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1.  Facets of Psychopathy in Relation to Potentially Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Prisoners: The Mediating Role of Borderline Personality Disorder Traits 
Personality disorders  2012;3(4):406-414.
Despite the high prevalence of trauma exposure in female prisoners, few studies have examined the link between psychopathy and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—or the potential mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Using a sample of incarcerated women, we identified differential associations across facets of psychopathy, as assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL–R; R. D. Hare, 2003), with potentially traumatic events (PTE) and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, the Interpersonal and Affective facets were unrelated to both PTE and PTSD, while the Lifestyle and Antisocial facets were each associated with PTE and the Antisocial facet was uniquely associated with PTSD symptoms. Borderline personality disorder traits fully accounted for the association between the Antisocial facet and both PTE and PTSD, while the Lifestyle facet contributed incrementally to the prediction of PTE. The findings clarify linkages among psychopathy, trauma, PTSD, and borderline personality disorder traits, and extend our understanding of the clinical presentation of psychopathy in women.
PMCID: PMC4701429  PMID: 22452777
Psychopathy; Trauma; PTSD; Borderline Personality Disorder; Female Prisoners
2.  Amniotic fluid embolism: an Australian-New Zealand population-based study 
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a major cause of direct maternal mortality in Australia and New Zealand. There has been no national population study of AFE in either country. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of amniotic fluid embolism in Australia and New Zealand and to describe risk factors, management, and perinatal outcomes.
A population-based descriptive study using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS) carried out in 263 eligible sites (>50 births per year) covering an estimated 96 % of women giving birth in Australia and all 24 New Zealand maternity units (100 % of women giving birth in hospitals) between January 1 2010-December 31 2011. A case of AFE was defined either as a clinical diagnosis (acute hypotension or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia and coagulopathy in the absence of any other potential explanation for the symptoms and signs observed) or as a post mortem diagnosis (presence of fetal squames/debris in the pulmonary circulation).
Thirty-three cases of AFE were reported from an estimated cohort of 613,731women giving birth, with an estimated incidence of 5.4 cases per 100 000 women giving birth (95 % CI 3.5 to 7.2 per 100 000). Two (6 %) events occurred at home whilst 46 % (n = 15) occurred in the birth suite and 46 % (n = 15) in the operating theatre (location not reported in one case). Fourteen women (42 %) underwent either an induction or augmentation of labour and 22 (67 %) underwent a caesarean section. Eight women (24 %) conceived using assisted reproduction technology.
Thirteen (42 %) women required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 18 % (n = 6) had a hysterectomy and 85 % (n = 28) received a transfusion of blood or blood products. Twenty (61 %) were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), eight (24 %) were admitted to a High Dependency Unit (HDU) and seven (21 %) were transferred to another hospital for further management. Five woman died (case fatality rate 15 %) giving an estimated maternal mortality rate due to AFE of 0.8 per 100 000 women giving birth (95 % CI 0.1 % to 1.5 %). There were two deaths among 36 infants.
A coordinated emergency response requiring resource intense multi-disciplinary input is required in the management of women with AFE. Although the case fatality rate is lower than in previously published studies, high rates of hysterectomy, resuscitation, and admission to higher care settings reflect the significant morbidity associated with AFE. Active, ongoing surveillance to document the risk factors and short and long-term outcomes of women and their babies following AFE may be helpful to guide best practice, management, counselling and service planning. A potential link between AFE and assisted reproductive technology warrants further investigation.
PMCID: PMC4690249  PMID: 26703453
Amniotic fluid embolism; Maternal mortality; Postpartum hemorrhage; Blood transfusion; Reproductive techniques; Assisted
3.  Maternal super-obesity and perinatal outcomes in Australia: a national population-based cohort study 
Super-obesity is associated with significantly elevated rates of obstetric complications, adverse perinatal outcomes and interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, management and perinatal outcomes of super-obese women giving birth in Australia.
A national population-based cohort study. Super-obese pregnant women (body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m2 or weight >140 kg) who gave birth between January 1 and October 31, 2010 and a comparison cohort were identified using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). Outcomes included maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Prevalence estimates calculated with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression.
