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1.  Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath of the digits. A systematic review 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2011;6(3):244-249.
We reviewed the literature to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histological profile of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath of the digits (GCTTSD). The overall recurrence rate and the factors affecting tumour recurrence were also assessed.
We searched for published articles regarding the GCTTSD in the English literature the last 30 years using the PubMed search engine. All retrieved papers were analysed and their reference lists were also screened if relevant. Clinical studies with less than five patients and follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from further evaluation. For each report, information was gathered related to trial characteristics and study population. Location and multicentricity of lesions, kind and severity of symptoms, type of applied treatment modality and histopathological features of the excised tumours were additionally recorded. A meta-analysis for estimating the pooled recurrence rate after surgical excision was also conducted. Statistical significance was assumed for p ≤0.05.
We found 21 studies with histological confirmation of GCTTS. However, only 10 studies including 605 patients were reviewed according to selection criteria (average follow-up 36.7 to 79 months). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.47 (p < 0.005) and the mean age ranged from 32 to 51 years. Pain or sensory disturbances reported only in 15.7% and 4.57% of cases, respectively. A definite history of trauma recorded in 5% of lesions. The most frequent tumour location was the index finger (29.7%). In total, 14.8% of patients had tumour recurrence. Type I tumours (single lesions) were more frequently detected (78.7%) than type II tumours (two or more distinct tumours that were not joined together) (21.3%) but the latter were associated with a higher recurrence rate (p < 0.001). Study design also affected the possibility of recurrence as it was lower in prospective studies compared to retrospective studies (p = 0.003). Even though bone erosion was detected in 28.39%, recurrence was not more common in this group. In addition, recurrence was not significantly associated with a specific finger or phalanx.
Intrinsic biology of the tumour seems to play a more fundamental role in recurrence than tumour location or local invasiveness. More prospective well-designed studies including a large number of cases are necessary to identify tumours prone to recurrence and determine the proper treatment protocol for each individual patient.
PMCID: PMC3153624  PMID: 22942846
Giant cell tumour; Tendon sheath; Digits; Hand
2.  Isolated thumb carpometacarpal joint dislocation: a case report and review of the literature 
Isolated thumb carpometacarpal dislocation is a rare injury pattern and the optimal treatment option is still controversial.
Case Description
We present a 27-year-old basketball player who underwent an isolated dorsal dislocation of the thumb carpometacarpal joint after a fall. The dislocation was successfully reduced by closed means but the joint was found to be grossly unstable. Due to inherent instability, repair of the ruptured dorsoradial ligament and joint capsule was performed.
The ligament was detached from its proximal insertion into trapezium and subsequently stabilized via suture anchors. The torn capsule was repaired in an end-to-end fashion and immobilization of the joint was applied for 6 weeks.
At 3-year follow up evaluation the patient was pain free and returned to his previous level of activity. No restriction of carpometacrpal movements or residual instability was noticed. Radiographic examination showed normal joint alignment and no signs of subluxation or early osteoarthritis.
Surgical stabilization of the dorsal capsuloligamentous complex may be considered the selected treatment option in isolated carpometacarpal joint dislocations, that remain unstable after closed reduction in young and high demand patients.
Level of Clinical Evidence: Level IV
PMCID: PMC2841114  PMID: 20219137
3.  Closed subtalar dislocation with non-displaced fractures of talus and navicular: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8793.
Closed subtalar dislocations associated with talus and navicular fractures are rare injuries. We report on a case of a 43-year-old builder man with medial subtalar dislocation that was further complicated by minimally displaced talar and navicular fractures. Successful closed reduction under general anesthesia was followed by non-weight bearing and ankle immobilization with a below-knee cast for 6 ;weeks. At 3 years post-injury, the subtalar joint was stable, the foot and ankle mobility was in normal limits and the patient could still work as a builder. However, he complained for occasionally mild pain due to the development of post-traumatic arthritis in subtalar and ankle joints. Our search in literature revealed that conservative treatment of all the successfully reduced and minimally displaced subtalar fracture-dislocations has given superior results compared to surgical management. However, even in cases with no or slight fracture displacement, avascular necrosis of the talus or arthritis of the surrounding joints can compromise the final functional outcome.
PMCID: PMC2769472  PMID: 19918402

Results 1-3 (3)