To image implant-surrounding activated macrophages, a macrophage-specific PET probe was prepared by conjugating folic acid (FA) and 2,2′,2″,2‴-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrayl) tetracetic acid (DOTA) to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then labeling the conjugate with Ga-68. In vivo PET imaging evaluations demonstrate that the probe is able to detect foreign body reactions, and more importantly, quantify the degree of inflammatory responses to an implanted medical device. These results were further validated by histological analysis.
Folic acid; Biomaterial implant; Inflammation; Biocompatibility; PET imaging
Dendrimers are a class of structurally defined macromolecules featured with a central core, a low-density interior formed by repetitive branching units, and a high-density exterior terminated with surface functional groups. In contrast to their polymeric counterparts, dendrimers are nano-sized and symmetrically shaped, which can be reproducibly synthesized in a large scale with monodispersity. These unique features have made dendrimers of increasing interest for drug delivery and other biomedical applications as a nanoscaffold system. Intended to address the potential use of dendrimers for the development of theranostic agents, which combines therapeutics and diagnostics in a single entity for personalized medicine, this review focuses on the reported methodologies of using dendrimer nanoscaffolds for targeted imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Of particular interest, relevant chemistry strategies are discussed due to their important roles in the design and synthesis of diagnostic and therapeutic dendrimer-based nanoconjugates and potential theranostic agents, targeted or non-targeted. Given the developing status of nanoscaffolded theranostics, major challenges and potential hurdles are discussed along with the examples representing current advances.
Dendrimer; Theranostics; Prostate Cancer; Molecular Imaging; Drug Delivery
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an attractive target for imaging agents that identify tumors and assess their response to therapy. PS is absent from the surface of most cell types, but becomes exposed on tumor cells and tumor vasculature in response to oxidative stresses in the tumor microenvironment and increases in response to therapy. To image exposed PS, we used a fully human PS-targeting antibody fragment, PGN635 F(ab’)2, that binds to complexes of PS and β2-glycoprotein I. PGN635 F(ab’)2 was labeled with the positron-emitting isotope iodine-124 (124I) and the resulting probe was injected into nude mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic human PC3 prostate tumors. Biodistribution studies showed that 124I-PGN635 F(ab’)2 localized with remarkable specificity to the tumors with little uptake in other organs, including the liver and kidneys. Clear delineation of the tumors was achieved by PET 48 hours after injection. Radiation of the tumors with 15 Gy or systemic treatment of the mice with 10 mg/kg docetaxel increased localization in the tumors. Tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratios were inversely correlated with tumor growth measured over 28 days. These data indicate that 124I-PGN635 F(ab’)2 is a promising new imaging agent for predicting tumor response to therapy.
It has been hypothesized that increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is required to support the metabolic demands of rapid malignant cell growth. Using an orthotopic mouse model of primary human glioblastoma (GBM) and a brain metastatic renal tumor of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) histology, we estimated the activity of the PPP relative to glycolysis by infusing [1,2-13C2]glucose. The [3-13C]lactate/[2,3-13C2]lactate ratio was similar for both the GBM and renal tumor and their respective surrounding brains (GBM: 0.197 ± 0.011 and 0.195 ± 0.033 (p=1); CCRCC: 0.126 and 0.119 ± 0.033, respectively). This suggests that the rate of glycolysis is significantly greater than PPP flux in these tumors, and that PPP flux into the lactate pool was similar in both tissues. Remarkably, 13C-13C coupling was observed in molecules derived from Krebs cycle intermediates in both tumors, denoting glucose oxidation. In the renal tumor, in contrast to GBM and surrounding brain, 13C multiplets of GABA differed from its precursor glutamate, suggesting that GABA did not derive from a common glutamate precursor pool. Additionally, the orthotopic renal tumor, the patient’s primary renal mass and brain metastasis were all strongly immunopositive for the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase, as were 84% of tumors on a CCRCC tissue microarray suggesting that GABA synthesis is cell-autonomous in at least a subset of renal tumors. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 13C-labeled glucose can be used in orthotopic mouse models to study tumor metabolism in vivo and to ascertain new metabolic targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Intermediary metabolism; Mouse model; 13C NMR; brain; glioblastoma; renal cell carcinoma
Photonic nanocavities are a key component in many applications because of their capability of trapping and storing photons and enhancing interactions of light with various functional materials and structures. The maximal number of photons that can be stored in silicon photonic cavities is limited by the free-carrier and thermo-optic effects at room temperature. To reduce such effects, we performed the first experimental study of optical nonlinearities in ultrahigh-Q silicon disk nanocavities at cryogenic temperatures in a superfluid helium environment. At elevated input power, the cavity transmission spectra exhibit distinct blue-shifted bistability behavior when temperature crosses the liquid helium lambda point. At even lower temperatures, the spectra restore to symmetric Lorentzian shapes. Under this condition, we obtain a large intracavity photon number of about 40,000, which is limited ultimately by the local helium phase transition. These new discoveries are explained by theoretical calculations and numerical simulations.