370 super-obese women with a median BMI of 52.8 kg/m2 (range 40.9–79.9 kg/m2) and prevalence of 2.1 per 1 000 women giving birth (95 % CI: 1.96–2.40). Super-obese women were significantly more likely to be public patients (96.2 %), smoke (23.8 %) and be socio-economically disadvantaged (36.2 %). Compared with other women, super-obese women had a significantly higher risk for obstetric (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.42, 95 % CI: 1.77–3.29) and medical (AOR: 2.89, 95 % CI: 2.64–4.11) complications during pregnancy, birth by caesarean section (51.6 %) and admission to special care (HDU/ICU) (6.2 %). The 372 babies born to 365 super-obese women with outcomes known had significantly higher rates of birthweight ≥4500 g (AOR 19.94, 95 % CI: 6.81–58.36), hospital transfer (AOR 3.81, 95 % CI: 1.93–7.55) and admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (AOR 1.83, 95 % CI: 1.27–2.65) compared to babies of the comparison group, but not prematurity (10.5 % versus 9.2 %) or perinatal mortality (11.0 (95 % CI: 4.3–28.0) versus 6.6 (95 % CI: 2.6- 16.8) per 1 000 singleton births).
Super-obesity in pregnancy in Australia is associated with increased rates of pregnancy and birth complications, and with social disadvantage. There is an urgent need to further address risk factors leading to super-obesity among pregnant women and for maternity services to better address pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care to reduce associated inequalities in perinatal outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4667490  PMID: 26628074
Super-obesity; Obesity; Perinatal outcomes; Pregnancy; Maternal socio-economic disadvantage; Obstetric complications
4.  Australian national birthweight percentiles by sex and gestational age for twins, 2001–2010 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:148.
Birthweight remains one of the strongest predictors of perinatal mortality and disability. Birthweight percentiles form a reference that allows the detection of neonates at higher risk of neonatal and postneonatal morbidity. The aim of the study is to present updated national birthweight percentiles by gestational age for male and female twins born in Australia.
Population data were extracted from the Australian National Perinatal Data Collection for twins born in Australia between 2001 and 2010. A total of 43,833 women gave birth to 87,666 twins in Australia which were included in the study analysis. Implausible birthweights were excluded using Tukey’s methodology based on the interquartile range. Univariate analysis was used to examine the birthweight percentiles for liveborn twins born between 20 and 42 weeks gestation.
Birthweight percentiles by gestational age were calculated for 85,925 live births (43,153 males and 42,706 females). Of these infants, 53.6 % were born preterm (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) while 50.2 % were low birthweight (<2500 g) and 8.7 % were very low birthweight (<1500 g). The mean birthweight decreased from 2462 g in 2001 to 2440 g in 2010 for male twins, compared with 2485 g in 1991–94. For female twins, the mean birthweight decreased from 2375 g in 2001 to 2338 g in 2010, compared with 2382 g in 1991–94.
The birthweight percentiles provide clinicians and researchers with up-to-date population norms of birthweight percentiles for twins in Australia.
PMCID: PMC4599725  PMID: 26450410
Twins; Birth weight; Gestational age; Small for gestational age
Journal of personality disorders  2010;24(4):473-486.
Psychopathic personality is characterized by Interpersonal dominance, Impulsivity, sensation seeking, poor planning, and aggressiveness. Studies have shown that the Multidimensional Personality Question-naire (MPQ) can be used to estimate scores on the fearless-dominant (FD) and the Impulsive-antisocial (IA) dimensions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), the best validated self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits. Prior behavior genetic studies reported roughly equal genetic and nonshared environmental influences for both FD and IA, which remained stable from adolescence to young adulthood. However, no prior studies address genetic and environmental influences on these dimensions beyond early adulthood. We utilized the classic twin method to examine genetic and environmental influences on variance in FD and IA in a sample of middle-aged male twins. Biometric modeling indicated that the variance In both factors Is best explained by additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences. FD showed roughly equal contributions from genetic and environmental factors, whereas IA showed greater contributions from environmental than genetic factors. Additionally, the small phenotypic correlation between FD and IA was explained entirely by nonshared environmental factors.
PMCID: PMC4438762  PMID: 20695807
6.  Risk factors associated with preterm birth among singletons following assisted reproductive technology in Australia 2007–2009–a population-based retrospective study 
Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal death, is more common in multiple births and thus there has being an increasing call for reducing multiple births in ART. However, few studies have compared risk factors for preterm births amongst ART and non-ART singleton birth mothers.
