Transients in the Frog Optic Tectum Layer 6 Neurons 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(9):e0139472.
The superior colliculus in mammals or the optic tectum in amphibians is a major visual information processing center responsible for generation of orientating responses such as saccades in monkeys or prey catching avoidance behavior in frogs. The conserved structure function of the superior colliculus the optic tectum across distant species such as frogs, birds monkeys permits to draw rather general conclusions after studying a single species. We chose the frog optic tectum because we are able to perform whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings fluorescence imaging of tectal neurons while they respond to a visual stimulus. In the optic tectum of amphibians most visual information is processed by pear-shaped neurons possessing long dendritic branches, which receive the majority of synapses originating from the retinal ganglion cells. Since the first step of the retinal input integration is performed on these dendrites, it is important to know whether this integration is enhanced by active dendritic properties. We demonstrate that rapid calcium transients coinciding with the visual stimulus evoked action potentials in the somatic recordings can be readily detected up to the fine branches of these dendrites. These transients were blocked by calcium channel blockers nifedipine CdCl2 indicating that calcium entered dendrites via voltage-activated L-type calcium channels. The high speed of calcium transient propagation, >300 μm in <10 ms, is consistent with the notion that action potentials, actively propagating along dendrites, open voltage-gated L-type calcium channels causing rapid calcium concentration transients in the dendrites. We conclude that such activation by somatic action potentials of the dendritic voltage gated calcium channels in the close vicinity to the synapses formed by axons of the retinal ganglion cells may facilitate visual information processing in the principal neurons of the frog optic tectum.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139472
PMCID: PMC4586134  PMID: 26414356
3.  Well-Timed, Brief Inhibition Can Promote Spiking: Postinhibitory Facilitation 
Journal of neurophysiology  2006;95(4):2664-2677.
Brief synaptic inhibition can overwhelm a nearly coincident suprathreshold excitatory input to preclude spike generation. Surprisingly, a brief inhibitory event that occurs in a favorable time window preceding an otherwise subthreshold excitation can facilitate spiking. Such postinhibitory facilitation (PIF) requires that the inhibition has a short (decay) time constant τinh. The timescale ranges of τinh and of the window (width and timing) for PIF depend on the rates of neuronal subthreshold dynamics. The mechanism for PIF is general, involving reduction by hyperpolarization of some excitability-suppressing factor that is partially recruited at rest. Here we illustrate and analyze PIF, experimentally and theoretically, using brain stem auditory neurons and a conductance-based five-variable model. In this auditory case, PIF timescales are in the sub- to few millisecond range and the primary mechanistic factor is a low-threshold potassium conductance gKLT. Competing dynamic influences create the favorable time window: hyperpolarization that moves V away from threshold and hyper-excitability resulting from reduced gKLT. A two-variable reduced model that retains the dynamics only of V and gKLT displays a similar time window. We analyze this model in the phase plane; its geometry has generic features. Further generalizing, we show that PIF behavior may occur even in a very reduced model with linear subthreshold dynamics, by using an integrate-and-fire model with an accommodating voltage-dependent threshold. Our analyses of PIF provide insights for fast inhibition’s facilitatory effects in longer trains. Periodic subthreshold excitatory inputs can lead to firing, even one for one, if brief inhibitory inputs are interleaved within a range of favorable phase lags. The temporal specificity of inhibition’s facilitating effect could play a role in temporal processing, in sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory temporal patterning, in the auditory and other neural systems.
doi:10.1152/jn.00752.2005
PMCID: PMC3696519  PMID: 16551843
4.  Sodium Along With Low-Threshold Potassium Currents Enhance Coincidence Detection of Subthreshold Noisy Signals in MSO Neurons 
Journal of neurophysiology  2004;91(6):2465-2473.