Mouse models of experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis provide an analytical tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis. The potential of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was evaluated using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) as a probe to monitor the progression of anti-GBM induced nephritis in a mouse model. The imaging results were compared to conventional measures of renal function and pathological changes. Serum and urinary vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels were used as measures of endothelial cell activation and inflammation. Following a challenge with anti-glomerular antibodies, mice exhibited peak changes in serum creatinine, proteinuria, and glomerulonephritis score at 14 days post-challenge (p.c.). In contrast, VCAM levels peaked at day 7 p.c. On dynamic PET images (0–60 min) of day 7, kidneys of the anti-GBM nephritis mice demonstrated a unique pattern of FDG uptake. Compared to the time activity curve (TAC) prior to challenge, a rightward shift was observed after the challenge. By day 10 p.c., kidney FDG uptake was lower than baseline and remained so until the study ended at 21 days p.c. During this time frame measures of renal dysfunction remained high but VCAM-1 levels declined. These changes were accompanied by an increase in kidney volume as measured by Computed Tomography (CT) and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Our results suggest that FDG-PET-CT can be used as a non-invasive imaging tool to longitudinally monitor the progression of renal disease activity in antibody mediated nephritis and the magnitude of renal FDG retention correlates better with early markers of renal inflammation than renal dysfunction.
This study aims to determine feasibility and utility of copper-64(II) chloride (64CuCl2) as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) of copper metabolism imbalance in human Wilson’s disease (WD).
Atp7b−/− mice, a mouse model of human WD, were injected with 64CuCl2 intravenously and subjected to PET scanning using a hybrid PET-CT (computerized tomography) scanner, with the wild-type C57BL mice as a normal control. Quantitative PET analysis was performed to determine biodistribution of 64Cu radioactivity and radiation dosimetry estimates of 64Cu were calculated for PET of copper metabolism in humans.
Dynamic PET analysis revealed increased accumulation and markedly reduced clearance of 64Cu from the liver of the Atp7b−/− mice, compared to hepatic uptake and clearance of 64Cu in the wild-type C57BL mice. Kinetics of copper clearance and retention was also altered for kidneys, heart, and lungs in the Atp7b−/− mice. Based on biodistribution of 64Cu in wild-type C57BL mice, radiation dosimetry estimates of 64Cu in normal human subjects were obtained, showing an effective dose (ED) of 32.2 μ (micro)Sv/MBq (weighted dose over 22 organs) and the small intestine as the critical organ for radiation dose (61 μGy/MBq for males and 69 μGy/MBq for females). Radiation dosimetry estimates for the patients with WD, based on biodistribution of 64Cu in the Atp7b−/− mice, showed a similar ED of 32.8 μ (micro)Sv/MBq (p= 0.53), with the liver as the critical organ for radiation dose (120 μSv/MBq for male and 161 μSv/MBq for female).
Quantitative PET analysis demonstrates abnormal copper metabolism in the mouse model of WD with improved time–resolution. Human radiation dosimetry estimates obtained in this preclinical study encourage direct radiation dosimetry of 64CuCl2 in human subjects. The results suggest feasibility of utilizing 64CuCl2 as a tracer for noninvasive assessment of copper metabolism in WD with PET.