A population-based study of 393,450 mothers, including 12,105 (3.1%) ART mothers, with singleton gestations born between 2007 and 2009 in 5 of the 8 jurisdictions in Australia. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate socio-demographic, medical and pregnancy factors associated with preterm births in contrasting ART and non-ART mothers.
Ten percent of singleton births to ART mothers were preterm compared to 6.8% for non-ART mothers (P < 0.01). Compared with non-ART mothers, ART mothers were older (mean 34.0 vs 29.7 yr respectively), less socio-economically disadvantaged (12.4% in the lowest quintile vs 20.7%), less likely to be smokers (3.8% vs 19.4%), more likely to be first time mothers (primiparous 62.4% vs 40.5%), had more preexisting hypertension and complications during pregnancy. Irrespective of the mode of conception, preexisting medical and pregnancy complications of hypertension, diabetes and antepartum hemorrhages were consistently associated with preterm birth. In contrast, socio-demographic variables, namely young and old maternal age (<25 and >34), socioeconomic disadvantage (most disadvantaged quintile Odds Ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77–1.17), smoking (OR 1.12, 95%CI: 0.79–1.61) and priminarity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.35, AOR not significant) shown to be associated with elevated risk of preterm birth for non-ART mothers were not demonstrated for ART mothers, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Nonetheless, in multivariable analysis, the association between ART and the elevated risk for singleton preterm birth persisted after controlling for all included confounding medical, pregnancy and socio-economic factors (AOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.42–1.61).
Preterm birth rate is approximately one-and-a-half-fold higher in ART mothers than non-ART mothers albeit for singleton births after controlling for confounding factors. However, ART mothers were less subject to the adverse influence from socio-demographic factors than non-ART mothers. This has implications for counselling prospective parents.
PMCID: PMC4266897  PMID: 25481117
Assisted reproductive technology; Singleton; Preterm birth; In vitro fertilisation; Risk factor
7.  The increased trend in mothers’ hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders in the first year after birth between 2001 and 2010 in New South Wales, Australia 
BMC Women's Health  2014;14:119.
The burden of mental and behavioural disorders in Australia has increased significantly over the last decade. The aim of the current study is to describe the hospital admission rates for mental illness over a 10-year period for primiparous mothers in the first year after birth.
This is an Australian population-based descriptive study with linked data from the New South Wales Midwives Data Collection and Admitted Patients Data Collection. The study population included primiparous mothers who gave birth between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010. All hospital admissions with a mental health diagnosis in the first year after birth were recorded.
There were 6,140 mothers (1.67%) admitted to hospital with a principal diagnosis of mental health in the first year after birth between 2001 and 2010 in New South Wales (7,884 admissions, 2.15%). The hospital admission rates increased significantly over time, particularly from 2005. The increase in hospital admissions was mainly attributed to the diagnoses of unipolar depression, adjustment disorders and anxiety disorders.
This study shows that hospital admissions for mothers with a mental health diagnosis after birth in New South Wales has significantly increased in the last decade. Possible reasons for this change need to be studied further.
PMCID: PMC4261248  PMID: 25263987
Mental health; Increasing trend; Postpartum; Data linkage
8.  Antenatal psychosocial assessment for reducing perinatal mental health morbidity 
Mental health conditions arising in the perinatal period, including depression, have the potential to impact negatively on not only the woman but also her partner, infant, and family. The capacity for routine, universal antenatal psychosocial assessment, and thus the potential for reduction of morbidity, is very significant.
To evaluate the impact of antenatal psychosocial assessment on perinatal mental health morbidity.
Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register, the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group’s Trials Register (CCDAN TR-Studies), HSRProj in the National Library of Medicine (USA), and the Current Controlled Trials website: http://www.controlled and the UK National Research Register (last searched March 2008).
Selection criteria
Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials.
Data collection and analysis
At least two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility; they also extracted data from included trials and assessed the trials for potential bias.
