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1.  Role of reactive oxygen species in pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome 
Nephrotic syndrome is the common chronic disorder characterized by alteration of permeability of the glomerular capillary wall, resulting in its inability to restrict the urinary loss of proteins. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia associated with peripheral edema. The molecular basis of glomerular permselectivity remains largely unknown. In recent years it has been proposed that Nephrotic syndrome is a consequence of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant activity. The present study was aimed to test that the reactive oxygen species are the mediators of excessive protein permeability and other complications of Nephrotic syndrome. For this 30 adults with Nephrotic syndrome were studied. The control group comprised 30 healthy adults matched for age. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NO⊙), α- tocopherol, ascorbic acid, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, serum albumin, uric acid, cholesterol and plasma total antioxidant capacity were measured. Student’s ‘t’ test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxide (1.58 ± 0.42 in controls, 3.64 ±1.3 in patients) (P<0.001) levels in study group as compared with controls. α-tocopherol (12.95 ± 1.04 in controls, 9.93 ± 1.43 in patients) (P<0.001), erythrocyte SOD activity(1.88 ± 0.9 in controls 1.07 ± 0.5 in patients) (P=0.01), serum albumin(4.06 ± 0.50 in controls, 3.04 ± 0.11 in patients) (P<0.001), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (847.33 ± 126.83 in controls, 684.00±102.94 in patients) (P<0.001) were significantly decreased. There was non-significant increase in uric acid (P>0.05), a non-significant decrease in NO⊙ (38.48 ± 15.47 in controls 37.47 ± 14.27 in patients) (P>0.05) and ascorbic acid levels ascorbic acid,( 0.95 ± 0.31in controls 0.79 ± 0.30 in patients) (P>0.05) in study group as compared with controls. Imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants may contribute to pathogenesis of proteinuria and related complications in nephrotic syndrome.
doi:10.1007/s12291-010-0017-y
PMCID: PMC3453014  PMID: 23105890
Nephrotic syndrome; Lipid peroxide; Antioxidants; Erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase
2.  Role of free radicals and antioxidant status in childhood nephrotic syndrome 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2011;21(1):37-40.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by heavy proteinuria and hypoalbuminuria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of proteinuria in NS. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of reactive oxygen species in pathogenesis of NS by estimating the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in children with NS. Thirty patients of NS and thirty age, sex-matched healthy subjects, were selected for the study. As compared to healthy controls, the levels of serum lipid peroxide were significantly elevated while levels of nitric oxide, erythrocyte-superoxide dismutase activity, levels of vitamin C, albumin and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced in nephrotic patients. The levels of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly increased in children with NS as compared to controls. There was no significant difference in vitamin E level between patients and controls. It can be concluded that increased ROS generation and decreased antioxidant defense may be related to the pathogenesis of proteinuria in NS.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.78062
PMCID: PMC3109781  PMID: 21655168
Nephrotic syndrome; reactive oxygen species; lipid peroxide; total antioxidant capacity
3.  Hypomagnesaemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients: A study on the status of oxidative and nitrosative stress 
This study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of plasma magnesium, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide end products, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxides, erythrocyte reduced glutathione and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. 60 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 30 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Among 60 type-2 diabetic patients, 30 patients were without complication and 30 patients were with various complications. Decreased levels of plasma magnesium, erythrocyte reduced glutathione and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity while increased levels of plasma lipid peroxides, nitric oxide end products and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxides were observed in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. We propose that, under the shadow of hypomagnesaemia, there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as reflected by elevated lipid peroxides and nitric oxide end products concomitant with dwindled antioxidants and suggest their association with late complications in type-2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1007/s12291-009-0033-y
PMCID: PMC3453220  PMID: 23105830
Type-2 diabetes; Hypomagnesaemia; Oxidative stress; Nitrosative stress; Antioxidants
4.  Oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant balance in beta thalassemia major 
Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 72 children with beta thalassemia major were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, Copper, Zinc, Vitamin E, plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity, activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase, were measured. The findings were compared with 72 age matched healthy controls irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide and Iron (p<0.001), whereas, significant decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Iron Binding Capacity (p<0.001) was observed. Serum Zinc was significantly increased (p<0.001) with significant decrease in the levels of copper (p<0.001). Non Significant increase in the activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase (p>0.05) was found in the patients when compared with controls. This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.
doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0074-7
PMCID: PMC3453139  PMID: 23105782
Beta thalassemia major; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants
5.  Oxidative stress and serum α1 — Antitrypsin in smokers 
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of serum lipid peroxide, nitric oxide end poducts, erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum α1-antitrypsin in smokers. Total 90 active cigarette smokers were subdivided into Group I (subjects with smoking habit of less than 10 cigarettes per day) and Group II (with smoking habit of more than 10 cigarettes per day). In both groups lipid peroxide and nitric oxide end products were significantly increased with significantly decrease in erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum α1-antitrypsin as compared to controls. Our findings show enhanced oxidative stress and reduced α1-antitrypsin in cigarette smokers. Further increase in number of cigarettes per day exacerbates the oxidative stress with decrease in α1-antitrypsin.
doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0082-7
PMCID: PMC3453143  PMID: 23105790
Lipid peroxide; Nitric oxide; Superoxide dismutase; α1-antitrypsin; Smokers
6.  Effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients 
Hemodialysis represents a chronic stress status for its recipients. Many hypotheses state that this may be associated with oxidative stress. Thus, there may be deficiency of antioxidants like erythrocytic superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin E or increased generation of free radicals like superoxide anions. A study was carried out to investigate oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and effect of vitamin E supplementation on these two status. Blood samples were collected from patients before and after hemodialysis and from controls. The samples were analyzed for quantitation of MDA as index of lipid peroxide, nitric oxide, vitamin E, vitamin C and enzymatic antioxidants namely erythrocyte SOD and catalase. As compared to controls, the levels of serum MDA were significantly increased and activities of erythrocyte SOD and catalase, levels of serum nitric oxide, serum vitamin E and plasma vitamin C were significantly decreased both before and after hemodialysis. The efficiency of vitamin E therapy in hemodialysis patients was assessed by re-evaluating oxidant and antioxidant status of same patients after supplementation of vitamin E. Vitamin E supplementation caused decrease in serum MDA and increase in levels of serum nitric oxide, vitamin E, vitamin C and activities of erythrocytic SOD and catalase. Our results suggest the presence of oxidative stress and the possible preventive role of vitamin E therapy in hemodialysis patients.
doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0052-0
PMCID: PMC3453437  PMID: 23105760
Hemodialysis; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Vitamin E; MDA; Erythrocytic SOD
7.  Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cervical cancer patients 
Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global public health problem as it is the second most common cancer leading to the death of women worldwide. Many references revealed that the low levels of antioxidants induce the generation of free radicals leading to DNA damage and further mutations. In the present study attempt have been made to evaluate the levels of serum Lipid peroxide, Nitric Oxide (NO.) Erythrocytic—Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C, serum Copper (Cu) and serum Zinc (Zn). 120 patients were divided in 4 groups according to the increasing CaCx stages i.e. stage I, II, III & IV respectively. All the patients were around the age group of 25–65 years. 30 healthy women between the same age group were treated as controls. Highly significant increased values of MDA, NO. and Cu were observed (p<0.001) whereas the activity of RBC-SOD, levels of Vitamin-C and Zn were significantly decreased in CaCx patients as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Cu/Zn ratio was found to be altered in CaCx patients. From our findings it can be concluded that the oxidative stress is induced among CaCx patients, which inturn increases the risk of CaCx.
doi:10.1007/BF02913333
PMCID: PMC3453822  PMID: 23105702
Lipid peroxide; Cervical cancer; RBC-SOD; Nitric Oxide; Vitamin-C; Copper; Zinc
8.  Comparison between erythrocyte hemoglobin and spectrin glycosylation and role of oxidative stress in type-2 diabetes mellitus 
New findings on organization of blood cell cytoskeleton represent an exciting aspect of modem cell biology and hematology, which is an interesting investigation to study diabetes. The present study was undertaken in 150 subjects. Out of these, 30 subjects were controls (Group I) and 30 were type-2 diabetics without any complication (Group II), while remaining 90 subjects were type-2 diabetics with complication (Group III). We determined erythrocyte spectrin and hemoglobin glycosylation and also estimated plasma lipid peroxide, nitric oxide and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity to assess the status of oxidative stress. There was a significant increase in spectrin (P<0.001) and hemoglobin (P<0.001) glycosylation in Group II and III as compared to Group I and spectrin glycosylation was nearly three times more as compared to hemoglobin, whereas plasma levels of lipid peroxide (P<0.001) as well as nitric oxide (P<0.001) were found to be significantly increased and GPx activity (P<0.001) was significantly decreased in Group II and III as compared to Group I. However, it was also observed that spectrin (P>0.05) and hemoglobin (P>0.05) glycosylation was not significantly different in Group II and III. In contrast, there was significant rise in lipid peroxide (P<0.001), nitric oxide (P<0.001) and fall in GPx activity (P<0.001) in Group III when compared to Group II. Increased erythrocyte protein glycosylation and oxidative stress is clearly evident from our study. However, to understand the exact interplay between these two mechanisms, further studies are required.