Copper metabolism; Wilson’s disease; ATP7B copper transporter; Positron emission tomography; Copper-64 (II) chloride; Radiation dosimetry
The role of the multivalent effect has been well recognized in the design of molecular imaging probes towards the desired imaging signal amplification. Recently we reported a bifunctional chelator (BFC) scaffold design, which provides a simple and versatile approach to impart multivalency to radiometal based nuclear imaging probes. In this work, we report a series of BFC scaffolds (tBu3-1-COOH, tBu3-2-(COOH)2 and tBu3-3-(COOH)3) constructed on the framework of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for 68Ga-based PET probe design and signal amplification via multivalent effect. For proof of principle, a known integrin αvβ3 specific ligand (c(RGDyK)) was used to build the corresponding NOTA conjugates (H31, H32, and H33), which present 1 – 3 copies of c(RGDyK) peptide, respectively, in a systematic manner. Using the integrin αvβ3 binding affinities (IC50 values), the enhanced specific binding was observed for multivalent conjugates (H32: 43.9 ± 16.1 nM; H33: 14.7 ± 5.0 nM) as compared to their monovalent counterpart (H31: 171 ± 60 nM) and the intact c(RGDyK) peptide (204 ± 76 nM). The obtained conjugates were efficiently labeled with 68Ga3+ within 30 min at room temperature in high radiochemical yields (> 95%). The in vivo evaluation of the labeled conjugates, 68Ga-1, 68Ga-2 and 68Ga-3, was performed using male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing integrin αvβ3 positive PC-3 tumor xenografts (n = 3). All 68Ga -labeled conjugates showed high in vivo stability with no detectable metabolites found by radio-HPLC within 2 h post-injection (p.i.). The PET signal amplification in PC-3 tumor by multivalent effect was clearly displayed by the tumor uptake of the 68Ga-labeled conjugates (68Ga-3: 2.55 ± 0.50%ID/g; 68Ga-2: 1.90 ± 0.10 %ID/g; 68Ga-1: 1.66 ± 0.15 %ID/g) at 2 h p.i. In summary, we have designed and synthesized a series of NOTA-based BFC scaffolds with signal amplification properties, which may find potential applications in diagnostic gallium radiopharmaceuticals.
Conventional chemotherapy is commonly used for advanced stages of bladder cancer with modest success and high morbidity. Identifying markers of resistance will allow clinicians to tailor treatment to a specific patient population. T24-tumorigenic cell line was grown orthotopically in nude mice and monitored using bioluminescence imaging and microcomputed tomography until they developed metastases. Stable sublines were then developed from primary bladder (T24-P), lung (T24-L) and bone (T24-B) tissues. Chromosomal analysis and DNA microarray were used to characterize these sublines. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used for validation. Epigenetic modifiers were used to study gene regulation. The cell viability was quantified with MTT assay. Chromosomal analysis revealed multiple alterations in metastatic cell lines compared to T24-P. DNA microarray analysis showed that Taxol-Resistance-Associated-Gene-3 (TRAG3) gene was the most upregulated gene. From qRT-PCR and IHC, TRAG3 was significantly higher in T24-L and T24-B than T24-P. TRAG3 gene expression is likely controlled by DNA methylation, but not histone acetylation. Interestingly, T24-B and T24-L cells were more resistant than T24-P to treatment with anti-microtubule agents such as docetaxel, paclitaxel and vinblastine. TRAG3 mRNA expression was higher in 20% of patients with ≤pT2 (n=10) and 60% of patients with ≥pT3 (n=20) compared to normal adjacent tissue (p=0.05). In addition, the median TRAG3 expression was 6.7-fold higher in ≥pT3 tumors compared to ≤pT2 tumors. Knowing the status of TRAG3 expression could help clinicians tailor treatment to a particular patient population that could benefit from treatment, while allocating patients with resistant tumors to new experimental therapies.
urothelial carcinoma; bladder; TRAG3; resistance
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may result from delayed establishment of corticolimbic circuitry or perturbed dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Despite the widespread use of stimulants to treat ADHD, little is known regarding their long-term effects on neurotransmitter levels and metabolism. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates DA signaling through control of synthesis, postsynaptic responses, and vesicle release. Mice lacking the Cdk5-activating cofactor p35 are deficient in cortical lamination, suggesting altered motor/reward circuitry.
We employed mice lacking p35 to study the effect of altered circuitry in vivo. Positron emission tomography measured glucose metabolism in the cerebral cortex using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose as the radiotracer. Retrograde dye tracing and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostains assessed the effect of p35 knockout on the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), especially in relation to mesolimbic circuit formation. We defined the influence of Cdk5/p35 activity on catecholaminergic neurotransmission and motor activity via examination of locomotor responses to psychostimulants, monoamine neurotransmitter levels, and DA signal transduction.