Main results
Two trials met criteria for an RCT of antenatal psychosocial assessment. One trial examined the impact of an antenatal tool (ALPHA) on clinician awareness of psychosocial risk, and the capacity of the antenatal ALPHA to predict women with elevated postnatal Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores, finding a trend towards increased clinician awareness of ‘high level’ psychosocial risk where the ALPHA intervention had been used (relative risk (RR) 4.61 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 21.39). No differences between groups were seen for numbers of women with antenatal EDS scores, a score of greater than 9 being identified by ALPHA as of concern for depression (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.35 to 1.38); 139 providers. The other trial reported no differences in EPS scores greater than 12 at 16 weeks postpartum between the intervention (communication about the EDS scores with the woman and her healthcare providers plus a patient information booklet) and the standard care groups (RR 0.86 95% CI 0.61 to 1.21; 371 women).
Authors’ conclusions
While the use of an antenatal psychosocial assessment may increase the clinician’s awareness of psychosocial risk, neither of these small studies provides sufficient evidence that routine antenatal psychosocial assessment by itself leads to improved perinatal mental health outcomes. Further studies with better sample size and statistical power are required to further explore this important public health issue. It will also be important to examine outcomes up to one year postpartum not only for mother, but also infant and family.
PMCID: PMC4171384  PMID: 18843682
*Prenatal Care; Anxiety Disorders [*diagnosis; prevention & control]; Depression, Postpartum [*diagnosis; prevention & control]; Mental Health; Puerperal Disorders [*diagnosis; prevention & control; psychology]; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Female; Humans; Pregnancy
9.  "Wrapping myself in cotton wool": Australian women's experience of being diagnosed with vasa praevia 
Vasa praevia (VP) is an obstetric condition that is associated with significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although the incidence of VP is low, it is one of the few causes of perinatal death that can be potentially prevented through detection and appropriate care. The experience of women diagnosed with or suspected to have VP is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact that a diagnosis or suspected diagnosis of VP had on a group of Australian women.
A qualitative study using a descriptive exploratory design was conducted and Australian women diagnosed with VP were recruited via online methods in 2012. An inductive approach was undertaken and interviews were analysed using the stages of thematic analysis.
Of the 14 women interviewed, 11 were diagnosed with VP during pregnancy with 5 subsequently found not to have VP (non-confirmed diagnosis). Three women were diagnosed during childbirth with one neonatal death. Five major themes were identified: feeling like a ticking time bomb; getting diagnosis right; being taken seriously; coping with inconsistent information; and, just a massive relief when it was all over.
This is the first study to describe women’s experience of being diagnosed with or suspected to have VP. The findings from this research reveal the dilemmas these women face even if their baby is ultimately born healthy. Their need for clear and consistent information, sensitive care, support and continuity is evident. Clinicians can use these findings in developing information, counselling and models of care for these women.
PMCID: PMC4168202  PMID: 25208480
Vasa previa; Vasa praevia; Ultrasound; Qualitative research; Pregnancy; Obstetrics; Caesarean section
10.  Pregnancy, prison and perinatal outcomes in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective cohort study using linked health data 
Studies from the United States and the United Kingdom have found that imprisoned women are less likely to experience poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes than other disadvantaged women. This population-based study used both community controls and women with a history of incarceration as a control group, to investigate whether imprisoned pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia, have improved maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study using probabilistic record linkage of routinely collected data from health and corrective services in New South Wales, Australia. Comparison of the maternal and perinatal outcomes of imprisoned pregnant women aged 18–44 years who gave birth between 2000–2006 with women who were (i) imprisoned at a time other than pregnancy, and (ii) community controls. Outcomes of interest: onset of labour, method of birth, pre-term birth, low birthweight, Apgar score, resuscitation, neonatal hospital admission, perinatal death.
Babies born to women who were imprisoned during pregnancy were significantly more likely to be born pre-term, have low birthweight, and be admitted to hospital, compared with community controls. Pregnant prisoners did not have significantly better outcomes than other similarly disadvantaged women (those with a history of imprisonment who were not imprisoned during pregnancy).
In contrast to the published literature, we found no evidence that contact with prison health services during pregnancy was a “therapunitive” intervention. We found no association between imprisonment during pregnancy and improved perinatal outcomes for imprisoned women or their neonates. A history of imprisonment remained the strongest predictor of poor perinatal outcomes, reflecting the relative health disadvantage experienced by this population of women.