doi:10.1007/BF02912888
PMCID: PMC3454247  PMID: 23105659
Type-2 diabetes; Spectrin; Glycosylation; Oxidative stress
9.  Oxidative stress and calcium-phosphorus levels in Rheumatoid arthritis 
Generation of reactive oxygen species is an important factor in the development and maintenance of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. This study was undertaken to investigate interplay among oxidants, antioxidants and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, vitamin E and ratio of calcium/phosphorus in RA patients were determined and compared with normal healthy controls. Significant increases in lipid peroxides (p<0.001) and nitric oxide (p<0.001) levels were found in patients presenting with RA as compared to controls. Whereas significant decrease in vitamin E (P<0.001) and calcium/phosphorus ratio (p<0.001) were found in Rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to controls. Positive correlation was found between lipid peroxides and nitric oxide as well as between vitamin E and calcium. While lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were correlated negatively with vitamin E. whereas negative correlation was observed between MDA and Calcium/Phosphorus ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our findings suggest that there is a close association between bone loss and oxidative threat in patients presenting with Rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.1007/BF02912928
PMCID: PMC3453991  PMID: 23105630
Rheumatoid arthritis; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; vitamin E; Calcium/Phosphorus
10.  Oxidants and antioxidants in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy 
In the present study, the role of serum lipid peroxide and serum nitric oxide as oxidants and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase & serum vitamin E as antioxidants were determined in the 50 neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. (HIE) as against 25 healthy neonates as controls 50 patients of HIE were further divided into two groups i. e. mild and moderate HIE patients. All subjects were in the age group of 37–41 weeks of gestation. The levels of serum lipid peroxide, serum nitric oxide and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase were significantly elevated in both groups of neonates with HIE than those of controls (P<0.001), whereas serum vitamin E levels were significantly decreased in both groups of HIE patients than those of controls (P<0.001). A positive correlation was obtained between serum lipid peroxide and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (r=+0.86). Alterations in the status of oxidants and antioxidants indicate role of free radicals in the development of HIE.
doi:10.1007/BF02894254
PMCID: PMC3454200  PMID: 23105453
Lipid peroxide; nitric oxide; superoxide dismutase; vitamin E; hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
11.  Studies on biochemical changes with special reference to oxidant and antioxidants in malaria patients 
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of malarial anemia. The present study was undertaken to study the role of oxidant and antioxidants in the patients ofPlasmodium falciparum malaria (n=25),Plasmodium vivax malaria (n=25) as against the normal control subjects (n=25). The parameters included are the hematological [hemoglobin, erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, ADP-induced platelet aggregation] and serum total lipid peroxide as an index of oxidative stress and antioxidants [erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum vitamin E] & serum iron.
Significant alterations in all above parameters were noted in both groups of malaria patients as compared to control subjects. Maximum significant alterations in hematological parameters were noticed inP. falciparum infection as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001). Substantial rise in serum total lipid peroxides and a significant reduction in antioxidants such as serum vitamin E and serum iron were noted inP. falciparum malaria as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001), whereas maximum decline in erythrocytic SOD activity was observed inP. vivax infection as compared toP. falciparum malaria (p<0.05). Follow-up examination revealed the restoration of the levels of all biochemical parameters to the normal level after 20 days of antimalarial therapy.
The study specified severity ofP. falciparum malaria and also functional duality of oxidant.
doi:10.1007/BF02867380
PMCID: PMC3453864  PMID: 23105405
Hematological Parameters; Lipid Peroxidation; Antioxidants; Malaria

Results 1-11 (11)