Here, we report that mice deficient in p35 display increased glucose uptake in the cerebral cortex, basal hyperactivity, and paradoxical decreased locomotion in response to chronic injection of cocaine or methylphenidate. Knockout mice also exhibited an increased susceptibility to changes in PFC neurotransmitter content after chronic methylphenidate exposure, and altered basal DAergic activity in acute striatal and PFC slices.
Our findings suggest that dysregulation of Cdk5/p35 activity during development may contribute to ADHD pathology, as indicated by the behavioral phenotype, improperly established mesolimbic circuitry, and aberrations in striatal and PFC catecholaminergic signaling in p35 knockout mice.
Cdk5; p35; dopamine; prefrontal cortex; methylphenidate; ADHD
The synthesis of a polylysine dendron containing eight GdDOTA units conjugated to peptoid dimer known to have a high affinity for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is described. This simple low molecular weight system with a molecular r1 relaxivity of ~48 mM−1s−1 is shown to enhance MR images of tumors grown in mice in vivo.
Increasing evidence suggests that the loss of functional stem cells may be important in the aging process. Our experiments were originally aimed at testing the idea that, in the specific case of age-related osteoporosis, declining function of osteogenic precursor cells might be at least partially responsible. To test this, aging female mice were transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells from aged or young male donors. We find that transplantation of young mesenchymal stem cells significantly slows the loss of bone density and, surprisingly, prolongs the life span of old mice. These observations lend further support to the idea that age-related diminution of stem cell number or function may play a critical role in age-related loss of bone density in aging animals and may be one determinant of overall longevity.
The physicochemical characteristics, in vitro properties, and in vivo toxicity and efficacy of a third generation triazine dendrimer bearing approximately nine 2 kDa polyethylene glycol chains and twelve ester linked paclitaxel groups are reported. The hydrodynamic diameter of the neutral construct varies slightly with aqueous solvent ranging from 15.6–19.4 nm. Mass spectrometry and light scattering suggest radically different molecular weights with the former ~40 kDa mass consistent with expectation, and the latter 400 kDa mass consistent with a decameric structure and the observed hydrodynamic radii. HPLC can be used to assess purity as well as paclitaxel release, which is insignificant in organic solvents or aqueous solutions at neutral and low pH. Paclitaxel release occurs in vitro in human, rat, and mouse plasma and is non-linear, ranging from 7–20% cumulative release over a 48 hour incubation period. The construct is 2–3 orders of magnitude less toxic than Taxol® by weight in human hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2), porcine renal proximal tubule (LLC-PK1), and human colon carcinoma (LS174T) cells, but shows similar cytotoxicity to Abraxane® in LS174T cells. Both Taxol® and the construct appear to induce caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. The construct shows a low level of endotoxin, is not hemolytic and does not induce platelet aggregation in vitro, but does appear to reduce collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, the dendrimer formulation slightly activates the complement system in vitro due most likely to the presence of trace amounts (<1%) of free paclitaxel. An animal study provided insight into the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) wherein 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg paclitaxel/kg of construct or Abraxane were administered once per week for three consecutive weeks to non-tumor bearing athymic nude mice. The construct showed in vivo toxicity comparable to Abraxane. Both formulations were found to be non-toxic at the administered doses, and the dendrimer had an acute MTD greater than the highest dose administered. In a prostate tumor model (PC-3-luc), efficacy was observed over 70 days with an arrest of tumor growth and lack of luciferase activity observed in the twice treated cohort.
drug delivery; paclitaxel; dendrimer; triazine; melamine; prostate cancer; colon cancer; in vivo; therapy
Non-invasive detection of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by positron emission tomography (PET) would allow the evaluation of tumor vascular activity in vivo. Recently, a dimeric peptoid, GU40C4, was reported as a highly potent antagonist of VEGFR2 activation inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of this peptoid for PET imaging of VEGFR2 expression. To label GU40C4 and a control peptoid with a positron emitter, 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h; β+: 0.653 MeV, 17.4%), a cysteine was introduced to the C-terminus of the peptoids and then conjugated to a bifunctional chelator (DOTA: 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) through the maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. The in vitro binding assay showed a negligible effect of the DOTA conjugation on the VEGFR2 binding affinity of GU40C4. Both peptoid conjugates were efficiently labeled with 64Cu in high radiochemical yields (> 90%); the specific activity was in the range of 10 – 80 GBq/μmol. PET imaging evaluation using a prostate cancer xenograft (PC3) mouse model showed that 64Cu-DOTA-GU40C4 had a prominent and steady accumulation in the VEGFR2 positive PC3 tumors (2.25 ± 0.24, 2.15 ± 0.34, and 1.90 ± 0.18 %ID/g at 1, 4, and 20 h p.i., respectively; n = 3), which is significantly higher than the control peptoid conjugate (0.3 – 0.5 %ID/g; p < 0.001 at 1, 4, and 20 h p.i.). Interestingly, the mouse salivary glands were also clearly visualized by 64Cu-DOTA-GU40C4 (3.17 ± 0.25, 3.00 ± 0.36, and 1.83 ± 0.21 %ID/g at 1, 4, and 20 h p.i., respectively; n = 3) rather than its control peptoid conjugate. VEGFR2 expression in the salivary glands was shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Our results demonstrate that 64Cu-DOTA-GU40C4 can be used to image the expression of VEGFR2 in vivo.