PMCID: PMC4099381  PMID: 24968895
Maternal morbidity; Perinatal outcome; Women in prison; Incarceration in pregnancy; Prison health care; Antenatal care; Substance use; Mental health disorder
11.  Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Substance Abuse and Perinatal Outcomes: A Study Based on Linked Population Data in New South Wales, Australia 
Background: The effects of mental and behavioral disorders (MBD) due to substance use during peri-conception and pregnancy on perinatal outcomes are unclear. The adverse perinatal outcomes of primiparous mothers admitted to hospital with MBD due to substance use before and/or during pregnancy were investigated. Method: This study linked birth and hospital records in NSW, Australia. Subjects included primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBD due to use of alcohol, opioids or cannabinoids during peri-conception and pregnancy. Results: There were 304 primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBD due to alcohol use (MBDA), 306 for MBD due to opioids use (MBDO) and 497 for MBD due to cannabinoids (MBDC) between the 12 months peri-conception and the end of pregnancy. Primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBDA during pregnancy or during both peri-conception and pregnancy were significantly more likely to give birth to a baby of low birthweight (AOR = 4.03, 95%CI: 1.97–8.24 for pregnancy; AOR = 9.21, 95%CI: 3.76–22.57 both periods); preterm birth (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.52–6.97 for pregnancy; AOR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.50–11.01 both periods) and admission to SCN or NICU (AOR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.31–4.49 for pregnancy; AOR = 4.03, 95%CI: 1.72–9.44 both periods). Primiparous mothers admitted to hospital for MBDO, MBDC or a combined diagnosis were almost three times as likely to give birth to preterm babies compared to mothers without hospital admissions for psychiatric or substance use disorders. Babies whose mothers were admitted to hospital with MBDO before and/or during pregnancy were six times more likely to be admitted to SCN or NICU (AOR = 6.29, 95%CI: 4.62–8.57). Conclusion: Consumption of alcohol, opioids or cannabinoids during peri-conception or pregnancy significantly increased the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4053897  PMID: 24814946
pregnancy; perinatal outcomes; substance use; alcohol; opioids; cannabinoids
12.  Length of Stay for Mental and Behavioural Disorders Postpartum in Primiparous Mothers: A Cohort Study 
Background: Previous research showed that there was a significant increase in psychiatric hospital admission of postpartum mothers. The aim of the current study is to describe the length of hospital stays and patient days for mental and behavioural disorders (MBD) of new mothers in the first year after birth. Method: This was a cohort study based on linked population data between the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the NSW Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The study population included primiparous mothers aged from 18 to 44 who gave birth between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2005. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to describe the length of hospital stay for MBD. Results: For principal diagnoses of MBD, the entire length of hospital stay in the first year postpartum was 11.38 days (95% CI: 10.70–12.06) for mean and 6 days (95% CI: 5.87–6.13) for median. The length of hospital stay per admission was 8.47 days (95% CI: 8.03–8.90) for mean and 5 days (95% CI: 4.90–5.10) for median. There were 5,129 patient days of hospital stay per year for principal diagnoses of postpartum MBD in new mothers between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2005 in NSW, Australia. Conclusions: MBD, especially unipolar depressions, adjustment disorders, acute psychotic episodes, and schizophrenia, or schizophrenia-like disorders during the first year after birth, placed a significant burden on hospital services due to long hospital stays and large number of admissions.
PMCID: PMC4025045  PMID: 24681554
mental health; length of hospital stay; postpartum; data linkage
13.  Breastfeeding and Health Outcomes for the Mother-Infant Dyad 
Worldwide, breastfeeding saves the lives of infants and reduces their disease burden. Breastfeeding also reduces the disease burden for mothers. This article examines who chooses to breastfeed and for how long in the American context. It also reviews the latest evidence about the consequences of breastfeeding for the health of both the infant and mother. The results of this review provide support for current national and international recommendations that support breastfeeding.
PMCID: PMC3508512  PMID: 23178059
breastfeeding; lactation; postpartum weight retention; obesity; maternal health; infant health
14.  Perinatal mortality following assisted reproductive technology treatment in Australia and New Zealand, a public health approach for international reporting of perinatal mortality 
There is a need to have uniformed reporting of perinatal mortality for births following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment to enable international comparison and benchmarking of ART practice.
The Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database was used in this study. Births of ≥ 20 weeks gestation and/or ≥ 400 grams of birth weight following embryos transfer cycles in Australia and New Zealand during the period 2004 to 2008 were included. Differences in the mortality rates by different perinatal periods from a gestational age cutoff of ≥ 20, ≥ 22, ≥ 24, or ≥ 28 weeks (wks) to a neonatal period cutoff of either < 7 or < 28 days after birth were assessed. Crude and specific (number of embryos transferred and plurality) rates of perinatal mortality were calculated for selected gestational and neonatal periods.
When the perinatal period is defined as ≥ 20 wks gestation to < 28 days after birth, the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was 16.1 per 1000 births (n = 630). A progressive contraction of the gestational age groups resulted in marked reductions in the PMR for deaths at < 28 days (22 wks 11.0; 24 wks 7.7; 28 wks 5.6); and similarly for deaths at < 7 days (20 wks 15.6, 22 wks 10.5; 24 wks 7.3; 28 wks 5.3). In contrast, a contraction of the perinatal period from < 28 to < 7 days after birth only marginally reduced the PMR from 16.2 to 15.6 per 1000 births which was consistent across all gestational ages.
The PMR for single embryo transfer (SET) births (≥ 20 weeks gestation to < 7 days post-birth) was significantly lower (12.8 per 1000 SET births) compared to double embryo transfer (DET) births (PMR 18.3 per 1000 DET births; p < 0.001, Fisher’s Exact Test). Similarly, the PMR for SET births (≥ 22 weeks gestation to < 7 days post-birth) was significantly lower (8.8 per 1000 SET births, p < 0.001, Fisher’s Exact Test) when compared to DET births (12.2 per 1000 DET births). The highest PMR (50.5 per 1000 SET births, 95% CI 36.5-64.5) was for twins following SET births (≥ 20 weeks gestation to < 7 days post-birth) compared to twins following DET (23.9 per 1000 DET births, 95% CI 20.8-27.1).
Reporting of perinatal mortality of ART births is an essential component of quality ART practice. This should include measures that monitor the impact on perinatal mortality of multiple embryo transfer. We recommend that reporting of perinatal deaths following ART treatment, should be stratified for three gestation-specific perinatal periods of ≥ 20, ≥ 22 and ≥ 28 completed weeks to < 7 days post-birth; and include plurality specific rates by SET and DET. This would provide a valuable international evidence-base of PMR for use in evaluating ART policy, practice and new research.
PMCID: PMC3848940  PMID: 24044524
Perinatal mortality; Assisted reproductive technology treatment; Embryo transfer; Stillbirth; Neonatal mortality
15.  Under-reporting of birth registrations in New South Wales, Australia 
To determine the rates of birth registration over a five-year period in New South Wales (NSW) and explore the factors associated with the rate of registration.
This is a cross-sectional study using linked population databases. The study population included all births of NSW residents in NSW between 2001 and 2005.
Birth registration rates in NSW were 82.66% in the year of birth, 93.19% in the first year, 94.02% in the second, 94.56% in the third and 95.08% in the fourth year after birth. The non-registration of births was mainly associated with such factors as neonatal and postneonatal death (adjusted OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 3.23-4.57); being Indigenous (adjusted OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 3.10-3.43); maternal age <25 or >39 years (adjusted OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 2.72-2.90); low birthweight (<2,500 grams) (adjusted OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.69-1.90); living in remote areas (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.52-1.63); being born after the first quarter of year (adjusted OR = 1.08-1.56, 95% CI between 1.03-1.12 and 1.49-1.64); mother having more pregnancies (adjusted OR = 1.85-7.29, 95% CI between1.78-1.93 and 6.87-7.73). Mothers who were born overseas were more likely to register their births than those born in Australia (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.69-0.75). Multiple births were more likely to be registered than singleton births (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.92). About one-third of the non-registrations of births in NSW were explained by the risk factors. The reasons for the remaining non-registrations need to be investigated.
Of birth in NSW, 4.92% were not registered by the fourth year after birth.
PMCID: PMC3562517  PMID: 23234578
Birth; Registration; Factor; Australia
16.  Data preparation techniques for a perinatal psychiatric study based on linked data 
In recent years there has been an increase in the use of population-based linked data. However, there is little literature that describes the method of linked data preparation. This paper describes the method for merging data, calculating the statistical variable (SV), recoding psychiatric diagnoses and summarizing hospital admissions for a perinatal psychiatric study.