Voltage-dependent membrane conductances support specific neurophysiological properties. To investigate the mechanisms of coincidence detection, we activated gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons with dynamic current-clamp stimuli in vitro. Spike-triggered reverse-correlation analysis for injected current was used to evaluate the integration of subthreshold noisy signals. Consistent with previous reports, the partial blockade of low-threshold potassium channels (IKLT) reduced coincidence detection by slowing the rise of current needed on average to evoke a spike. However, two factors point toward the involvement of a second mechanism. First, the reverse correlation currents revealed that spike generation was associated with a preceding hyperpolarization. Second, rebound action potentials are 45% larger compared to depolarization-evoked spikes in the presence of an IKLT antagonist. These observations suggest that the sodium current (INa) was substantially inactivated at rest. To test this idea, INa was enhanced by increasing extracellular sodium concentration. This manipulation reduced coincidence detection, as reflected by slower spike-triggering current, and diminished the hyperpolarization phase in the reverse-correlation currents. As expected, a small outward bias current decreased the pre-spike hyperpolarization phase, and TTX blockade of INa nearly eliminated the hyperpolarization phase in the reverse correlation current. A computer model including Hodgkin-Huxley type conductances for spike generation and for IKLT showed reduction in coincidence detection when IKLT was reduced or when INa was increased. We hypothesize that desirable synaptic signals first remove some inactivation of INa and reduce activation of IKLT to create a brief temporal window for coincidence detection of subthreshold noisy signals.
doi:10.1152/jn.00717.2003
PMCID: PMC3683536  PMID: 14749317
5.  Subthreshold outward currents enhance temporal integration in auditory neurons 
Biological cybernetics  2003;89(5):333-340.
Many auditory neurons possess low-threshold potassium currents (IKLT ) that enhance their responsiveness to rapid and coincident inputs. We present recordings from gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons in vitro and modeling results that illustrate how IKLT improves the detection of brief signals, of weak signals in noise, and of the coincidence of signals (as needed for sound localization). We quantify the enhancing effect of IKLT on temporal processing with several measures: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), reverse correlation or spike-triggered averaging of input currents, and inter-aural time difference (ITD) tuning curves. To characterize how IKLT, which activates below spike threshold, influences a neuron’s voltage rise toward threshold, i.e., how it filters the inputs, we focus first on the response to weak and noisy signals. Cells and models were stimulated with a computer-generated steady barrage of random inputs, mimicking weak synaptic conductance transients (the “noise”), together with a larger but still subthreshold postsynaptic conductance, EPSG (the “signal”). Reduction of IKLT decreased the SNR, mainly due to an increase in spontaneous firing (more “false positive”). The spike-triggered reverse correlation indicated that IKLT shortened the integration time for spike generation. IKLT also heightened the model’s timing selectivity for coincidence detection of simulated binaural inputs. Further, ITD tuning is shifted in favor of a slope code rather than a place code by precise and rapid inhibition onto MSO cells (Brand et al. 2002). In several ways, low-threshold outward currents are seen to shape integration of weak and strong signals in auditory neurons.
doi:10.1007/s00422-003-0438-2
PMCID: PMC3677199  PMID: 14669013
6.  Enhancement of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Phase Locking for Small Inputs by a Low-Threshold Outward Current in Auditory Neurons 
Neurons possess multiple voltage-dependent conductances specific for their function. To investigate how low-threshold outward currents improve the detection of small signals in a noisy background, we recorded from gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons in vitro. MSO neurons responded phasically, with a single spike to a step current injection. When bathed in dendrotoxin (DTX), most cells switched to tonic firing, suggesting that low-threshold potassium currents (IKLT ) participated in shaping these phasic responses. Neurons were stimulated with a computer-generated steady barrage of random inputs, mimicking weak synaptic conductance transients (the “noise”), together with a larger but still subthreshold postsynaptic conductance, EPSG (the “signal”). DTX reduced the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), defined as the ratio of probability to fire in response to the EPSG and the probability to fire spontaneously in response to noise. The reduction was mainly attributable to the increase of spontaneous firing in DTX. The spike-triggered reverse correlation indicated that, for spike generation, the neuron with IKLT required faster inward current transients. This narrow temporal integration window contributed to superior phase locking of firing to periodic stimuli before application of DTX. A computer model including Hodgkin-Huxley type conductances for spike generation and for IKLT (Rathouz and Trussell, 1998) showed similar response statistics. The dynamic low-threshold outward current increased SNR and the temporal precision of integration of weak sub-threshold signals in auditory neurons by suppressing false positives.
