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1.  High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2014;79:384-390.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature.
An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013.
In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects.
Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids.
PMCID: PMC4218899  PMID: 25371765
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation; Leiomyoma; Uterine Artery Embolization
2.  Optimisation of Radiation Exposure to Gastroenterologists and Patients during Therapeutic ERCP 
This study intended to optimize the radiation doses for gastroenterologists and patients during therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and to compare the doses based on available data obtained by other researchers. A total of 153 patients were studied in two Gastroenterology Departments, (group A, 111; group B, 42). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to measure the staff and patients entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) at different body sites. The mean ESAK and effective doses per procedure were estimated to be 68.75 mGy and 2.74 mSv, respectively. Staff was exposed to a heterogonous doses. The third examiner (trainee) was exposed to a high dose compared with other examiners because no shield was located to protect him from stray radiation. Patients and examiners doses were lower compared to the lowest values found in previous studies taking into consideration the heterogeneity of patients and equipment. Staff doses during ERCP are within the safety limit in the light of the current practice.
PMCID: PMC3622381  PMID: 23589714
3.  Local Reference Ranges of Thyroid Volume in Sudanese Normal Subjects Using Ultrasound 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2011;2011:935141.
This study aimed to establish a local reference of thyroid volume in Sudanese normal subjects using ultrasound. A total of 103 healthy subjects were studied, 28 (27.18%) females and 75 (72.82%) males. Thyroid volume was estimated using ellipsoid formula. The mean age and range of the subjects was 21.8 (19–29) years; the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3 (16.46–26.07) kg/m2. The overall mean volume ± SD volume of the thyroid gland for both lobes in all the patients studied was 6.44 ± 2.44 mL. The mean volume for both lobes in females and males were 5.78 ± 1.96 mL and 6.69 ± 2.56 mL, respectively. The males' thyroid volume was greater than the females'. The mean volume of the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland in males and females were 3.38 ± 1.37 mL and 3.09 ± 1.24 mL, respectively. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left. The values obtained in this study were lower than those reported from previous studies.
PMCID: PMC3180179  PMID: 21961076
4.  Reduction of Radiation Doses to Patients and Staff During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography 
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is associated with a considerable radiation exposure for patients and staff. While optimization of the radiation dose is recommended, few studies have been published. The purpose of this study has been to measure patient and staff radiation dose, to estimate the effective dose and radiation risk using digital fluoroscopic images. Entrance skin dose (ESD), organ and effective doses were estimated for patients and staff.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty-seven patients were studied using digital X-ray machine and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to measure ESD at different body sites. Organ and surface dose to specific radiosensitive organs was carried out. The mean, median, minimum, third quartile and the maximum values are presented due to the asymmetry in data distribution.
The mean ESD, exit and thyroid surface dose were estimated to be 75.6 mGy, 3.22 mGy and 0.80 mGy, respectively. The mean effective dose for both gastroenterologist and assistant is 0.01 mSv. The mean patient effective dose was 4.16 mSv, and the cancer risk per procedure was estimated to be 2 × 10-5
ERCP with fluoroscopic technique demonstrate improved dose reduction, compared to the conventional radiographic based technique, reducing the surface dose by a factor of 2, without compromising the diagnostic findings. The radiation absorbed doses to the different organs and effective doses are relatively low.
PMCID: PMC3099076  PMID: 21196649
ERCP; radiation risk; staff exposure

Results 1-4 (4)