The data preparation techniques described in this paper are based on linked birth data from the New South Wales (NSW) Midwives Data Collection (MDC), the Register of Congenital Conditions (RCC), the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) and the Pharmaceutical Drugs of Addiction System (PHDAS).
The master dataset is the meaningfully linked data which include all or major study data collections. The master dataset can be used to improve the data quality, calculate the SV and can be tailored for different analyses. To identify hospital admissions in the periods before pregnancy, during pregnancy and after birth, a statistical variable of time interval (SVTI) needs to be calculated. The methods and SPSS syntax for building a master dataset, calculating the SVTI, recoding the principal diagnoses of mental illness and summarizing hospital admissions are described.
Linked data preparation, including building the master dataset and calculating the SV, can improve data quality and enhance data function.
PMCID: PMC3445825  PMID: 22682616
Data preparation; Method; Psychiatric study; Australia
17.  Amniotic fluid embolism incidence, risk factors and outcomes: a review and recommendations 
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but severe complication of pregnancy. A recent systematic review highlighted apparent differences in the incidence, with studies estimating the incidence of AFE to be more than three times higher in North America than Europe. The aim of this study was to examine population-based regional or national data from five high-resource countries in order to investigate incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AFE and to investigate whether any variation identified could be ascribed to methodological differences between the studies.
We reviewed available data sources on the incidence of AFE in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the USA. Where information was available, the risk factors and outcomes of AFE were examined.
The reported incidence of AFE ranged from 1.9 cases per 100 000 maternities (UK) to 6.1 per 100 000 maternities (Australia). There was a clear distinction between rates estimated using different methodologies. The lowest estimated incidence rates were obtained through validated case identification (range 1.9-2.5 cases per 100 000 maternities); rates obtained from retrospective analysis of population discharge databases were significantly higher (range 5.5-6.1 per 100 000 admissions with delivery diagnosis). Older maternal age and induction of labour were consistently associated with AFE.
Recommendation 1: Comparisons of AFE incidence estimates should be restricted to studies using similar methodology. The recommended approaches would be either population-based database studies using additional criteria to exclude false positive cases, or tailored data collection using existing specific population-based systems.
Recommendation 2: Comparisons of AFE incidence between and within countries would be facilitated by development of an agreed case definition and an agreed set of criteria to minimise inclusion of false positive cases for database studies.
Recommendation 3: Groups conducting detailed population-based studies on AFE should develop an agreed strategy to allow combined analysis of data obtained using consistent methodologies in order to identify potentially modifiable risk factors.
Recommendation 4: Future specific studies on AFE should aim to collect information on management and longer-term outcomes for both mothers and infants in order to guide best practice, counselling and service planning.
PMCID: PMC3305555  PMID: 22325370
18.  Improvement of maternal Aboriginality in NSW birth data 
The Indigenous population of Australia was estimated as 2.5% and under-reported. The aim of this study is to improve statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in New South Wales.
This study was based on linked birth data from the Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) of New South Wales (NSW). Data linkage was performed by the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL) for births in NSW for the period January 2001 to December 2005. The accuracy of maternal Aboriginal status in the MDC and RBDM was assessed by consistency, sensitivity and specificity. A new statistical variable, ASV, or Aboriginal Statistical Variable, was constructed based on Indigenous identification in both datasets. The ASV was assessed by comparing numbers and percentages of births to Aboriginal mothers with the estimates by capture-recapture analysis.
Maternal Aboriginal status was under-ascertained in both the MDC and RBDM. The ASV significantly increased ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth and decreased the number of missing cases. The proportion of births to Aboriginal mothers in the non-registered birth group was significantly higher than in the registered group.
Linking birth data collections is a feasible method to improve the statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in NSW. This has ramifications for the ascertainment of babies of Aboriginal mothers and the targeting of appropriate services in pregnancy and early childhood.
PMCID: PMC3314542  PMID: 22289717
Birth; Aboriginality; data; Australia
19.  Management of Menstrual Migraine: A Review of Current Abortive and Prophylactic Therapies 
Current pain and headache reports  2010;14(5):376-384.
