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author:("Sun, jingluo")
1.  Similar Metabolic Changes Induced by HIPVs Exposure as Herbivore in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95474.
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important compounds to prim neighboring undamaged plants; however, the mechanism for this priming process remains unclear. To reveal metabolic changes in plants exposed to HIPVs, metabolism of leaves and roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings exposed to HIPVs released from conspecific plants infested with larvae of Orgyia ericae were analyzed together with control and infested seedlings using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic technology and multi variate data analysis. Results presented showed that HIPVs exposure led to similar but specific metabolic changes compared with those induced by infestation in both leaves and roots. Furthermore, both HIPVs exposure and herbivore attack resulted in metabolic changes involving a series of primary and secondary metabolites in both leaves and roots. Taken together, these results suggested that priming of yet-damaged plants may be achieved by reconfiguring metabolic pathways in leaves and roots to make similar concentrations for all metabolites as those in seedlings infested. Therefore, we propose that improved readiness of defense induction of primed plants toward subsequent herbivore attack may be based on the similar metabolic profiling induced by HIPVs exposure as those caused by herbivore.
PMCID: PMC3991656  PMID: 24748156
2.  Host nectin-1 is required for efficient Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E development 
Interaction of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) with the host cell surface during Chlamydia trachomatis/HSV co-infection stimulates chlamydiae to become persistent. During viral entry, gD interacts with one of 4 host co-receptors: HVEM (herpes virus entry mediator), nectin-1, nectin-2 and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. HVEM and nectin-1 are high-affinity entry receptors for both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Nectin-2 mediates HSV-2 entry but is inactive for HSV-1, while 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate facilitates HSV-1, but not HSV-2, entry. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that HeLa and HEC-1B cells express nectin-1 and nectin-2, but not HVEM. Because both HSV-1 and HSV-2 trigger persistence, these data suggest that nectin-1 is the most likely co-receptor involved. Co-infections with nectin-1 specific HSV-1 mutants stimulate chlamydial persistence, as evidenced by aberrant body (AB) formation and decreased production of elementary bodies (EBs). These data indicate that nectin-1 is involved in viral-induced chlamydial persistence. However, inhibition of signal transduction molecules associated with HSV attachment and entry does not rescue EB production during C. trachomatis/HSV-2 co-infection. HSV attachment also does not activate Cdc42 in HeLa cells, as would be expected with viral stimulated activation of nectin-1 signaling. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays confirm that HSV infection decreases nectin-1 expression. Together, these observations suggest that gD binding-induced loss of nectin-1 signaling negatively influences chlamydial growth. Chlamydial infection studies in nectin-1 knockdown (NKD) HeLa cell lines support this hypothesis. In NKD cells, chlamydial inclusions are smaller in size, contain ABs, and produce significantly fewer infectious EBs compared to C. trachomatis infection in control HeLa cells. Overall, the current study indicates that the actions of host molecule, nectin-1, are required for successful C. trachomatis development.
PMCID: PMC4222120  PMID: 25414835
Chlamydia trachomatis; herpes simplex virus; co-infection; Nectin-1; persistence; persistent chlamydiae; chlamydial stress response
3.  Neuronal GPCR Controls Innate Immunity by Regulating Non-Canonical Unfolded Protein Response Genes 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2011;332(6030):729-732.
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated when unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum, has been implicated in the normal physiology of immune defense and in several human diseases including diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and inflammatory disease. In this study, we found that the nervous system controlled the activity of a non-canonical UPR pathway required for innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. OCTR-1, a putative octopamine G protein-coupled catecholamine receptor (GPCR, G protein–coupled receptor), functioned in sensory neurons designated ASH and ASI to actively suppress innate immune responses by down-regulating the expression of non-canonical UPR genes pqn/abu in non-neuronal tissues. Our findings suggest a novel molecular mechanism by which the nervous system may sense inflammatory responses and respond by controlling stress-response pathways at the organismal level.
PMCID: PMC3125668  PMID: 21474712
4.  Defects in retinal pigment epithelium cell proliferation and retinal attachment in mutant mice with p27Kip1 gene ablation 
Molecular Vision  2007;13:273-286.
Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate cell cycle withdrawal of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) during development, or about the mechanisms maintaining epithelial cell quiescence in adult retinas. The present study examines the potential role of the negative cell cycle regulator p27Kip1 in controlling RPE proliferation, using mice with targeted ablation of the p27Kip1 gene.
Ocular tissues were obtained from wild-type and p27Kip1-null mice at several postnatal ages. Following aldehyde fixation, eyes were processed intact for JB-4 histology and electron microscopy. Alternatively, tissues were removed by manual or enzymatic dissection in order to obtain flat-mounts of the RPE attached to either the choroid-sclera or neural retina, respectively. Epithelial flat-mounts were either left unlabeled, in which case melanin pigment provided internal contrast, or labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-phalloidin and propidium iodide to visualize cell boundaries and nuclei, respectively.
Morphometric analysis using transverse plastic sections revealed a 96% increase in nuclear density and a 12% increase in thickness (apical to basal) for mutant vs. normal epithelia at postnatal day 35 (P35). These changes were not restricted to central or peripheral regions, and were uncorrelated with focal areas of dysplasia seen in the mutant neural retina. When similar tissues were viewed as flat-mounts, an observed 100% increase in nuclear density was accompanied by only a 46% enhancement in cellular density. This resulted in a larger proportion of multinucleated cells in the nullizygous RPE as compared with the wild-type epithelium (91 versus 47%). Such a pattern was achieved relatively early in development since, at P7 when the increase in RPE nuclear density was essentially complete, cellular density was augmented by only 39%. In addition to these proliferative changes, individual epithelial cells sometimes exhibited structural abnormalities, including an altered cortical actin cytoskeleton and displacement of nuclei from their normal central position. Surprisingly, while the RPE cells of null animals were similar ultrastructurally to those of the wild-type, interdigitation of their microvillous processes with outer segments was incomplete. Quantitative analysis revealed that such areas of detachment characterize, on average, 42% of the nullizygous retina, and that there is little correlation between detachment and neural retina dysplasia from one eye to another. Together with parallel evidence demonstrating a substantial decline in the apparent adhesiveness of mutant retinas relative to the normal tissue, the data is strongly indicative of an altered epithelium-photoreceptor interaction following gene ablation.
The absence of a functional p27Kip1 gene results in enhanced RPE nuclear division, without a commensurate increase in cell division. Although the mutant epithelium as a whole appears structurally normal, individual cells exhibit cytoskeletal changes and their interaction with the neural retina is compromised.
PMCID: PMC2633469  PMID: 17356514

Results 1-4 (4)