VEGFR2; peptoid; PET; 64Cu; prostate cancer; tumor angiogenesis
Synthesis of the core/shell-structured Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles by trapping Fe3O4 inside hollow Au nanoparticles is described. The produced composite nanoparticles are strongly magnetic with their surface plasmon resonance peaks in the near infrared region (wavelength from 700 to 800 nm), combining desirable magnetic and plasmonic properties into one nanoparticle. They are particularly suitable for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The intact Au surface provides convenient anchorage sites for attachment of targeting molecules, and the particles can be activated by both near infrared lights and magnetic fields. As more and more hollow nanoparticles become available, this synthetic method would find general applications in the fabrication of core–shell multifunctional nanostructures.
Gold nanoparticles; Iron oxide nanoparticles; Core/shell nanoparticles; Hollow nanoparticles; Porous nanoparticles; Plasmonics
The use of lanthanide-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an integral component of this important diagnostic modality. These inert chelates typically possess high thermodynamic stability constants that serve as a predictor for in vivo stability and low toxicity. Recently a new class of contrast agents was reported having a significantly lower degree thermodynamic stability while exhibiting biodistribution profiles indicative of high stability under biological conditions. These observations are suggestive that the nature of contrast agent stability is also dependent upon the kinetics of complex dissociation; a feature of potential importance when contemplating the design of new chelates for in vivo use. In this paper we present a study of the kinetics of acid catalyzed dissociation, thermodynamic stability, serum stability and biodistribution of a series of DOTA-tetraamide complexes that have been substituted with peripheral hydroxyl groups. The data indicate that these non-traditional contrast agents exhibit in vivo stability comparable to agents with much higher log KML values demonstrating the important contribution of kinetic inertness.
Biodistribution; Toxicity; Lanthanides complexes; DOTA-tetraamide derivatives; MRI contrast agents; Lutetium-177
The development of non-invasive imaging methods for early diagnosis of the beta cell associated metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), has recently drawn considerable interest from the molecular imaging community as well as clinical investigators. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas, the sparsely dispersed beta cell population within the pancreas, and the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of the diseases, clinical diagnosis of beta cell abnormalities is still limited. Current diagnostic methods are invasive, often inaccurate, and usually performed post-onset of the disease. Advances in imaging techniques for probing beta cell mass and function are needed to address this critical health care problem. A variety of currently available imaging techniques have been tested for the assessment of the pancreatic beta cell islets. Here we discuss the current advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging for the study of beta cell diseases. Spurred by early successes in nuclear imaging techniques for beta cells, especially positron emission tomography (PET), the need for beta cell specific ligands has expanded. Progress in the field for obtaining such ligands is presented. Additionally, we report our preliminary efforts of developing such a peptidic ligand for PET imaging of the pancreatic beta cells.
A hybrid compound (DO3A-BP) featuring a radiometal bifunctional chelator (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N’,N”,N’”-tetraacetic acid, DOTA) and an osteoclast-targeting moiety (bisphosphonate) was designed and synthesized. The 111In-labeled complex of DO3A-BP showed significantly elevated uptake in osteoclasts compared to the undifferentiated adherent bone marrow derived cells. Biodistribution studies revealed a favorable tissue distribution profile in normal mice with high bone uptake and long retention, and low or negligible accumulation in non-target organs.