After menarche, women have an increased prevalence of migraine compared to men. There is significant variability in the frequency and severity of migraine throughout the menstrual cycle. Women report migraines occur more frequently during menses, and that those are more severe than other migraines. This creates a unique challenge of effectively treating menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. As with treatment of other migraines, both abortive and prophylactic treatment regimens are used. Triptans demonstrate efficacy in the abortive management of menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. For migraines that occur primarily during menses or that are particularly resistant to other therapies, intermittent prophylactic therapies can be used. Naproxen and estrogens have been studied for this use. More recently, triptans have been examined and have shown efficacy for intermittent prophylaxis of menstrual migraine.
PMCID: PMC2989388  PMID: 20697846
Menstrual migraine; Headache; Triptan; Abortive therapy; Prophylactic therapy; Intermittent prophylaxis
20.  Impact of education and training on type of care provided by community-based breastfeeding counselors: a cross-sectional study 
Studies using community-based breastfeeding counselors (CBBCs) have repeatedly shown positive impact on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity and duration, particularly among low-income mothers. To date, there has not been a comprehensive study to determine the impact of CBBC attributes such as educational background and training, on the type of care that CBBCs provide.
This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of CBBCs to ascertain the influence of counselor education and type of training on type of support and proficiency of CBBCs in communities across the United States. Invitations to participate in this online survey of CBBCs were e-mailed to program coordinators of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), La Leche League, and other community-based health organizations, who in turn invited and encouraged their CBBCs to participate. Descriptive analysis was used to describe participants (N = 847), while bivariate analysis using χ2 test was used to examine the differences between CBBC education, training received and breastfeeding support skills used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent determinants of specific breastfeeding support skills.
The major findings from the research indicate that overall, educational attainment of CBBCs is not a significant predictor for the curriculum used in their training and type of support skills used during counseling sessions, but initial training duration was positively associated with the use of many breastfeeding support skills. Another major influence of counselor support to clients is the type of continuing education they receive after their initial training, with higher likelihood of use of desirable support skills associated with counselors continuing their breastfeeding education at conferences or trainings away from their job sites.
Our results show that different programs use different training curricula to train their CBBCs varying in duration and content. Counselor education is not a significant predictor of the type of training they receive. Continuing breastfeeding education is a significant determinant of type of counseling techniques used with clients. Further research is therefore needed to critically examine the content of the various training curricula of CBBC programs. This may show a need for a standardized training curriculum for all CBBC programs worldwide to make CBBCs more proficient and efficient, ensuring successful and optimum breastfeeding experiences for mothers and their newborns.
PMCID: PMC3177880  PMID: 21871062
To evaluate the possible mechanisms influencing the infiltration of CD8 T lymphocytes into the tumor epithelium of advanced serous ovarian cancers.
Immunohistochemical localization of CD8 T lymphocytes was performed on a homogeneous population of 184 high-grade, advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer tissue specimens. Microarray analysis was performed on microdissected tumor epithelium from 38 specimens to identify genes up- or down-regulated in specimens with differing numbers of tumor-infitrating CD8 T lymphocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to validate a candidate gene. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed combining CD8 T lymphocyte number and HLA-DMB expression with standard prognostic factors.
Marked CD8 T lymphocyte infiltration of the tumor epithelium is associated with a 20 month improvement in median overall survival. Additionally, when combined with cytoreduction status and age, CD8 T lymphocyte status is an independent prognostic factor for survival. Microarray analysis demonstrated HLA-DMB, a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II antigen-presentation machinery, to be differentially expressed in specimens with an abundance of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes. This relationship was validated at both the mRNA and protein levels. As well, high HLA-DMB expression in the tumor epithelium was associated with a significant improvement in median overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
Tumor cell expression of HLA-DMB is associated with increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes and both are associated with improved survival in advanced serous ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC3000165  PMID: 19047092
24.  Isolation and Identification of Adenoviruses in Microplates 1 
Applied Microbiology  1971;22(5):802-804.
A procedure for isolating and identifying adenoviruses in microplates is described. Comparison tests with standard tube methods show an agreement of 92%. Virus isolations are greatly facilitated by the microplate method. This method is sensitive, economical, and especially applicable to large-scale epidemiological surveys.
PMCID: PMC376421  PMID: 4943584

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