PMCID: PMC3677217  PMID: 12486197
medial superior olive; signal-to-noise ratio; phase locking; computer model; potassium conductance; slice recordings
7.  Influence of subthreshold nonlinearities on signal-to-noise ratio and timing precision for small signals in neurons: minimal model analysis 
Network (Bristol, England)  2003;14(1):137-150.
Subthreshold voltage- and time-dependent conductances can subserve different roles in signal integration and action potential generation. Here, we use minimal models to demonstrate how a non-inactivating low-threshold outward current (IKLT) can enhance the precision of small-signal integration. Our integrate-and-fire models have only a few biophysical parameters, enabling a parametric study of IKLT's effects. IKLT increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for firing when a subthreshold `signal' EPSP is delivered in the presence of weak random input. The increased SNR is due to the suppression of spontaneous firings to random input. In accordance, SNR grows as the EPSP amplitude increases. SNR also grows as the unitary synaptic current's time constant increases, leading to more effective suppression of spontaneous activity. Spike-triggered reverse correlation of the injected current indicates that,to reach spike threshold, a cell with IKLT requires a briefer time course of injected current. Consistent with this narrowed integration time window, IKLT enhances phase-locking, measured as vector strength, to a weak noisy and periodically modulated stimulus. Thus subthreshold negative feedback mediated by IKLT enhances temporal processing. An alternative suppression mechanism is voltage- and time-dependent inactivation of a low-threshold inward current. This feature in an integrate-and-fire model also shows SNR enhancement, in comparison with a case when the inward current is non-inactivating. Small-signal detection can be significantly improved in noisy neuronal systems by subthreshold negative feedback, serving to suppress false positives.
PMCID: PMC3674578  PMID: 12613555
8.  Asymmetric Excitatory Synaptic Dynamics Underlie Interaural Time Difference Processing in the Auditory System 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(6):e1000406.
In order to localize sounds in the environment, the auditory system detects and encodes differences in signals between each ear. The exquisite sensitivity of auditory brain stem neurons to the differences in rise time of the excitation signals from the two ears allows for neuronal encoding of microsecond interaural time differences.
Low-frequency sound localization depends on the neural computation of interaural time differences (ITD) and relies on neurons in the auditory brain stem that integrate synaptic inputs delivered by the ipsi- and contralateral auditory pathways that start at the two ears. The first auditory neurons that respond selectively to ITD are found in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO). We identified a new mechanism for ITD coding using a brain slice preparation that preserves the binaural inputs to the MSO. There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. We demonstrate, and support using a biophysically based computational model, that a bilateral asymmetry in excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) slopes provides a robust compensatory delay mechanism due to differential activation of low threshold potassium conductance on these inputs and permits MSO neurons to encode physiological ITDs. We suggest, more generally, that the dependence of spike probability on rate of depolarization, as in these auditory neurons, provides a mechanism for temporal order discrimination between EPSPs.
Author Summary
Animals can locate the source of a sound by detecting microsecond differences in the arrival time of sound at the two ears. Neurons encoding these interaural time differences (ITDs) receive an excitatory synaptic input from each ear. They can perform a microsecond computation with excitatory synapses that have millisecond time scale because they are extremely sensitive to the input's “rise time,” the time taken to reach the peak of the synaptic input. Current theories assume that the biophysical properties of the two inputs are identical. We challenge this assumption by showing that the rise times of excitatory synaptic potentials driven by the ipsilateral ear are faster than those driven by the contralateral ear. Further, we present a computational model demonstrating that this disparity in rise times, together with the neurons' sensitivity to excitation's rise time, can endow ITD-encoding with microsecond resolution in the biologically relevant range. Our analysis also resolves a timing mismatch. The difference between contralateral and ipsilateral latencies is substantially larger than the relevant ITD range. We show how the rise time disparity compensates for this mismatch. Generalizing, we suggest that phasic-firing neurons—those that respond to rapidly, but not to slowly, changing stimuli—are selective to the temporal ordering of brief inputs. In a coincidence-detection computation the neuron will respond more robustly when a faster input leads a slower one, even if the inputs are brief and have similar amplitudes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000406
PMCID: PMC2893945  PMID: 20613857

Results 1-8 (8)