Bone metastasis; imaging agent; osteoclast; Indium-111; bifunctional chelator; bisphosphonate
Recombinant adenovirus type 5 particles (AdCMVLuc) were labeled with two different bifunctional ligands capable of forming stable complexes with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. The number of covalently attached ligands varied between 630 and 1960 per adenovirus particle depending upon the chemical reactivity of the bifunctional ligand (NHS ester versus isothiocyanide), the amount of excess ligand added, and the reaction time. The bioactivity of each labeled adenovirus derivative, as measured by the ability of the virus to infect cells and express luciferase, was shown to be highly dependent upon the number of covalently attached ligands. This indicates that certain amino groups, likely on the surface of the adenovirus fiber protein where cell binding is known to occur, are critical for viral attachment and infection. Addition of 177Lu3+ to chemically modified versus control viruses demonstrated a significant amount of nonspecific binding of 177Lu3+ to the virus particles that could not be sequestered by addition of excess DTPA. Thus, it became necessary to implement a prelabeling strategy for conjugation of preformed lanthanide ligand chelates to adenovirus particles. Using preformed Tm3+-L2, a large number of chelates having chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties were attached to the surface residues of AdCMVLuc without nonspecific binding of metal ions elsewhere on the virus particle. The potential of such conjugates to act as PARACEST imaging agents was tested using an on-resonance WALTZ sequence for CEST activation. A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging.
Recent advances in the design of MRI contrast agents have rendered the lanthanide complexes of DOTA-tetraamide ligands of considerable interest, both as responsive MR agents and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents. The potential utility of these complexes for in vivo applications is contingent upon them being well tolerated by the body. The purpose of this study was to examine how the nature of the amide substituent, and in particular its charge, affected the fate of these chelates postinjection.
Materials and Methods
Complexes of 6 DOTA-tetraamide ligands were prepared in which the nature of the amide substituent was systematically altered. The 6 ligands formed 3 series: a phosphonate series that included tri-cationic, mono-anionic, and polyanionic complexes; a carboxylate series made up of a tri-cationic complex and a mono-anionic complex; and lastly, a tri-cationic complex with an aromatic amide substituent. These complexes were labeled with an appropriate radioisotope, either 153Gd or 177Lu, and the biodistribution profiles in rats recorded 2 hours postinjection.
Biodistribution profiles were initially acquired at low doses to minimize adverse effects. All the complexes studied were found to be excreted primarily through the renal system, with the majority of the dose being found in the urine. None of the complexes exhibited substantial uptake by bone, liver, and spleen, except for a complex with 4 phosphonate groups that exhibited significant bone targeting capabilities. Increasing the dose of each complex to that of a typical MR contrast agent was found to render all 3 tri-cationic complexes studied here acutely toxic. In contrast, no ill effects were observed after administration of similar doses of the corresponding anionic complexes.
The absence of uptake by the liver and spleen indicate that irrespective of the ligand structure and charge, these complexes are not prone to dissociation in vivo. This is in agreement with previously published work that indicates high kinetic inertness for this class of compounds. At low doses, all complexes were well tolerated; however, for applications that require higher doses, the structure and charge of the ligand becomes a fundamentally important parameter. The results reported herein demonstrate the importance of incorporating negatively charged groups on amide substituents if a DOTA-tetraamide complex is to be employed at high doses in vivo.
Lanthanide complexes; Biodistribution; MRI contrast agents; PARACEST agents
Amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles have drawn considerable interest in biomedical applications. The precise control over their physico-chemical parameters and the ability to attach various ligands within specific domains suggest shell crosslinked (SCK) nanoparticles may be used as multi-/polyvalent scaffolds for drug delivery. In this study, the biodistribution of four SCKs, differing in size, core composition, and surface PEGylation was evaluated. To facilitate in vivo tracking of the SCKs, the positron-emitting radionuclide copper-64 was used. By using biodistribution and microPET imaging approaches, we found that small diameter (18 nm) SCKs possessing a polystyrene core showed the most favorable biological behavior in terms of prolonged blood retention and low liver accumulation. The data demonstrated that both core composition, which influenced the SCK flexibility and shape adaptability, and hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticle play important roles in the respective biodistributions. Surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) had no noticeable effects on SCK behavior.
Novel ligands, NBEA, NBPA, NETA, NE3TA, and NE3TA-Bn were synthesized and evaluated as potential chelators of copper radioisotopes for use in targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging or radiation therapy. The new ligands were radiolabeled with 64Cu, and in vitro stability of the radiolabeled complexes was assessed in rat serum. Serum stability results suggest that among the ligands tested, NETA, NE3TA, and NE3TA-Bn form stable complexes with 64Cu.